Carlos D. Camp

Carlos D. Camp
Piedmont College · Biology

PhD

About

80
Publications
14,853
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658
Citations
Introduction
Carlos D. Camp currently works as a biologist at Piedmont University. Carlos' research focuses on the ecology and evolution of lungless salamanders. Current projects include (1) foraging patterns in dusky salamanders (Desmognathus); (2) differences in parasite incidence among salamanders of the Desmognathus quadramaculatus complex.
Additional affiliations
August 1983 - present
Piedmont College
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1980 - March 1985
University of Georgia
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1977 - August 1980
Auburn University
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1973 - June 1977

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Lungless salamanders of the family Plethodontidae have historically been considered to be passive conformers to their surrounding thermal environment because there is no evidence that they thermoregulate behaviourally in the field. In contrast, plethodontids readily choose optimal temperatures when placed on experimental thermal gradients...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial adaptations by small, desmognathine salamanders in Appalachian stream communities have been viewed as evolved responses to large, aquatic, predatory congeners. We tested the role of moisture in the development of adaptive phenotypes in the small, semiterrestrial Desmognathus ocoee. We measured indicators of relative terrestrial vs. aqua...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a striking new species of the lungless salamander family Plethodontidae from the Appalachian foothills of northern Georgia, USA. This miniature species, c. 25–26 mm (adult standard length), is so distinctive genetically and morphologically that we erect a new genus, the first new genus of amphibian described from the US in nearly 50 yea...
Article
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Species richness commonly varies with elevation, but in many montane regions, the greatest number of species occurs at mid-elevations. A recent regional analysis showed this pattern in Appalachian salamanders of the genus Desmognathus Baird, 1850. The authors proposed that the phylogenetic niche conservatism of these salamanders causes species to a...
Article
The salamander family Plethodontidae is replete with instances of repeated homoplasy. We tested for morphological homoplasy in distantly related species of the plethodontid genus Desmognathus that share similar ecologies. Specifically, we compared species that are large and nearly aquatic. Using morphometric analyses, we compared the respective mor...
Article
Full-text available
In the southern Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., the trematode Metagonimoides oregonensis, a parasite of raccoons and possibly mink, utilizes larvae of lungless salamanders as second intermediate hosts, most frequently using the salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus. We tested whether there was a difference in parasite infection between this salama...
Article
Full-text available
We used visual-encounter surveys to record species richness and abundance in plethodontid salamanders in the twilight zones of five caves over 19 y beginning in summer of 2000. We found Plethodon glutinosus (Northern Slimy Salamander) abundant during summer and Eurycea lucifuga (Cave Salamander) relatively abundant in summer, fall, and spring, alth...
Article
Full-text available
Contact zones present unique opportunities to investigate ecological divergence, reproductive barriers, and gene flow between species. The two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata) species complex is a group of semiaquatic plethodontid salamanders with a reticulate evolutionary history that reflects the reorganization of river drainage basins. Alth...
Article
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Visual acuity and sensitivity positively correlate to eye size in vertebrates, and eye size relates to the ecology of colubrid snakes. We investigated whether eye morphology of North American colubrids of the genus Nerodia correlates with ecology as well. Although all members of the genus utilize aquatic habits, they differ widely in the proportion...
Article
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We provide an annotated checklist of species recorded from caves and other subterranean habitats in the state of Georgia, USA. We report 281 species (228 invertebrates and 53 vertebrates), including 51 troglobionts (cave-obligate species), from more than 150 sites (caves, springs, and wells). Endemism is high; of the troglobionts, 17 (33 % of those...
Article
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A multicellular host and its microbial communities are recognized as a metaorganism—a composite unit of evolution. Microbial communities have a variety of positive and negative effects on the host life history, ecology, and evolution. This study used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to characterize the complete skin and gut microbial communities...
Article
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Evolutionary biologists have long focused on the patterns and causes of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). While femalebiased SSD is common among ectotherms, a few lineages predominately exhibit male-biased SSD. One example is the clade of desmognathans, a monophyletic group of two genera within the Plethodontinae of the lungless salamander family Pleth...
