Carlos F. Gaymer

Carlos F. Gaymer
Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile) · Marine Biology Department

PhD in Biology

About

103
Publications
39,034
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3,060
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
2063 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
Connectivity is essential to consider in area-based marine conservation measures because it greatly impacts vital ecological processes (e.g., recycling nutrients, regulating temperature, sequestering carbon, and supporting the life cycle of species). However, it is generally not well studied or integrated into conservation measures, particularly in...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a pause in people’s activities and a socio-economic crisis worldwide due to confinement. This situation is an unprecedented opportunity to understand how these changes may impact biodiversity and its conservation, as well as to study human-nature interaction. Biodiversity plays an essential role in conservation and...
Article
1. Spearfishing, a common activity among Pacific Islanders, has been described to strongly modify the behaviour of target fish species. 2. Rapa Nui (Easter Island), a remote Chilean oceanic island, has suffered a serious decline in its nearshore fish stocks through overfishing. 3. In this study, the flight initiation distance (FID) of the Pacific r...
Article
The human history of the waters surrounding the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges is rich and culturally diverse. This ranges from indigenous cultures who first ventured to this remote region close to a thousand years ago to the period of European colonial exploration, as well as the rise of the modern global economy. Voyaging, fishing, and the transp...
Article
We report new records of the fisheries-harvested subtropical greater amberjack Seriola dumerili for the south-east Pacific Ocean. Previously, only one species of Seriola (the yellowtail amberjack Seriola lalandi) was scientifically recorded for Rapa Nui (also known as Easter Island) despite local fishers’ asserting that three Seriola morphotypes ar...
Chapter
The unique combination of natural and cultural resources has made the Salas y Gómez and Nazca Ridges a top priority for protection on the high seas. With support from global datasets and GIS analysis, researchers have identified this area off the west coast of South America as a key location to conserve and protect marine biodiversity without impac...
Article
Full-text available
Species overexploitation has simplified food webs worldwide, resulting in the degradation of ecosystems relative to their natural state. Fishes are the most important herbivores in many shallow coral reef environments, where they control algal successional processes and promote coral reef resilience. Nowadays, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) is suffering...
Article
Preface special issue: "Advances in science for ecology and sustainable management of oceanic islands" Oceanic island ecosystems are among the most fragile on the planet. A large number of recent species extinctions have been described from these ecosystems, which have been primarily driven by anthropogenic impacts (Wood et al., 2017). In the 17th...
Article
Full-text available
The structure of food webs provides important insight into biodiversity, organic matter (OM) pathways, and ecosystem functioning. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) was used to characterize the trophic structure and the main OM pathways supporting food webs in the Rapa Nui coastal marine ecosystem. The trophic position of consumers and isotopi...
Article
Full-text available
The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are two seamount chains of volcanic origin, which include over 110 seamounts that collectively stretch across over 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific. Ecosystems in this region are isolated by the Atacama Trench, the Humboldt Current System, and an extreme oxygen minimum zone. This isolation has produced a uniqu...
Article
• The largest changes in the circulation of the South‐eastern Pacific resulting from global warming are associated with the southward shift and intensification of the anticyclone and with coastal surface warming. Coastal upwelling is projected to be increase off central Chile, due to an increase in equatorward winds, although increased oceanic stra...
Article
Full-text available
• Marine protected areas (MPAs) are becoming a widely used tool for the conservation of biodiversity and for fishery management; however, most of these areas are designed without prior knowledge of the basic ecological aspects of the species that they are trying to protect. • This study investigated the movement of two top predators: the Galapagos...
Article
The last decade has seen a noticeable advance in ocean protection through the creation of several LSMPAs which are largely driven by Aichi Target 11 under CBD. This paper uses the "Ocean grabbing framework" to assess the process preceding the announcement of a LSMPA in Rapa Nui, its rejection, the reformulation of the process and the ultimately suc...
Article
Full-text available
• This paper describes how a series of papers published in Aquatic Conservation have had a clear impact on the conservation process run at Rapa Nui by the Chilean Government and the Rapanui community. • Exploratory expeditions set the scientific basis for the creation of Rapa Nui Multiple Use Marine Protected Area. • Past conservation initiatives l...
Article
• The people of the Pacific have long relied on the ocean for sustenance, commerce and cultural identity, which resulted in a sophisticated understanding of the marine environment and its conservation. • The global declines in ocean health require new and innovative approaches to conserving marine ecosystems. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been...
