Carlos Ivan Espinosa

Carlos Ivan Espinosa
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja | UTPL · Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas

PhD

About

99
Publications
43,541
Reads
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2,407
Citations
Introduction
Tropical Dry Forest, Dry ecosystem, Community Ecology, Plant Interaction, Ecuador Dry ecosystem.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
King Juan Carlos University
January 2010 - December 2012
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL)
January 2006 - October 2014
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
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Geographic, climatic, and soil factors are major drivers of plant beta diversity, but their importance for dryland plant communities is poorly known. This study aims to: i) characterize patterns of beta diversity in global drylands, ii) detect common environmental drivers of beta diversity, and iii) test for thresholds in environmental conditions d...
Article
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Positive plant interactions have strong effects on plant diversity at several spatial scales, expanding species distribution under stressful conditions. We evaluated the joint effect of climate and grazing on the nurse effect of Croton wagneri, by monitoring several community attributes at two spatial scales: microhabitat and plant community. Two v...
Article
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Urbanization constitutes one of the most aggressive drivers of habitat and biodiversity loss worldwide. However, studies focused on determining the response of local biodiversity to urbanization are still scarce, especially in tropical ecosystems. Urban ecosystems are characterized by low biological productivity which in turn leads to a reduction i...
Article
Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban...
Article
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Pollution from oil spills can seriously affect many ecosystem processes and human health. Many articles have evaluated the impact of oil spills on human health. However, most of these articles focus on occupational exposure. The effect on people living in the areas affected by oil pollution is rarely studied. Approximately 640 million people worldw...
Article
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Biodiversity and ecosystem functions are highly threatened by global change. It has been proposed that geodiversity can be used as an easy-to-measure surrogate of biodiversity to guide conservation management. However, so far, there is mixed evidence to what extent geodiversity can predict biodiversity and ecosystem functions at the regional scale...
Article
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Seasonally dry forests (SDFs) are one of the most challenging ecosystems for amphibians, fueling the diversity of this group of vertebrates. An updated inventory of native amphibians present in the Equatorial SDF is provided, which extends along the Pacific coast of Ecuador and northwestern Peru. The study is based on an extensive field sampling (t...
Article
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Chronic disturbance is widely recognized as one of main triggers of diversity loss in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). However, the pathways through which diffuse disturbance is acting on the forest are little understood. This information is especially demanded in the case of vanishing Neotropical seasonally dry forests such as the Tumbesia...
Article
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Background: contamination of aquatic ecosystems by oil spills associated with petroleum exploitation represents a serious problem of environmental contamination that can affect human health. We developed a spatial model of contamination risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon, and evaluated the model using independent datasets on environmental contamination...
Article
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Goats as seed dispersers: contributions and limitations for the regeneration of the seasonally dry tropical forest in Ecuador Introduction: Seasonally dry tropical forests are subject to chronic degradation processes, which has reduced the populations of some important animal dispersers. Intensive livestock farming within the forest remnants is con...
Article
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Accelerating urbanization of natural areasis a particularly important threat to biodiversity in tropical countries. Understanding how this phenomenon affects different groups of the fauna is essential to develop conservation actions We evaluate the effects of urbanization on species diversity and composition of geometrid moths in a tropical biodive...
Article
en Understanding the responses of species interactions to land-use change is a key challenge in ecology and conservation. In the tropical Andes, a large proportion of birds interact with other bird species and create networks of mixed-species flocks; however, the widespread effects of land-use change in the region raise concerns about the alteratio...
Article
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Given widespread habitat degradation and loss, reliable indicators are needed that provide a comprehensive assessment of community response to anthropogenic disturbance. The family Phyllostomidae (Order Chiroptera) has frequently been the focus of research evaluating bats’ response to habitat disturbance in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs)....
Article
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More tree species can increase the carbon storage capacity of forests (here referred to as the more species hypothesis) through increased tree productivity and tree abundance resulting from complementarity, but they can also be the consequence of increased tree abundance through increased available energy (more individuals hypothesis). To test thes...
Article
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Tropical and subtropical dry forests make up the world’s largest terrestrial ecosystem. However, these forests have been used to establish several productive activities, such as growing crops, rearing livestock, and using the forest resources, due to their ease of access and climatic conditions, which has led to this ecosystem becoming highly threa...
Article
Aim Plant recruitment may occur immediately after seed dispersal from the mother plant, or be delayed through the formation of soil seed banks. These strategies are known to be mediated by adaptations of seed dispersal and reproductive phenology, which if analyzed together can provide valuable information about the regeneration strategies of specie...
