Carlo Lamberti

Carlo Lamberti
Università degli Studi di Torino | UNITO · Department of Physics

PhD

About

484
Publications
95,542
Reads
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32,118
Citations
Introduction
PhD in solid state physics 1993, Prof. in physical chemistry @ Turin University 2006. Expert in techniques based on Synchrotron Radiation (X-ray absorption, emission spectros., X-ray scattering) and Neutrons beams (elastic, inelastic scattering) applied to materials for optoelectronic, catalysis, energy. Scientific Director of Smart Materials Center @ Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don. Authored>250 papers on ISI journals, 13 reviews, 15 book chapters, 4 books. Citations>14000:h-index 66
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - December 2016
Southern Federal University
Position
  • Scientific Director of the “Smart Materials” Center
October 1998 - present
Università degli Studi di Torino
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • In charge of the experiments at Synchrotron radiation and neutrons sources

Publications

Publications (484)
Article
The present study describes the synthesis of primary amines from long-chain fatty alcohols and ammonia using supported ruthenium catalysts over different acid supports, including a variety of zeolites with different topologies and Si/Al ratios. The morphology, acidity and location of ruthenium in the catalysts was studied in detail by combining XRD...
Article
X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is becoming an extremely popular tool for material science thanks to the development of new synchrotron radiation light sources. It provides information about charge state and local geometry around atoms of interest in operando and extreme conditions. However, in contrast to X-ray diffraction, a quant...
Article
The direct methane to methanol (DMTM) conversion is often referred to as a ‘dream reaction’ with enormous potential to alter energy sector and chemical industry. After O2-activation, Cu-exchanged zeolites form CuxOy species that activate CH4 and release it in the form of CH3OH upon interaction with H2O. Despite extensive research efforts in the las...
Article
Herein, we present Cu K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) simulations for different framework interacting Z-CuII species proposed to form as an active site after high-temperature activation in Cu-exchanged chabazite zeolites, representing promising materials for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in the presence of ammonia and dir...
Article
In this work we have applied machine learning methods (Extra Trees, Ridge Regression and Neural Networks) to predict structural parameters of the system based on its XANES spectrum. We used two ML approaches: direct one, i.e. when ML model is trained to predict the structural parameters directly from the XANES spectrum and inverse one when ML model...
Article
We present a detailed extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) characterization of the formation process of palladium nanoparticles (NPs) inside UiO-67 metal-organic framework (MOF). Starting from the initial UiO-67 structure with 10% of PdCl2bpydc moieties with grafted Pd ions replacing standard 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylate linkers, we follo...
Article
We describe the synthesis and corresponding full characterization of the set of UiO-66 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (C6H4(COOH)2, hereafter H2BDC) and 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (C10H6(COOH)2, hereafter H2NDC) mixed linkers with NDC contents of 0, 25, 50, and 100%. Their structural (powder X-ray diffraction, PXRD)...
Article
This perspective article aims to underline how cutting‐edge synchrotron radiation spectroscopies such as extended X‐ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), X‐ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), high resolution fluorescence detected (HRFD) XANES, X‐ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X‐ray scattering (RIXS) have played a key...
Article
The new Ce(III) based metal-organic framework Ce2(NDC)3(DMF)2, containing the simple ditopic linker napthalenedicarboxylate (NDC²⁻), has been synthesized under solvothermal reaction conditions with high purity and yield. Its crystal structure was determined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) techniques and further confirmed by Ce K-edge...
Article
Palladium-based catalysts are widely applied for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in acetylene/ethylene mixtures. Under reaction conditions, palladium hydride or carbide phases can be formed, which change the catalytic properties of material. In the current work, we focus on the process of carbide phase formation in supported palladium nano...
Article
Ab initio simulations of the pre-edge XAS spectra and other related resonance spectroscopies require taking into account 3d-4p hybridization on the 3d metal site. While the hybridization Hamiltonian could be parameterized on the basis of the symmetry of the system we introduce instead a set of 4p orbitals directly within the local Hamiltonian of th...
Article
We report a careful investigation of a selective phase formation in the zirconium – terephthalic acid system during the solvothermal synthesis, which could result in UiO-66 (Zr6O6(OH)4(BDC)6) or MIL-140A (ZrO(BDC))...
Article
In the last decade the appearance of progressively more sophisticated codes, together with the increased computational capabilities, has made XANES a spectroscopic technique able to quantitatively confirm (or discard) a structural model, thus becoming a new fundamental diagnostic tool in catalysis, where the active species are often diluted metal c...
Article
Cu‐exchanged zeolites with the Ferrierite topology were investigated in the direct CH4 to CH3OH conversion. Samples with a systematic compositional variation in terms of Na/Al and Cu/Al ratios where synthesized by liquid ion exchange. The presence of Na is observed to be beneficial for the Cu exchange and thereby higher Cu loadings were achieved. T...