Article
Full-text available
• 1. On shallow reefs, day‐night activity patterns between fishes and invertebrates are presumed to reflect trade‐offs between feeding and predation; however, quantitative data on daily community dynamics are scarce. Moreover, night surveys may contribute important information for biodiversity inventories or baselines that normally are not consider...
Article
Biodiversity is vital in the functioning of ecosystems, but it’s permanently being threatened by anthropic impacts derived from productive activities. Thus, conservation has become a global challenge. In Chile, the dissociation between economic activities and conservation has triggered numerous socio-environmental conflicts in recent decades. This...
Article
Full-text available
Subtropical gyres are the oceanic regions where plastic litter accumulates over long timescales, exposing surrounding oceanic islands to plastic contamination, with potentially severe consequences on marine life. Islands’ exposure to such contaminants, littered over long distances in marine or terrestrial habitats, is due to the ocean currents that...
Article
Reef fishes are an important component of marine biodiversity, and changes in the composition of the assemblage structure may indicate ecological, climatic, or anthropogenic disturbances. To examine spatial differences in the reef fish assemblage structure around Easter Island, eight sites were sampled during autumn and summer 2016–2017 with baited...
Article
During the last two decades, online media have played an increasing role in modeling modern societies. However, their role to shape public perception of biodiversity conservation and their alignment with conservation policies have received little attention so far. We conducted an extensive qualitative assessment of the interest in biodiversity in o...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Chile, light-dependent benthic taxa have been observed to ~280 m with the presence of zooxanthellate cnidarians forming mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) to depths of at least 120 m at Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and Salas y Gómez. Evidence from dredge samples suggests MCEs in the southeast Pacific once extended along the Salas y Gómez Ridge as fa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human population growth since the mid-1900s has been accompanied by an unsustainable use of natural resources and a corresponding impact on terrestrial and marine biota. In response, most states have established protected areas as tools to decrease biodiversity loss, being Chile one of the signatories of international conservation agree...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marine conservation actions are promoted to conserve natural values and support human wellbeing. Yet the quality of governance processes and the social consequences of some marine conservation initiatives have been the subject of critique and even human rights complaints. These types of governance and social issues may jeopardize the legitimacy of,...
Article
In Easter Island, most of fisheries regulations are top-down implemented by the central fisheries authority located ∼4000. km eastwards. This could generate problems in regulations compliance, given the cultural differences between the western worldview and Polynesian culture of Easter Island. A total of 18 issues that must be considered previously...
Article
The Easter Island ecoregion includes Rapa Nui (Easter Island; RN), with a human population of ∼5600, and the uninhabited Salas y Gómez (SyG). Although the culture and terrestrial ecology of RN have been well studied, we know little about the marine environment of these islands, particularly the interplay among herbivores, algae, and corals, and how...
Book
Full-text available
Although focused on aiding managers, these Guidelines are for anyone involved in supporting Large scale MPAs (LSMPAs) or the communities that hold an interest in them. It is hoped these Guidelines will also assist new LSMPAs from the earliest design phase, and enhance the management of existing LSMPAs from planning and implementation through ongoin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analysis of the feasibility of marine tailings in Chile and its effect on the Marine Protected Areas of Atacama and Coquimbo
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analysis of the feasibility of marine tailings in Chile and its effect on the Marine Protected Areas of Atacama and Coquimbo.
Article
Full-text available
Marine conservation actions are promoted to conserve natural values and support human wellbeing. Yet the quality of governance processes and the social consequences of some marine conservation initiatives have been the subject of critique and even human rights complaints. These types of governance and social issues may jeopardize the legitimacy of,...
Chapter
This chapter reviews and evaluates coral reef conservation strategies along the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP), a narrow biogeographic region on the Pacific American coast that extends from southern Baja California, Mexico to northern Peru, including several oceanic islands. The ETP is a natural laboratory, a model for understanding the development...
Article
The Easter Island Ecoregion is in the center of the South Pacific gyre and experiences ultra-oligotrophic conditions that could make it highly susceptible to global change and anthropogenic activities, so it is imperative that these regions are characterized and studied so that conservation and sustainable management strategies can be developed. Fr...
Article
Full-text available
Nations have recently committed to protecting 20–30% of the ocean at various global summits; however, marine protected areas currently cover <3% of the ocean. Large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, >100 000 km2) are a new concept in global marine conservation that offer real hope in achieving global conservation targets. Many of the existing L...