Article
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Many studies have tried to assess the role of both deterministic and stochastic processes in community assembly, yet a lack of consensus exists on which processes are more prevalent and at which spatial scales they operate. To shed light on this issue, we tested two non‐mutually exclusive, scale‐dependent hypotheses: 1) that competitive exclusion d...
Article
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Understanding the vulnerability of tree species to anthropogenic threats is important for the efficient planning of restoration and conservation efforts. We quantified and compared the effects of future climate change and four current threats (fire, habitat conversion, overgrazing, and overexploitation) on the 50 most common tree species of the tro...
Article
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Tropical montane forests (TMFs) play an important role as a carbon reservoir at a global scale. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive understanding on the variation in carbon storage across TMF compartments [namely aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), and soil organic matter] along altitudinal and environmental gradients and...
Article
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The change in the distribution range is a common response of various species facing the effects of anthropogenic global change. We used new distribution records of birds reported during the last two decades from the Ecuadorian part of the Tumbesian region (western Ecuador and northwestern Peru) available through a bibliographic review, together wit...
Article
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Termites are one of the key ecosystem engineers in tropical forests where they play a major role in decomposition rates, both above and belowground. The interest in termite ecology and biogeography has increased in the last few decades; however, the lack of comparable data has limited the wider impact of termite research. For Ecuador, termite studi...
Article
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An understanding of ecosystem dynamics under different scenarios of degradation is required to reverse ecological degradation and identify restoration priorities. Such knowledge can be the result of scientific investigation, but important insight can also reside in observant local land managers. In seasonally dry tropical forests in southern Ecuado...
Article
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Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally‐relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem f...
Article
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Questions Do tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests differ in the timing of their secondary growth? And in their growth rates between consecutive years? If so, how are these contrasting patterns linked to seasonality in climatic variables (temperature, precipitation)? Which is the role of leaf phenology and functional traits as drivers of...
Article
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Pollinators are crucial for ecosystem functionality; however, little is known about the plant species used by some of these, such as stingless bees. In this study, for the first time, pollen resources used by Melipona mimetica Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) and Scaptotrigona sp. Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) were identified t...
Conference Paper
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La radio se define como un medio de comunicación masivo, de significativo alcance a nivel urbano y rural, elemento que lo propone como una plataforma de divulgación de información clave para diversos tópicos. En este caso, el asocio institucional "informal" entre investigadores del Grupo de Investigación de Ecología Tropical y Servicios Ecosistémic...
Conference Paper
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Understanding how biodiversity is distributed geographically is a keystone information to design and allocate resources for biodiversity conservation and management, especially in threatened areas with high biodiversity and endemism rates. The Tumbesian region has an extraordinary set of bird endemism, but habitat degradation and forest conversion...
Poster
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La región Tumbesina (oeste de Ecuador y noroeste de Perú) es una de las zonas más importantes y amenazadas del mundo desde el punto de vista de biodiversidad. Con al menos 55 especies de aves endémicas, esta región alberga una de las concentraciones más elevadas de endemismo de este grupo faunístico a nivel global. Los bosques secos tropicales del...
Article
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Dispersal, physical conditions and biotic interactions contribute to determine the spatial distribution of individuals in plant populations. Much of what we know has been learned from studies that retrospectively posit mechanisms presumed to have generated the observed spatial patterns. Here we present a prospective approach. We start by measuring...
Article
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Seed dispersal is an important ecosystem function, but it is contentious how structural and functional diversity of plant and bird communities are associated with seed-dispersal functions. We used structural equation models to test how structural (i.e., abundance, species richness) and functional diversity (i.e., functional dispersion and community...
Article
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The dry forest of southern Ecuador and northern Perú (called the Tumbesian region) is known for its high diversity, endemism, and healthy conservation state. Nevertheless, the forest is exposed to many threats linked with human activities. To understand the effects of these threats, which have not been appropriately assessed, we pose two questions:...
Article
1.Partner choice in species interaction networks, e.g. between frugivorous birds and fruiting plants, is largely determined by matching of functional traits. However, the composition of functional traits in plant communities changes along land‐use gradients. Understanding how flexible consumers react to changes in the trait composition of resources...
Article
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Understanding how plants survive drought and cold is increasingly important as plants worldwide experience dieback with drought in moist places and grow taller with warming in cold ones. Crucial in plant climate adaptation are the diameters of water-transporting conduits. Sampling 537 species across climate zones dominated by angiosperms, we find t...
Article
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Elevational diversity gradients are typically studied without considering the complex small-scale topography of large mountains, which generates habitats of strongly different environmental conditions within the same elevational zones. Here we analyzed the importance of small-scale topography for elevational diversity patterns of hyperdiverse tropi...
