Carlos Fonseca

Carlos Fonseca
University of Aveiro | UA · Department of Biology

PhD Wildlife Biology & Management
CTO ForestWISE Collaborative Laboratory for Integrated Forest & Fire Management; Invited Associate Professor at UAveiro

About

426
Publications
162,381
Reads
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4,391
Citations
Citations since 2016
244 Research Items
3612 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Introduction
CTO of the ForestWISE - Collaborative Laboratory for Integrated Forest & Fire Management and Invited Associate Professor and Collaborator Researcher at the Department of Biology and CESAM, Aveiro University, Portugal. Scientific areas: Wildlife and Natural Resources Ecology, Management and Conservation; One Heath; Forestry Management; Natural agriculture; Mammalogy; Animal Genetics as a tool for Wildlife Conservation & Management; Global climate changes; Human Dimension in Forestry and Wildlife.
Additional affiliations
February 2020 - February 2024
ForestWISE - Collaborative Laboratory for Integrated Forest & Fire Wise Management
Position
  • CTO - Chief Technology Officer
Description
  • The ForestWISE Collaborative Laboratory (CoLAB), set up to develop research, innovation and technology transfer activities to increase the competitiveness of the Portuguese forestry sector and reduce the negative consequences of rural fires.
March 2019 - June 2019
Universidad Nacional de Asunción
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Invited visiting Professor in the scope of the research Project "Aplicación de Fototrampeo para la definición de línea de base para monitoreo de Jaguar (Panthera onca) y otras especies de mamíferos en el Chaco Seco"
March 2013 - February 2014
Universidade Lúrio
Position
  • Invited Assistant Professor
Education
January 2000 - October 2004
University of Aveiro
Field of study
  • Biology - Wildlife Research
January 1997 - December 1999
University of Coimbra
Field of study
  • Ecology
September 1992 - September 1996
University of Coimbra
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (426)
Article
Full-text available
The successful introduction of the common genet (Genetta genetta) into Europe has been traditionally associated to the Muslim invasion of Iberia, although diverse evidence suggested an earlier arrival. In this study, we assessed genetic variation at 11 microsatellite loci in 199 individuals from the Mediterranean Basin and used approximate Bayesian...
Article
Traditional land use practices declined throughout many of Europe’s rural landscapes during the 20th century. Rewilding (i.e. restoring ecosystem functioning with minimal human intervention) is being pursued in many areas, and restocking or reintroduction of key species is often part of the rewilding strategy. Such programmes require ecological inf...
Article
Full-text available
ContextThe conversion of natural environments into agricultural land has profound effects on the composition of the landscape, often resulting in a mosaic of human-altered and natural habitats. The response to these changes may however vary among organisms. Bats are highly vagile, and their requirements often imply the use of distinct habitats, whi...
Article
Full-text available
At the end of the nineteenth century, massive population declines were observed in carnivores due to the emergence of infectious diseases. This study aims to investigate, by means of coprological analysis, the prevalence and intensity of the parasites that infect the endangered Iberian wolf Canis lupus signatus and two mesocarnivores (the red fox V...
Article
Full-text available
European wolf populations are currently exposed to distinct sources of anthropogenic disturbance and mortality that can cause dispersal limitations and lead to isolation. The identification of factors that act as complete or partial barriers to movement, dispersal, or gene flow contribute to foster connectivity between populations. We reviewed the...
Article
The mcr-1 gene spread is worldwide recognized as a public health threat at multidrug-resistant infections therapy level. Here, we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the detection of the globally distributed IncX4 plasmid carrying mcr-1 (mcr-1/IncX4) in Escherichia coli isolated from a wild mammal in Portugal and Europe. This p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Portugal enfrenta um problema estrutural relacionado com o desenvolvimento e a gestão das áreas rurais, agravado pelos efeitos das alterações climáticas. Os incêndios rurais são uma das consequências deste problema, representando uma séria ameaça à segurança das comunidades, à economia florestal, ao ambiente e ao desenvolvimento económico e social...
Article
Full-text available
The WHO considers that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the ten greatest global public health risks of the 21st century. The expansion of human populations and anthropogenically related activities, accompanied by the fragmentation of natural habitats, has resulted in increased human–wildlife interaction. Natural ecosystems are therefore subj...
Article
Full-text available
The Iberian ibex is one of the most singular species of the Iberian Peninsula. Throughout the years, this species suffered several threats which led the population to its decline. Many reintroductions and translocations were made, however, none of those actions took into account the genetic patterns of both reintroduced individuals and the target p...
Article
Eucalyptus plantations, the second most economically important exotic tree in Europe, cover circa 1,5 million hectares on this continent. However, little is known about their effect on the ecological patterns of widely distributed and increasing populations of wild ungulates. This lack of knowledge jeopardizes our ability to correctly manage these...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health concern. Nowadays, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are considered emerging pollutants. This study followed the One Health framework, in which AMR surveillance in the environment, including in wild animals, is advisable to mitigate this problem. Here we investigated AMR associated with Eurasian ot...