Article
We have developed and tested cell for laboratory operando diagnostics of Li-ion cathode materials. Local atomic and electronic structure of LiFe1-xMnxPO4 olivine cathode was studied by means of Fe and Mn K-edges XAS and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Analysis of XAS data allows us to follow the structural and oxidation state changes occurring during the c...
Article
Formation of gold nanoparticles (NPs) from the mixture containing NaAuCl4 as a precursor, octadecene as a solvent and oleylamine as a reducing agent was studied in situ by means of optical and X-ray spectroscopies. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed the presence of initial aggregates of 500 nm average size which split into nanoparticles of abo...
Article
Although X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has become an indispensable tool in characterization of solid-state materials, it is less of a staple in molecular chemistry of niobium. Scattering X-ray techniques remain relatively unexplored for the systematic study of molecular niobium compounds. Here, we use XAS to probe the niobium environment in c...
Article
The direct conversion of methane to methanol (MTM) is a reaction which has the potential to disrupt great part of the synthesis gas derived chemical industry. However, despite many decades of research, active enough catalysts and suitable processes for industrial application are still not available. Recently, several copper-exchanged zeolites have...
Article
A novel thorium (IV) MOF, Th(2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate)2, has been synthesized via solvothermal reaction of thorium nitrate and 2,6-naphtalendicarboxilyc acid. This compound shows a new structural arrangement with an interesting to-pology and an excellent thermal resistance, as the framework is stable in air up to 450 °C. Most notably this MOF, c...
Article
The bimetallic Zn/Co-ZIF MOFs with different Zn:Co ratio were produced by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. The morphological, structural and electronic properties of the obtained materials were probed with different experimental techniques (XRD, TEM, TGA, BET, UV-Vis, IR, Co and Zn K-edge XANES). The result of the overall characterization...
Article
The bimetallic Zn/Co-ZIF MOFs with different Zn:Co ratio were produced by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. The morphological, structural and electronic properties of the obtained materials were probed with different experimental techniques (XRD, TEM, TGA, BET, UV-Vis, IR, Co and Zn K-edge XANES). The result of the overall characterization...
Article
We review the structural chemistry and reactivity of copper-exchanged molecular sieves with chabazite (CHA) topology, as an industrially applied catalyst in ammonia mediated reduction of harmful nitrogen oxides (NH 3 -SCR) and as a general model system for red-ox active materials (also the recent results in the direct conversion of methane to metha...
Article
We report a two-step room temperature protocol for functionalization of copper-based metal–organic framework MOF-199, also known as HKUST-1, with gold nanoparticles. The resulted material is characterized with XRD, TEM, BET, UV–Vis and FTIR techniques building up a complete picture of its structural, electronic and vibrational properties. We also f...
Article
After a short introduction highlighting the potentialities of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and the power of X-ray absorption spectroscopies (XAS), a list of selected examples follows. The first part of this review provides the basic concepts that are behind the most used XAS techniques: Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray...
Article
In recent years synchrotron x-ray microprobes and nanoprobes have emerged as key characterization tools with a remarkable impact for different scientific fields including solid-state, applied, high-pressure, and nuclear physics, chemistry, catalysis, biology, and cultural heritage. This review provides a comparison of the different probes available...
Article
The behaviour of a Pd(OAc)2/P4VP catalyst submitted to different pre-treatments (pre-reduced, pre-oxidised and un-treated) during the aerobic oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone in the gas phase has been investigated. Synchronous, time-resolved, SAXS/XAS/MS techniques coupled with operando DRIFT spectroscopy (which gave information on the destiny of...
Article
Two series of Zn-ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by ion exchanging two commercial zeolites with different Si/Al ratios (40 and 15) with increasing Zn loadings. The nature of the Zn sites in the zeolite was studied by spectroscopy using laboratory and synchrotron techniques. All the evidences suggest that catalytic activity is associated with [Zn(H2O)...
Article
Hydrogen Peroxide to Propylene Oxide (HPPO) reaction is an attractive process exploiting Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1) as catalyst in combination with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent. Beyond the industrial interest, TS-1 represents one of the most widely characterized catalyst due to its unique properties. However, a unified description...
Article
A set of Sm-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (FexOy NPs) of different size was synthesized by means of microware-assisted methods. Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed FexOy NPs with inverse spinel structure and high number of defects which are typical for small NPs. Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy...
Article
Full-text available
The local atomic structure in bimetallic Co/Zn zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) was studied using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The experimental Co K-edge and Zn K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectra of Zn1-xCoxC8H10N4 samples (x = 0.05, 0.25, 0.75) synthesized by micro...