Article
Full-text available
The Appalachian leech Placobdella biannulata is a presumed host generalist for an array of amphibian species. One species commonly parasitized by this leech is the salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus because of its semiaquatic nature and relatively large size. We tested the null hypothesis that this leech species exhibits equal prevalence in la...
Article
Full-text available
Woodland salamanders of the genus Plethodon are characterized by strong ecological and morphological conservatism. One assemblage, the Wehrle’s salamander (Plethodon wehrlei Fowler & Dunn) species group, is distributed from New York to Tennessee, USA, and includes several morphological variants, four of which are sufficiently distinct to have been...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the life history and habitat characteristics for the Patch-nosed Salamander, Urspelerpes brucei. Body-size measurements of individuals captured using litter bags and by hand from 2008 to 2010 indicated that the larval period lasts at least 2 y, salamanders attain reproductive maturity at or shortly after metamorphosis, and adults have v...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the life history and habitat characteristics for the Patch-nosed Salamander, Urspelerpes brucei. Body-size measurements of individuals captured using litter bags and by hand from 2008 to 2010 indicated that the larval period lasts at least two years, salamanders attain reproductive maturity at or shortly after metamorphosis, and adults...
Article
Full-text available
A primary goal of landscape genetics is to elucidate factors associated with genetic structure among populations. Among the important patterns identified have been isolation by distance (IBD), isolation by barrier (IBB), and isolation by environment (IBE). We tested hypotheses relating each of these possible patterns to genetic divergence in the Sl...
Poster
Full-text available
Paedomorphosis is rare in the Eurycea bislineata species complex, and documented cases are of individuals of similar clutch (25+ eggs) and body (35+ mm SVL) sizes as metamorphosed adults. Two unusually small (~25-26 mm SVL) paedomorphic Eurycea with clutch sizes of 3 and 4 eggs, respectively, were discovered in Banks Co, Georgia. Phylogenetic analy...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being widely regarded as generalist predators, amphibians exhibit a diversity of tooth shapes and dentition patterns, which may indicate the influence of dietary specialization on the evolution of tooth morphology. Very few studies have analysed the relationship between tooth morphology and diet (i.e., prey items) in amphibians, and those e...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Competition has been hypothesized to represent a powerful force in determining the interactions between similar species. One possible result of interspecific competition is resource partitioning, which in turn may result in ecological character displacement. Character displacement is a pattern in which two species with overlapping ecologi...
Conference Paper
Two modes of speciation have been hypothesized to produce a parapatric pattern of closely related species. Presumably the most common mechanism is allopatric speciation, in which subsets of a parental species become geographically isolated and subsequently diverge into separate evolutionary lineages. Secondary contact may produce a variety of resul...
Article
Full-text available
The isolation and identification of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a non-invasive and efficient method for the detection of rare and secretive aquatic wildlife, and it is being widely integrated into inventory and monitoring efforts. The Patch-Nosed Salamander (Urspelerpes brucei) is a tiny, recently discovered species of plethodontid salamander k...
Article
Full-text available
Although knowledge of the existence of cryptic species dates back hundreds of years, the true extent of cryptic diversity was not discernible until the development of modern molecular techniques. Both homoplasy and morphological conservatism-patterns which result in cryptic taxa-Are rampant within the Plethodontidae, the largest salamander family a...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial salamanders of the family Plethodontidae are common predators of invertebrates in deciduous forest communities of eastern North America. While normally residing and foraging in forest-floor microhabitats, many species facultatively climb vegetation. Different hypotheses have been proffered to explain this behaviour including optimal-for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The advent of modern molecular techniques has enabled the discovery of unimagined genetic diversity within what were believed to represent widespread, largely homogeneous species. While early work depended on genetic distances determined by the analysis of allozymes, researchers now rely heavily on gene sequences because of their ability to detect...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of previously unsuspected levels of genetic variation, particularly within taxa characterized by morphological conservatism and/or rampant homoplasy. The lungless-salamander family Plethodontidae is characterized by both, and molecular-based investigations of phylogeography hav...