Article
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Endozoochory is a prominent form of seed dispersal in tropical dry forests. Most extant megafauna that perform such seed dispersal are ungulates, which can also be seed predators. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of the last extant megafauna of Neotropical dry forests, but whether it serves as a legitimate seed disperser is poorly...
Article
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1. Dryland vegetation is characterized by discrete plant patches that accumulate and capture soil resources under their canopies. These "fertile islands" are major drivers of dryland ecosystem structure and functioning, yet we lack an integrated understanding of the factors controlling their magnitude and variability at the global scale. 2. We cond...
Article
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Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ec...
Article
Tropical montane forests are being turned into pastures for cattle at an unprecedented rate. However, efforts are being made to reforest pastures in particular if invaded by weeds of low nutritional value, but until today little is known on the response of the decomposer system to reforestation. We focused on the response of soil fauna, specificall...
Article
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The study by Bastin et al. (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) is based on an incomplete delimitation of dry forest distribution and on an old and incorrect definition of drylands. Its sampling design includes many plots located in humid ecosystems and ignores critical areas for the conservation of dry forests. Therefore, its results and conclusions may...
Article
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Tropical forests harbor diverse ecological communities of plants and animals that are organized in complex interaction networks. The diversity and structure of plant-animal interaction networks may change along elevational gradients and in response to human-induced habitat fragmentation. While previous studies have analyzed the effects of elevation...
Article
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El uso de herramientas biotecnológicas como la micropropagación se constituye en una alternativa de reproducción de especies amenazadas y con tamaños poblacionales reducidos. Sin embargo, uno de los problemas críticos en el uso de la micropropagación como herramienta de reproducción es la calidad de las plántulas resultantes en cuanto a su crecimie...
Preprint
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The recent Global Drylands Assessment of forests is based on both an incomplete delimitation of dry forests distribution and on an old and incorrect delimitation of drylands. Its sampling design includes a large proportion of plots located in humid ecosystems and ignores critical areas for the conservation of dry forests. Therefore its results and...
Article
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Key message Intra-annual increment patterns and wood production are coupled with rainfall seasonality in five tree species of a Tumbesian tropical dry forest. However, climatic responses show variation among species. Abstract In many tropical dry forests, information on radial-growth rates and phenology of wood formation is still lacking. However,...
Article
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Neotropical dry forests are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems worldwide. The extent and knowledge of Neotropical dry forests are quite heterogeneous with forests located in the Ecuadorian province especially diverse, threatened and poorly studied. In this work, we review patterns and conservation status of biodiversity, ecosystem pro...
Article
Dispersal, population spatial structure and intraspecific density-dependent processes are critical determinants of plant population dynamics. However, we lack empirical data on how the interplay between these factors changes across the plant species life cycle, particularly for long-lived plants. This is in great part due to the difficulty in imple...
Article
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Habitat loss and subsequent fragmentation of natural habitats caused by anthropogenic activities constitute a major threat to biodiversity. A conservation strategy for habitat remnants is the creation of protected areas, although the size and connectivity of reserves may restrict the viability of populations. In this context, protected areas genera...
Article
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Tumbesian region is considered one of the most important global areas for both threatened and endemic species. Species richness for birds has been well documented; however, detailed information is still lacking hindering effective conservation actions. This is the case of species local distribution, thus for many locations in the Tumbesian region a...
Article
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The knowledge of seasonal dynamics of living organisms and their relationships with climatic variables in environmental gradients is needed to understand the possible effects of climate change and contribute to preserve seasonally dry tropical ecosystems. A whole year sampling was carried out with pitfall traps set up in six plots located at differ...
Article
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We report the Tumbes Tyrant Tumbezia salvini (Aves: Tyrannidae) at El Oro de Pilares, county of Zapotillo, province of Loja, Ecuador. This new locality is in the dry forests of southwestern Ecuador, 16 km from the single locality previously known of the species in the country. This new record suggests T. salvini occurs on a larger area in Ecuador t...
Article
Reportamos la especie Tumbezia salvini (Aves: Tyrannidae) en el sector El Oro de Pilares, cantón Zapotillo, provincia de Loja, Ecuador. Esta localidad se ubica en los bosques secos del suroccidente del Ecuador y se ubica a 16 km de la única localidad previamente conocida en el país para la especie.
Research
Full-text available
Zapotillo es un cantón de la provincia de Loja ubicado en el suroccidente del Ecuador, forma parte de la Región de Endemismo Tumbesina, la misma que es compartida con el noroeste del Perú y alberga al menos 59 especies de aves endémicas. Este sector posee un clima cálido seco y alberga algunos de los remanentes más importantes y mejor conservados d...