Article
Full-text available
[Introducción]: El jaguar (Panthera onca) es el felino más grande de América y debido a los vastos bosques conectados en la Amazonía tiene actualmente las mayores poblaciones de esta especie. [Objetivos]: Estimamos la densidad de jaguares para 7 sitios en el Gran Paisaje Madidi-Tambopata en el noroeste de Bolivia y el sureste de Perú. [Metodología]...
Article
Full-text available
Mammals are threatened worldwide, with ca. 26% of all species being included in the IUCN threatened categories. This overall pattern is primarily associated to habitat loss or degradation, and human persecution for terrestrial mammals, and pollution, open net fishing, climate change and prey depletion for marine mammals. Mammals play a key role in...
Article
The replacement of natural areas with forestry plantations is a worldwide expanding process with direct consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. In the Mediterranean region, Eucalyptus spp. plantations are widespread, forming monospecific landscapes that in Portugal dominate most of its forested areas. The reduction in the availab...
Poster
Background Zoonoses are diseases common to humans and animals (livestock, wildlife, and pets). In 2018 about 360 000 zoonoses were reported in European Union. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections were among the most reported causes of these zoonotic diseases. Methods Faecal samples of mammal species (n=286) with distinct phenol...
Article
Forestry plantations have increased considerably over recent decades to fulfil human demand for wood, pulp and paper. Eucalyptus globulus Labill is one of the most abundant plantation species, particularly in Europe, where its largest presence is in Portugal. Furthermore, plantations in Mediterranean areas, such as Portugal, frequently suffer from...
Article
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales have been classified as critical priority pathogens by the World Health Organization (WHO). ESBL are universally distributed and, in 2006, were firstly reported on a wild animal. Understanding the relative contributions of wild animals to ESBL circulation in the environment is urgentl...
Article
Humans have negatively impacted most ecosystems on Earth, altering how species use habitats and resources available to them, but also their circadian rhythms. Among many factors affecting animal activity patterns, conversion of native habitat into production forests and hunting are critical, and their impacts may be exacerbated by seasonal weather...
Article
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium, successfully exploiting a variety of environmental niches due to its remarkable metabolic versatility. The World Health Organization classifies P. aeruginosa as a “priority pathogen” due to its a great ability to overcome the action of antimicrobials, including carbapenems. Hitherto, most studies ha...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the role of quantitative variables on speciation rates is among the main purposes of trait-dependent diversification methods. ES-sim, a recent simulation-based approach that relies on Pearson’s correlations, allows testing trait-dependent diversification for single regression models. Here, we modified this approach to include generalize...
Article
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health. Antimicrobials are used in animal production and human medicine, which contribute to the circulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Wildlife can be reservoirs of pathogens and resistant bacteria. Furthermore, anthropogenic pressure can in...
Article
In the last decades, the wildlife-human interface has been increasing due to several anthropogenic factors. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the impact of these new dynamics on the health of wild animals and its associated zoonotic disease risks. This study aimed to characterise the faecal microbiota of two populations of red deer (Cervus el...
Article
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most frequent bacterial agents associated with food-borne outbreaks in Europe. In humans, the infection can lead to life-threatening diseases. Domestic and wild animals can harbor STEC, and ruminants are the main STEC reservoirs, although asymptomatic. In the present study we have characte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The INCREMENTO project attempts to evaluate the consequences of a progressive increase of wild ungulate (red deer, Cervus elaphus) abundance on the structure and functioning of two Mediterranean environments (Quintos de Mora, Toledo and Muela de Cortes, Valencia). We are conducting a manipulative approach based on the release of herds of female red...
Poster
Full-text available
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is one of the most endangered felid species in the world. Conservation efforts have increased its population size and distribution and reinforced their genetic diversity through captive breeding and reintroduction programmes. Among several threats that the Iberian lynx faces, infectious and parasitic diseases have u...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious problem for public and animal health, and also for the environment. Monitoring and reporting the occurrence of AMR determinants and bacteria with the potential to disseminate is a priority for health surveillance programs around the world and critical to the One Health concept. Wildlife is a reservoir of...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent paper, we presented new evidence and provided new insights on the status of Cantabrian brown bear subpopulations, relevant for this species conservation. Namely, we revealed the likely phylogeographic relation between eastern Cantabrian subpopulation and the historical Pyrenean population. We have also detected an asymmetric flow of all...
Poster
Full-text available
Measures of performance in wild ungulates must consider density dependent and stochastic factors such as parasitic rates (as natural enemies in intimae relation with hosts) along with the impact of population management. In order to standardize parasite counts to be useful ecological indicators, it is essential to test host and parasite responses t...
Article
Full-text available
Human–wildlife interactions (HWIs) occur in many rural African communities, with potential impacts on livelihood vulnerability. High livelihood vulnerability may force communities to employ strategies that increase the risk of negative HWIs, yet the extent to which HWIs drive or are driven by vulnerability is unclear. We hypothesized that more vuln...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can be highlighted as one of the most significant health concerns among the last decades, for which antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals has contributed as one of the major drivers. Food-producing animals are one of the most important and rapidly expanding commercial agricultural sectors worldwide but ther...