Conference Paper
Identifying unique genetic lineages and the environmental conditions under which they exist are important concerns of conservation genetics. Plethodon wehrlei and its purported sister species P. punctatus have populations of conservation concern, particularly the latter species, which is widely recognized as a species at risk. Although these two ta...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Identifying unique genetic lineages and the environmental conditions under which they exist are important concerns of conservation genetics. Plethodon wehrlei and its purported sister species P. punctatus have populations of conservation concern, particularly the latter species, which is widely recognized as a species at risk. Although th...
Article
Full-text available
Desmognathus quadramaculatus and D. folkertsi are cryptic salamander species that occur sympatrically across the entire range of the latter species. However, the larval form of D. folkertsi has never been formally described, and studies of salamander larval communities within its range require the ability to distinguish it from its cryptic relative...
Article
Full-text available
The Woodland Salamander genus Plethodon Tschudi, 1838, consists of terrestrial lungless salamanders, has been cited as an exemplar of a lineage characterized by niche conservatism. This conclusion has contributed to broader hypotheses dealing with the role of niche conservatism in speciation and the maintenance of species diversity. We re-evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
The competition–predation hypothesis has been widely used for many years to explain the segregation along moisture gradients by species of dusky salamanders (genus Desmognathus) along Appalachian streams. According to this idea, all species originally favored aquatic sites, and large, aggressive species displaced smaller ones to more terrestrial ha...
Article
Full-text available
Plethodontid salamanders in general and the genus Desmognathus in particular exhibit extreme morphological conservatism and rampant homoplasy so that cryptic lineages are common. In spite of this, multivariate morphometric analysis has proven a useful tool in detecting subtle morphological differences among cryptic forms. We used this technique to...
Conference Paper
Twilight zones of caves represent thermal ecotones, creating a moderately variable buffer between highly variable surface temperatures and stable temperatures deep within caves. We seasonally monitored salamander activity within the twilight zones of five caves in northwestern Georgia from 2000 to 2012. Average cave temperatures taken in the twilig...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Caves are stable environments relative to the surface in available light and energy as well as temperature. However, the twilight zones represent ecological ecotones that are more stable than the surface but more variable than deep within cave systems. Trogloxogenic species of salamanders often use cool, moist environments of twilight zon...
Article
Full-text available
The competition–predation hypothesis has been widely used for many years to explain the segregation along moisture gradients by species of dusky salamanders (genus Desmognathus) along Appalachian streams. According to this idea, all species originally favored aquatic sites, and large, aggressive species displaced smaller ones to more terrestrial ha...
Article
Full-text available
Plethodontid salamanders in general and the genus Desmognathus in particular exhibit extreme morphological conservatism and rampant homoplasy so that cryptic lineages are common. In spite of this, multivariate morphometric analysis has proven a useful tool in detecting subtle morphological differences among cryptic forms. We used this technique to...
Conference Paper
Biodiversity hotspots are regions characterized by significant levels of both species richness and endemism. The Southern Appalachian Mountains represent a hotspot for a number of both aquatic and terrestrial taxa. The region is particularly well known for its diversity of salamanders because of the high number of lungless salamanders of the family...
Article
Full-text available
Largely using previously published data, we analyzed geographic variation in adult body size of terrestrial salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosus complex. Maximum body size of adult males is determined by size at maturity. In turn, size at maturity is determined by a negative relationship with environmental temperature. Moreover, both age at matu...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the possible role of environmental variables in determining body size within a complex of salamander species (Desmognathus quadramaculatus). We analyzed data generated from life-history studies on populations from throughout the range of this species complex. We incorporated an alternative-hypothesis framework (sensu Platt) to deter...
Article
Full-text available
To understand patterns of biodiversity and whether populations and species are in decline, the detection and description of cryptic biodiversity are essential. Salamanders are of particular conservation interest because they potentially harbor many undescribed species due to morphological conservatism. The dusky salamanders, genus Desmognathus, are...
