Carlos G. Berrocal

Carlos G. Berrocal
Chalmers University of Technology · Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering

PhD

About

36
Publications
14,438
Reads
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567
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - June 2016
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
This paper investigates the interplay between corrosion of reinforcement and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced concrete structures with non-uniform corrosion distribution based on the experimental results of a concrete beam simultaneously subjected to sustained deflection and accelerated corrosion through impressed current. Unlike previous s...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems in existing civil engineering structures could contribute to a safer and more resilient infrastructure as well as important savings. Due to their light weight, small size, and high resistance to the environment, distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) stand out as a very promising te...
Conference Paper
p>In recent years, significant worldwide research has been conducted regarding the performance assessment of bridges and the concept of performance indicator has been introduced However, there are still significant discrepancies in how these indicators are obtained and used. Simultaneously, it is desirable to achieve processes and methods that are...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the performance of distributed optical fiber sensors based on Rayleigh backscattering for the monitoring of strains in reinforced concrete elements subjected to different types of long-term external loading. In particular, the reliability and accuracy of robust fiber optic cables with an inner steel tube and an external protecti...
Article
The present paper reports the result of an inter-university experimental investigation on concrete shrinkage induced strains on embedded rebars instrumented with Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors (DOFS). The monitoring was performed for a standard 28 days drying time and for a shorter 6 days time span (reflecting realistic constructions schedules a...
Article
Full-text available
The edge beams of reinforced concrete bridges with de-icing salts sprayed experience extensive corrosion damage. The average service life of edge beams needing replacement in Sweden has been reported as only 45 years, causing great economic loss to both owners and users. Hence, finding a durable solution for edge beams would benefit society. Hybrid...
Article
Full-text available
Cracking in reinforced concrete (RC) bridges and other structures is common and not necessarily detrimental. However, some cracks may grow past specified limits and, aside from aesthetic and durability aspects, may influence the ductility and structural capacity of an RC member. This is not generally reflected in current assessment methods and, the...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of structural health monitoring systems in civil engineering structures already in the construction phase could contribute to safer and more resilient infrastructure. Due to their lightweight, small size and high resistance to the environment, distributed optical fibre sensors stand out as a very promising technology for damage d...
Chapter
This paper presents experimental results of corrosion pattern and tensile behaviour of corroded rebars extracted from 4 uncracked and 18 pre-cracked plain concrete and fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) beams. The beams were pre-cracked through three-point bending to a target maximum crack width of 0.1 and 0.4 mm, and then subjected to natural corrosi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
p>This paper presents the results of SensIT , an ongoing research initiative at Chalmers University of Technology aimed at developing a digital twin concept to improve the asset management strategies of reinforced concrete infrastructure. The developed concept relies on data collected from distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS), which are then an...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) are modern-day cutting-edge monitoring tools that are quickly acquiring relevance in structural health monitoring engineering. Their most ambitious use is embedded inside plain or reinforced concrete (RC) structures with the scope of comprehending their inner-workings and the functioning of the concrete-rein...
Article
Full-text available
Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete impairs the mechanical behaviour of rebars by decreasing their strength and deformation capacity. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on 61 rebars taken from 22 pre- and un- cracked reinforced concrete beams subjected to drying and wetting cycles in chloride solution for over three years. A...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results on corrosion characteristics of 66 rebars extracted from un- and pre-cracked plain concrete and fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) beams suffering from corrosion for more than 3 years. The influences of fibre reinforcement, flexural cracks, corrosion-induced cracks and loading condition on the maximum local corrosion level...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the use of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) based on Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry of Rayleigh backscattering for Structural Health Monitoring purposes in civil engineering structures. More specifically, the results of a series of laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the suitability and accuracy of DOFS...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports the early findings of an ongoing project aimed at developing new methods to upgrade the current maintenance strategies of the civil and transport infrastructure. As part of these new methods, the use of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms is being investigated to constitute the core of a new generation of more accurate and robust st...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper investigates the mechanical response of more than 120 corroded reinforcing bars extracted from a real bridge after 30 years in service. Corrosion was quantified using gravimetric and 3D-laser scanning measurements. An expression to relate the average and critical corrosion levels was found, the latter being the main parameter gove...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the results of a pre-study aimed at investigating a number of critical aspects identified for the execution of a fibre reinforced concrete lining in relation to the construction of high-speed railways in Sweden. The work carried out focused primarily on the study of fatigue performance of FRC and on the structural response of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Today, the accelerated degradation of many concrete structures poses a major challenge for the proper maintenance of the transport infrastructure. Therefore, inspection and maintenance operations constitute an important part of the recurrent costs of infrastructure. Furthermore, the increasing migration of population to urban areas has made sustain...