Article
Full-text available
The environment is considered a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms (AMR) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG). Colistin, a “last resort” antibiotic, is used for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The global dissemination of mobile colistin resistance genes (mcr) in nat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Measuring mammals’ bite force in laboratory conditions is not a simple task, let alone on wild medium-sized mammals in the field. Thus, morphometric-proxies are usually used to infer morphofunctional properties of musculoskeletal features. For instance, the study of bite force-indexes suggests that different capacities to crack food item...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the causes of range expansions in abundant species can help predict future species distributions. During range expansions, animals are exposed to novel environments and are required to cope with new and unpredictable stressors. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are mediators of the hormonal and behavioural mechanisms allowing animals to cope with...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. However, long‐term studies are difficult to maintain mainly due to the lack of continuous funding. In this scenario, the collaboration between local stakeholders and researchers can be a fruitful partnership to monitor game specie...
Poster
Background: Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene (mcr) was first detected in 2015, in China, from samples of livestock and humans but since then multiple studies have described mcr-positive microorganisms in food, livestock, humans and the wider environment worldwide. Colistin is an important last resort antibiotic to MDR-bacteria at hospital...
Poster
Background: The emergence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriales is reported worldwide representing severe threats to human health in clinical settings. The present study evaluated the presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriales in Douro River, Porto district, Portugal. Materials/methods: Ten samples of water from Douro River, collected...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria from wildlife has received increasing interest, due to the potential risk posed by those bacteria to wild animals, livestock or humans at the interface with wildlife, and due to the ensuing contamination of the environment. According to World Health Organization, cephalosporins are crit...
Presentation
Presentation as guest speaker at the first symposium of One Health Lab, promoted by Fiocruz and University of Aveiro. The event was held within the framework of the International Platform for Science, Technology and Innovation in Health (PICTIS).
Poster
Full-text available
Enterococci are Gram-positive commensal bacteria present in animal enteric systems. However, they have pathogenic potential. The most prevalent species are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, representing more than 90% of the isolates in humans. This study aims to evaluate the Enterococcus species diversity in wild animal intestinal flo...
Article
Parthenogenesis is rare in nature. With 39 described true parthenogens, scaled reptiles (Squamata) are the only vertebrates that evolved this reproductive strategy. Parthenogenesis is ecologically advantageous in the short term, but the young age and rarity of parthenogenetic species indicate it is less advantageous in the long term. This suggests...
Article
The Egyptian mongoose is a carnivore distributed in Africa, Middle East and Iberian Peninsula (IP). The species has always been considered exotic in the IP, with its presence attributed to Man as a consequence of the Muslim Occupations. This view is still not consensual. Genetic studies suggested that the species may have naturally dispersed to Ibe...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of performance in wild ungulates must consider density dependent and stochastic factors such as parasitic rates (as natural enemies in intimae relation with hosts) along with the impact of population management. In order to standardize parasite counts to be useful ecological indicators, it is essential to test host and parasite responses t...
Article
Full-text available
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is one of the most endangered felid species in the world. Conservation efforts have increased its population size and distribution and reinforced their genetic diversity through captive breeding and reintroduction programmes. Among several threats that the Iberian lynx faces, infectious and parasitic diseases have u...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theories suggest that processes shaping species diversity are the same shaping genetic diversity, leading to a correlation between the two levels of diversity. Using Neotropical bat assemblages, and considering the genetic diversity of two co-distributed Chiroptera species with distinct life-history traits, Artibeus planirostris and Carollia...
Article
Full-text available
The Tocantins state is the youngest in Brazil. It is largely occupied by the Cerrado domain, a biodiversity hotspot. Despite estimates of the number of medium and large sized mammals, few studies cover the entire state broadly. In face of the threat that these animals has been suffering from the expansion of agro-pastoral and urban activities, here...
Article
Full-text available
The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is native and widespread in Europe and its phylogeography has been clarified in the last decades. Southern peninsulas are considered as reservoirs of genetic diversity and the source for the recolonization of Europe after the last glacial maximum. Even though roe deer populations have been genetically characterize...
Article
Activity pattern studies can help explain the coexistence of competing species. Between 2001 and 2017 we evaluated the activity pattern overlap of jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), and their main prey, using camera traps at 17 Amazonian sites in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape. We used the Kernel density estimation to generate sp...
Article
Global wildlife populations face multiple threats, from an ever-growing human population. The Carnivora, especially species of large body size are at risk of local extinction from habitat loss, as they depend on large home-ranges and are highly susceptible to changes in prey populations. The objective of this study was to detect responses of carniv...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex and global problem. Despite the growing literature on AMR in the medical and veterinary settings, there is still a lack of knowledge on the wildlife compartment. The main aim of this study was to report the global trends in AMR research in wildlife, through a bibliometric study of articles found in the We...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract.Mammalian carnivores are considered a key group in maintaining ecologicalhealth and can indicate potential ecological integrity in landscapes where they occur. Carni-vores also hold high conservation value and their habitat requirements can guide managementand conservation plans. The order Carnivora has 84 species from 8 families in the Ne...