Article
Social-ecological system sustainability depends in part upon the fit between ecosystems and institutions. In 2014, the local community on Easter Island started a bottom-up process to improve marine resources conservation and management. Local stakeholders formed a working group that has regular meetings and goals, such as creating a sea council and...
Article
Full-text available
The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which cr...
Data
Fishes observed around San Ambrosio Island and Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara islands. Resource species are those consumed directly or used as bait in the lobster and crab fisheries. (DOCX)
Data
Locations surveys during expeditions to San Ambrosio Island in the Desventuradas islands in February 2013 and Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara islands in the Juan Fernández islands in January 2014. (DOCX)
Article
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is one of the most isolated places in the world. The local Rapanui people have noticed an extreme decline in marine resources, which is due to the exploitation of these resources. Top-down regulations (e.g. fisherman and boat registrations and restrictions on catch-length and fishing season and location) implemented by the...
Article
Full-text available
Here we report on two new reef fish species from the remote and isolated Easter Island-The striped boarfish Evistias acutirostris and the ornate butterflyfish Chaetodon ornatissimus were observed during scuba dives and underwater video around Easter Island, as well as at nearby Apolo Seamount. These observations are the first records of these speci...
Article
Full-text available
This study identified and quantified in the field the natural predators of juvenile spiny lobster Jasus frontalis, an endemic, ecologically relevant species, and the most valuable local commercial catch of Robinson Crusoe Island. It also assessed the predation pressure that these predators exerted on juveniles lobsters and whether they showed prefe...
Article
Full-text available
1. Five case studies from around the world illustrate key lessons in integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to stakeholder and community engagement in the planning and implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs). 2. Community resistance to MPA proposals from centralized agencies can be addressed through effective participatory processes...
Article
* The Aichi Biodiversity Targets were designed to promote and implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) by providing a framework for action to save biodiversity and enhance its benefits for people. Specifically, Target 11 aims to protect 10% of all seas by 2020. The percentage of the world's oceans that are protected has increased stea...
Article
The ability of sea urchins to destroy kelp forests, leaving large areas stripped of vegetation and covered by sparse calcareous algae is well known. The reduction in active predators of sea urchins combined with their broad diet makes them an important factor in the structuring of subtidal benthic marine systems. In central and northern Chile, the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The implementation of ecosystem-based management does not start from scratch, but it is usually shaped from the existing institutional and governance arrangements in a given area. Therefore, it is crucial to analyze the institutional framework of a region or country, and assess whether this framework is compatible, promotes or hinders the implement...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosyst...
Article
Full-text available
1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar bu...
Chapter
The northern sea star Leptasterias polaris (Müller and Troschel, 1842) is the best-studied species of the genus Leptasterias. L. polaris is a common species in the cold-water regions of the northwestern North Atlantic and attains its southern limit in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. It also extends through the Canadian Arctic region (Grainger 19...
Article
In species of the family Heliasteridae, the ossicles of the proximal parts of the sides of each ray are joined by connective tissue to those of the adjacent rays to form interradial septa. These provide support to the extensive disc. Only a relatively small part of the ray is free. Autotomy of rays occurs in Heliaster helianthus in response to pred...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss caused by population growth, the demand of resources and productive activities is inconsistent with the recognition of its importance. In terrestrial ecosystems, the National State System of Protected Areas (SNASPE) contains about 19 % of continental Chile. Although it does not represent all the ecosystems with endangered species,...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity loss caused by population growth, the demand of resources and productive activities is inconsistent with the recognition of its importance. In terrestrial ecosystems, the National State System of Protected Areas (SNASPE) contains about 19 % of continental Chile. Although it does not represent all the ecosystems with endangered species,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chile is committed to extending its National System of Protected Areas (NSPA), focusing on eco-regions whose ecosystems are currently under-represented in the NSPA. A newly proposed law aims to create a Service of Biodiversity and Protected Areas that would unify the terrestrial and marine systems. The proposed law would allow the inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Juvenile Northern scallops Argopecten purpuratus were exposed to cultures of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella, or a non-toxic microalga as a control, T-iso. After 3 and 6 days of exposure to either A. catenella or T-iso, scallops were stimulated to elicit an escape response by exposing them to the...
Article
Full-text available
We ran field experiments to examine whether the micro-distribution of the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger on elevated surfaces represents a strategy for limiting predation by the sea stars Heliaster helianthus and Meyenaster gelatinosus. Several lines of evidence supported this hypothesis. (1) A survey of the distribution of the urchin and the 2 sea st...