Article
Full-text available
Using previously preserved material, a minimal number of sacrificed specimens, unharmed live individuals, and field observations, we studied the life history and habitat of the Pigeon Mountain salamander (Plethodon petraeus). Individuals of this species are patchily distributed among various habitats including rock outcrops and cave entrances. They...
Article
Full-text available
Declines in amphibian species have become a worldwide concern. This concern is heightened by predicted global climatic changes that may result in shifts in current patterns of local precipitation. Because of the potential dependence of successful breeding by amphibians on rainfall patterns, we tested the relationship between breeding by the rare go...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the use of six caves by metamorphosed plethodontid salamanders from 2000–2005 in the Cumberland Plateau of northwestern Georgia. Nine species were observed, the most abundant being, in descending order, Eurycea lucifuga, Plethodon glutinosus, P. petraeus, and E. longicauda. Eurycea lucifuga and P. glutinosus were the only species observe...
Article
Full-text available
First record in the State of North Carolina and first record within the Savannah River drainage.
Article
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Courtship and mating behaviours are widely conserved throughout the scincid lizard genus Plestiodon, and ethological isolation between closely related species depends heavily on differentiating chemical cues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not subtle, as yet undetected differences are present in the mating behaviours of two s...
Article
Full-text available
An earlier collection of monthly samples of presumed Desmognathus quadramaculatus from Union County, GA, revealed the presence a previously un- known, sympatric, sibling species. This new form was recently described as D. folkertsi. In this paper, we report on the reproductive life history of this new species from data taken during (1) a 14-month p...
Article
Full-text available
Biological diversity is distributed across the planet in non-random, organised ways. At the species level, numerous environmental variables have been proposed to explain this non-random distribution with available energy and habitat heterogeneity receiving the most empirical support. With regard to genetic organisation, environmental stress and hab...
Article
Full-text available
Aggressive interference can be an important expression of competitive interactions within and among species. We studied potential interference between two similar-sized, sympatric species of woodland salamander. The Pigeon Mountain Salamander, Plethodon petraeus, occurs in habitat patches of rocky outcroppings along a restricted area on the eastern...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new species of Desmognathus from Union County, Georgia. It closely resembles D. quadramaculatus, but the two are distinguishable by adult size, body proportions, color pattern, and fixed differences at four allozyme loci. The new smaller species is currently known from two tributaries of the Nottely River and is sympatric with D. quad...
Article
Full-text available
Largely using previously published data, we analyzed geographic variation in adult body size of terrestrial salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosus complex. Maximum body size of adult males is determined by size at maturity. In turn, size at maturity is determined by a negative relationship with environmental temperature. Moreover, both age at matu...
Article
We investigated the possible role of environmental variables in determining body size within a complex of salamander species (Desmognathus quadramaculatus). We analyzed data generated from life-history studies on populations from throughout the range of this species complex. We incorporated an alternative-hypothesis framework (sensu Platt) to deter...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic analyses of contact zones between closely related taxa are critical to an understanding of reproductive isolation between species. We evaluated allelic frequencies and external morphology from one such contact zone between two members of the Eurycea bislineata complex (i.e., E. cirrigera and E. wilderae). We found that, within this zone of...
Article
Full-text available
I investigated intraspecific aggressive behavior using staged encounters of males of Plethodon serratus and P. websteri from the same geographic area in west-central Georgia. Both species were most aggressive during winter, which corresponds to courtship and surface foraging periods. Little aggression was observed during the time when they are usua...
Article
Full-text available
We studied spacing and interactive behavior in a population of Desmognathus quadramaculatus in Georgia. During 1991, 132 metamorphosed salamanders (35-109 mm SVL) were marked and released; 207 recaptures were made of 87 individuals. Mean home-range area was 1207 cm2, and mean salamander density was 1.4/ m2. Smaller salamanders (< 70 mm SVL) predomi...
Article
Full-text available
Larval development was studied in Desmognathus quadramaculatus from May 1987 through December 1988 at the southernmost extent of its natural range in Habersham County, Georgia. Large monthly samples were collected from tributaries of Nancy Town Creek, elevation approximately 300 m. Data on growth from the frequency distribution of snout-vent length...