Article
The presence of a core/shell behavior in Pd nanoparticles (NPs) during the formation of the metal- hydride phase has recently been highlighted combining X-ray absorption and scattering experiments [J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 18202]. In this work, we focus on formation of the carbide phase in the bulk region and on the surface of supported palladiu...
Article
Functionalization of metal-organic frameworks with metal nanoparticles (NPs) is a promising way for producing advanced materials for catalytic applications. We present synthesis and in situ characterization of palladium NPs encapsulated inside functionalized UiO-67 metal-organic framework. The initial structure was synthesized with 10% of PdCl2bpyd...
Article
Extreme toxicity, corrosiveness, and volatility pose serious challenges for the safe storage and transportation of elemental chlorine and bromine, which play critical roles in the chemical industry. Solid materials capable of forming stable nonvolatile compounds upon reaction with elemental halogens may partially mitigate these challenges by allowi...
Article
Formation of palladium hydride and carbide phases in palladium-based catalysts is a critical process which changes the catalytic performance and selectivity of the catalysts in important industrial reactions, such as selective hydrogenation of alkynes or alkadienes. We present a comprehensive study of a 5 wt.% carbon supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs...
Article
We investigate the microscopic mechanism responsible for the change of macroscopic electrical properties of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ high-temperature superconductor induced by intense synchrotron hard x-ray beams. The possible effects of secondary electrons on the oxygen content via the knock-on interaction are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The ch...
Article
We looked at the active hydrogen species in a highly dispersed and very homogeneous 5wt% Pt/C industrial catalyst (Pt particle mean diameter of 2.0 ± 0.5 nm) for hydrogenation reactions, by coupling H2 adsorption measurements with Inelatic Neutron Scattering (INS). Taking advantage of the enormous progresses undergone by the INS instruments, we suc...
Chapter
The first part of this chapter provides a simple, but general, description on the physical phenomena that are behind the interaction of probe beams (photons, electrons, or neutrons) with condensed matter. The differences in penetration depth, de Broglie wavelength, and requested sample environment for the three kinds of beams are stressed. The diff...
Article
Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1), because of its crystalline structure and its well-defined Ti sites, represents the prototype of a single site catalyst. According to this fundamental aspect and to the relevant role of TS-1 as selective catalyst in important industrial partial oxidation reactions, TS-1 has been widely characterized through both experim...
Article
Substituting metals for either aluminum or phosphorus in crystalline, microporous aluminophosphates creates Brønsted acid sites, which are well known to catalyze several key reactions, including the methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. In this work, we synthesized a series of metal-substituted aluminophosphates with AFI topology that differed p...
Article
Full-text available
X-ray nanofabrication has so far been usually limited to mask methods involving photoresist impression and subsequent etching. Herein we show that an innovative maskless X-ray nanopatterning approach allows writing electrical devices with nanometer feature size. In particular we fabricated a Josephson device on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) supercond...
Article
Partial substitution of ZnII by MnII in Zn4O(terephthalate)3 (MOF-5) leads to a distorted all-oxygen ligand field supporting a single MnII site, whose structure was confirmed by Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The MnII ion at the MOF-5 node engages in redox chemistry with a variety of oxidants. With tBuSO2PhIO, it produces a putative MnIV-...
Article
Metal-organic organic frameworks of general composition [M6(OH)4(O)4(PDC)6-x(Cl)2x(H2O)2x] with M = Zr, Ce, Hf, PDC2- = 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate and 0 < x < 2 were obtained under reflux using acetic acid as the solvent. Rietveld refinements carried out fixing the occupancy of the linker molecules according to the results of the thermogravimetric m...
Article
The thermal decomposition of manganese borohydride Mn(BH4)2 was studied by means of synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and theoretical density functional (DFT) modeling aiming to elucidate changes of the local atomic structure upon hydrogen desorption and to determine possible decomposition reacti...
Article
The introduction of Ce4+ as a structural cation has been shown to be a promising route to redox active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, the mechanism by which these MOFs act as redox catalysts remains unclear. Herein, we present a detailed study of the active site in [Ce6O4(OH)4]-based MOFs such as Ce-UiO-66, involved in the aerobic oxidat...
Article
We used Ni K-edge resonant-valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (RVtC-XES, also referred to as direct RIXS), an element-selective bulk-sensitive synchrotron-based technique, to investigate the electronic structure of the CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) upon molecular adsorption of significant molecular probes: H2O, CO, H2S, and NO. W...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce MOFs as the new class of crystalline porous materials of remarkable potentialities. We underline the flexibility in the realization of different MOFs and the fact that they are ideal materials for performing X-ray absorption experiments at the metal K or L3 edges in transmission mode. A selection of relevant results ap...