Article
During the past decades several inverse approaches have been developed to identify the stress-crack opening (\({\sigma }-w\)) by means of indirect test methods, such as the notched three point bending-, wedge splitting-, and round panel testing. The aim is to establish reliable constitutive models for the tensile behavior of fiber reinforced concre...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of an experimental programme aimed at investigating the influence of fibre reinforcement on the corrosion process of conventional steel rebar embedded in cracked concrete and on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams. Un- and pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams were subjected to natural corrosion throug...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the present work, a literature study was conducted to evaluate the models included in current design codes regarding the calculation of crack widths in concrete structures, with and without fibre reinforcement. Moreover, an examination of the different approaches used to address restraint cracking in current design codes as well as a review of a...
Article
This paper reports results from experiments aimed at better understanding the influence of fibre dosage and fibre geometry on the AC frequency needed to determine the DC resistivity of cementitious materials containing steel fibres. Impedance spectroscopy and DC galvanodynamic measurements were performed on mortar prisms with varying fibre reinforc...
Thesis
Full-text available
The viability of employing fibre reinforcement to improve the durability performance of RC structures by delaying and/or reducing rebar corrosion and by mitigating the structural impact of corrosion-induced damage have been investigated. Given the enhanced crack control of FRC, it could be advantageous to use fibres in civil engineering structures...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, an experimental programme has been carried out to investigate the influence of fibres on the onset of corrosion-induced splitting cracks. Cylindrical lollipop specimens with a centrally positioned Ø16 mm bar and varying cover depths from 40 to 64 mm were subjected to accelerated corrosion. A constant current of 100 µA/cm 2 was impres...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates, experimentally and numerically, the effect of fibre reinforcement on the initiation of corrosion-induced cracks in concrete and the bond behaviour of corroded reinforcement bars in fibre reinforced concrete. The fibres, due to their confining effect, contributed to delay crack initiation, improve the post-peak bond behaviou...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, experiments were conducted to induce bending cracks of specific surface crack width to reinforced concrete beams made of plain concrete (RC) and reinforced concrete beams made of fibre reinforced concrete (R/FRC). After injecting and impregnating the cracks with dyed epoxy resin, image processing and analysis were employed to investi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although fibre reinforcement is known to reduce the crack width and crack spacing of conventionally reinforced concrete elements, the impact of fibres on the crack width profile and crack morphology has not received as much attention. This paper presents experimental results of the crack width profile and internal crack pattern obtained from three-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Corrosion of reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration of RC structures located in marine environments or subjected to de-icing salts. In order to delay the ingress of chlorides, such structures require the use of thick, dense concrete covers and strict crack width limitations. Given the crack limiting effect provided by fibres, it would be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The initiation of corrosion-induced cracks, often running parallel to the reinforcement, becomes a turning point in the service life of a reinforced concrete (RC) structure as they promote increased corrosion rates, thus accelerating the degradation process of the structure. Compared to plain concrete, fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) provides addit...
Presentation
Full-text available
Today, there is an increasing need for reliable methods for condition assessment and service life evaluation of existing. Advanced 3D Nonlinear Finite Element (3D NLFE) analysis has proven to be capable of describing the behaviour of reinforced concrete in a comprehensive way provided that detailed and appropriate condition assessment data are avai...