Chapter
Oxide materials find widespread application in industry, for example as semiconductor, solar cell, catalyst, and sensor. New materials and applications continue to be reported, which is a main driver for technological development and slowly makes our society more sustainable. The function of these materials strongly depends on their structure, whic...
Article
Cu-exchanged zeolites possess active sites able to cleave the C−H bond of methane at temperatures ≤200 °C, enabling its selective partial oxidation to methanol. Herein we explore this process over Cu-SSZ-13 materials. We combine activity tests and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to thoroughly investigate the influence of reaction parameters and...
Article
Full-text available
An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the UiO-67 Pt functionalized metal organic frameworks (MOFs) demonstrates that in proper conditions, at least two types of catalytically active sites can be formed in the cavities of the MOF: isolated Pt-complexes and Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). Both pre-made linker synthesis (PMLS) and post-synthesis functi...
Article
Operando sensitive spectroscopic techniques were employed for investigating the changes in the molecular structure of the Cr sites in the CrVI/SiO2 Phillips catalyst during ethylene polymerization. Practically, the most arduous barrier to be overcome was the separation of the chromates reduction carried by ethylene from the subsequent polymerizatio...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we investigated in details the effects of nitric acid on the surface chemistry of two carbons, activated by steam and by phosphoric acid, meant to identify the nature and the concentration of the oxidized surface species. To this aim, the oxidized carbons were characterized by means of a large number of complementary techniques, includ...
Article
A zirconium metal organic framework with UiO-66 topology was synthesized using 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid linker (UiO-66-NDC). From synchrotron XRPD we found that the naphthalene rings of the NDC linker is out of (a,c)-plane equilibrium by 30 °, similar to the situation found by single crystal XRD for the benzene rings in UiO-67 [Cryst. Growt...
Article
Full-text available
The small pore Cu-CHA zeolite is attracting increasing attention as a versatile platform to design novel single-site catalysts for deNO x applications and for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. Understanding at the atomic scale how the catalyst composition influences the Cu-species formed during thermal activation is a key step to unvei...
Article
Full-text available
CO2 hydrogenation was carried out over Pt-containing UiO-67 Zr-MOFs at T = 220–280 °C and ambient pressure, with H2/CO2 = 0.2–9 and contact times, τ = 0.004–0.01 gcat×min×ml−1. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, FESEM, TEM and HRTEM, dissolution-NMR, CO chemisorption, IR spectroscopy and TGA. A positive correlation was observed...
Article
Using quasi-simultaneous in situ PXRD and XANES we reveal the direct correlation between the oxidation state of Cu ions in the commercially relevant deNOx NH3-SCR zeolite catalyst Cu-CHA and the Cu ion migration in the zeolitic pores during catalytic activation experiments. A comparison with recent literature further reveals the high sensitivity of...
Article
Using quasi-simultaneous in situ PXRD and XANES we reveal the direct correlation between the oxidation state of Cu ions in the commercially relevant deNOx NH3-SCR zeolite catalyst Cu-CHA and the Cu ion migration in the zeolitic pores during catalytic activation experiments. A comparison with recent literature further reveals the high sensitivity of...
Chapter
Characterization of catalysts by X-ray spectroscopy is very appealing because X-rays have a large penetration depth, which may traverse through a catalytic reactor, thus enabling in situ and operando measurements by placing a reactor holding the catalyst in the X-ray beam. X-ray spectroscopy can be measured in absorption and emission modes, and are...
Article
We report an in situ, temperature and H2 pressure-dependent, characterization of (2.6  0.4) nm palladium nanoparticles supported on active carbon during the process of hydride phase formation. For the first time the core-shell structure is highlighted in the single-component particles on the basis of a different atomic structure and electronic con...
Article
The exceptional thermal and chemical stability of the UiO-66, -67 and -68 classes of isostructural MOFs [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 13850] makes them ideal materials for functionalization purposes aimed at introducing active centres for potential application in heterogeneous catalysis. We previously demonstrated that a small fraction (up to 10%)...
Conference Paper
In this study Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts have been investigated for the partial methane oxidation to methanol. The parameters involved in the three step stoichiometric process were thoroughly investigated with respect to methanol yield. Operando X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Cu K-Edge was utilized to follow the Cu speciation during the process.
Article
In this paper we present, for the first time, a simple hydrothermal recipe for the synthesis of ZIF-8 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) with a large specific surface area (1340 m²/g by BET). An important feature of the method is that the product forms in aqueous medium under standard hydrothermal conditions without DMF and great excess of linker with t...
Article
The identification and quantification of defects is undoubtedly a thorough challenge in the characterization of “defect engineered” metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). UiO-66, known for its exceptional stability and defect tolerance, has been a popular target for defect engineering studies. Herein, we show that synthesising UiO-66 in the presence of a...