Article
Full-text available
This literature review summarises the influence of fibres on the main parameters governing corrosion of conventional reinforcement. The ability of fibres to suppress crack growth has proven to decrease permeation in cracked concrete while chloride diffusion, in uncracked concrete, seems to remain unaffected by the addition of fibres. Steel fibres i...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports results from an ongoing project aimed at investigating the influence of fibre reinforcement on corrosion of rebar in chloride environments. Material tests showed that the resistivity of concrete decreased with the addition of fibres, whereas the chloride migration coefficient remained unaffected. Fibres at low dosages (<1.0% vol....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, early results from an on-going project aimed at investigating the influence of fibre reinforcement on corrosion of rebar are presented. Resistivity of mixes containing fibres was reduced when compared with plain concrete while chloride migration seemed to remain unaffected. On the mechanical properties, results showed that while the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents various durability aspects of steel-fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Published research results show that due to the limited length of the fibres and the casting conditions, steel fibres embedded in concrete show no corrosion signs despite high chloride concentrations. It was also reported that due to the fibres’ ability to arr...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The overall purpose is to make current SHM more time and cost efficient while increasing its efficiency by using cutting edge visualization tools and interaction design. The specific aim is to develop a collaborative AR tool for infrastructure maintenance and inspection and to integrate the tool into the SensIT research concept as presented in Figure 2. The goal is to incorporate knowledge on infrastructure monitoring, acquired through transdisciplinary research at Chalmers, into the everyday SHM process, and thus more effectively transfer knowledge from research to practice. The tool will include functionalities for infrastructure analysis and monitoring, as well as functionality for on-site guided inspection and annotation, thereby greatly simplifying and optimizing monitoring and inspection by digitalisation. According to experts (Dunston and Wang 2005, Ohta and Tamura 2014) one of the main obstacles for widespread endorsement of AR in industrial settings is the distinct natures of handheld (HHD) and head-mounted (HMD) devices. Both types of devices have shortcomings and benefits; thus neither can be considered the standard when it comes to real work environment applications. The ease of use of HHDs proves inconvenient when moving forward, since users do not want to hold their phones at eye height for extended periods of time. This is a particular problem in the construction inspection field, where safety is the number one concern. Contrarily, a hands-free HMD implementation creates a much more comfortable user experience, but requires special (and usually expensive) equipment, provides much shorter battery life and lacks the on-board GSM network capabilities of a phone or a SIM card enabled tablet. Conclusively, HMD and HHD serve different needs 6 / 42 and both have a place in the AR user base, as long as the user experience provided is adequate. That is emphasized even further in the domain of construction inspection, where efficiency, ease of use and very specialized features like temporal data exploration are of utmost importance. In the proposed project, we will tackle the mentioned issues with a user-centered approach, that focuses heavily on providing the needed UX. Moreover, by implementing our application for both HMD and HHD, taking advantage of the distinct characteristics of the devices turn into a feature instead of a limitation, by allowing the user to carry the device more suitable for the task at hand. Some key features of the application will be: 1) Online and offline data visualisation from both on-site sensors and simulations/predictions. 2) Direct connection to SensIt and VirtualCity@Chalmers backends, allowing the usage of already developed state-of-the art computational and visualisation tools. 3) Handheld, head mounted and desktop versions. 4) On-site data exploration from all available sources, through an intuitive and responsive user interface. 5) Full duplex communication, allowing the client devices to communicate information (annotation) back to the server in different formats, including in BFC format. 6) On-site collaboration and communication between different devices.
Project
SensIT is a research project at Chalmers University of Technology. The concept SensIT was developed by researchers at Chalmers in close collaboration with Microsoft, NCC and WSP. The purpose of the project is to investigate solutions that enable 3 to 5 year integrity predictions of new and existing structures. The project focuses on the following main areas: · The use of sensor networks for remote data collection · The use of cloud-based services to provide global access to critical information regarding the conditions of the structure · The use of real-time structural assessment and service life predictions carried out by a combination of numerical models and machine learning · The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) for data visualization · The use of Augmented Reality (AR-Hololens) for efficient maintenance inspection of structures
Project
Develop guidelines and recommendations regarding material testing, structural design and durability design