Carla Millar

Carla Millar
University of Twente | UT · Netherlands Institute for Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship NIKOS

BSc MA PhD

About

114
Publications
66,221
Reads
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1,441
Citations
Citations since 2017
8 Research Items
813 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
January 2004 - present
University of Twente
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor, International Marketing & Management
January 2003 - present
Ashridge Business School
Position
  • Fellow
September 1999 - January 2004
TSM Business School
Position
  • Dean and CEO
Description
  • Executive Education - open and in-company programmes, MBAs

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
This paper introduces an innovative social process model addressing population-wide measures of voter preferences that was tested on data from the 2016 US presidential election. Population-wide, “macroscopic” parameters are needed when privacy, ethics or regulatory constraints block “big data” techniques (e.g., in political contexts to counter “mic...
Article
This conceptual research presents a new stochastic model of the dynamics of state-to-state transitions in social systems, the Zhukov–Khvatova model. Employing a mathematical approach based on percolation theory the model caters for random changes, system memory and self-organisation. Curves representing the approach of the system to the percolation...
Article
Purpose Leader-centred teaching has often taken as normal a cyclical pattern of business, which Marques (2014) argues is no longer the appropriate model. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current leadership curriculum paradigm and the case for an alternative pedagogy which better caters for the messy reality – without recurrent patterns...
Article
Full-text available
Our Call for Papers focused on breaking established patterns and models and showcasing management innovation in a world in which Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity (VUCA) reign. VUCA is both an outcome of disruptive innovation and a driver of it; and frequently VUCA is used as an excuse to avoid planning and action. While research h...
Article
Full-text available
Carla C.J.M. Millar, Kai Peters and Hartley Millar (2018) Culture, the missing link in value creation and governance in knowledge-intensive institutions? In: Value Creation in Knowledge Intensive Institutions: Priorities for Governance and Public Affairs, Special Issue of the Journal of Public Affairs https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.170 Abstract Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This exploratory research is focused on the concept of ‘Svyazi’, defined as people’s personal private networks, and the importance of these in the Russia of today. The goals of the paper are to unveil the essence and the role of Svyazi as networks, to prove their distinction from corruption and Blat (personal networks which help to obtain certain p...
Article
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Over the past few years, the concept of ‘disruption’ has become more and more popular. We focus on 1. the concept and terminology of disruption in relation to technology and innovation, including how to understand the level of disruption in specific instances 2. how disruptive technology diffuses from early leading-edge innovation through to wides...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to further research on leadership and knowledge management through formal knowledge strategies in knowledge-intensive organizations (KIOs), and analyse knowledge management challenges and approaches within KIOs, especially tacit knowledge. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on conceptual and literature resear...
Chapter
This paper examines recent changes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), and in particular how these changes affect the consumer. The changes might make it possible at last to embark on real marketing in CEE, but only if we remain well aware of what we are doing. The paper analyses a number of interrelated issues, and focuses on the factors which ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge intensive services (KIS) are defined as services where ‘knowledge is the main production factor and the good they offer’ (European Commission, 2012). Leadership and management are critical challenges in such organisations and structures, processes and practices have evolved to meet the distinctive needs of the various areas of activity. T...
Conference Paper
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The objective of this Special Issue is to further insights into values, processes, functions and governance in knowledge organisations such as universities, other centres of research and knowledge intensive institutions, as well as to draw implications from research in Knowledge intensive institutions in general for the university sector. We welcom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This Special Issue covers the subject of Creativity and innovation as sources of value creation which are typical of knowledge-intensive services (KIS). KIS however rarely examine their own ways of working. Yet, increasingly, people’s knowledge, experience and creativity form the backbone of the organisation’s success; optimising the use of their k...
Article
This paper analyses demographic and organisational trends associated with an ageing workforce and introduces the articles in the special issue of Technological Forecasting and Social Change on Ageing2Agility: Multi-stakeholder Technological Forecasting for the Multi-generational Challenges in the Organisation. It is argued that the impact of ageing...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of the Special Issue's field of research, give the structure of the Special Issue and introduce the papers in the collection, including management issues. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the Call for Papers and further research and a presentation of papers in the Special Issue p...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges, worldwide of managing an aging workforce. The paper offers suggestions for public policy and for individual organizational approaches to developing, managing and motivating an aging workforce. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews in depth international literature, pub...
Article
In this article, public policy is put into a multi-stakeholder rather than adversarial perspective: we argue that there is a role for multi-stakeholder involvement in both the development and implementation of public policy; these are separate processes that can involve different patterns of stakeholder involvement (stakeholders have different skil...
Article
Conceptual The article addresses the issue of whether governance bundles which include both formal and informal governance mechanisms should be classified and compared on the basis of national identity. The governance bundle affecting each firm has formal components which are frequently based on national legislation, but also includes social and mo...
Article
‘Public Affairs’ is not a term most people in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) will recognise and associate with interest representation and lobbying as ways of linking business, society and government. The term may be seen as a euphemism for corruption-inspired ‘lobbying’, an artificial and confusing umbrella term or a public relations creation. I...
Article
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The sustainability challenge: can public affairs influence the necessary change? This is a perfect time for the topic of this Special Issue, the interplay of public affairs and sustainabil-ity, to be discussed and analysed in the Journal of Public Affairs. Public affairs is growing in maturity as a subject and so is sustainability, both in the aca-...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to provide an introduction to the special issue on the theme of sustainability and the need for change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper gives an overview of sustainability and its managerial and policy dilemmas for organizations. It also outlines the topics covered in the papers in the special issue. Findings – T...
Article
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This article analyses MNCs, worker identity and the ethical vulnerability caused by over-reliance on expatriate managers and under-reliance on local managers, who are often undervalued. It is argued that MNCs not only need but also have an obligation to assess local managers’ knowledge and contributions as having not only operational and market val...
Article
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This paper reviews a number of huge challenges to ethical leadership in the twenty-first century and concludes that the need for global ethical leadership is not merely a desirable option, but rather – and quite literally – a matter of survival. The crises of the recent past reveal huge, and in some cases criminal, failures of both ethics and leade...
Article
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This paper is about the innovative future of service industries, with a focus on knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS). The authors discuss the unique characteristics of service industries, the effects of internet technology and standardization in the realm of globalization and the future global knowledge based society. The paper analyses th...
Chapter
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This book is inspired by the observation of both practitioners and academics that, somehow, as the millennium has turned, we seem to have ventured onto a slippery slope where one organisational scandal erupts after another. Most people are aware of Enron in the United States and Northern Rock in the United Kingdom, and the accounting scandals that...
Chapter
In this final chapter, we look at the skills, characteristics and competences an ethical leader is likely to need in the future. We also discuss the particular ethical challenge of leading in a global and an increasingly knowledge-based world. Finally, we reflect on future directions in leadership ethics.
Article
The purpose of this article is to advance theory on the concept of increasing returns by reviewing different strands of literature (Arthur, 1994; Liebowitz and Margolis, 1990; 1994; David, 1990) and to develop the concept of a 'critical mass' strategy which incorporates both technological effects and important social network and interaction effects...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a typology of governance structures (three were identified) that offers an integrated approach to understanding knowledge as a global resource and facilitates research on the growing competition for knowledge resources between multinational corporations (MNCs) from developing and developed...
Article
Full-text available
Networks and the World Wide Web seem to provide an answer to efficiently creating and disseminating knowledge resources. Knowledge, however, is ambiguous in character, and contains both explicit (information) and tacit dimensions – the latter being difficult to value as well as to transfer. Participant identity, commitment and behaviour within the...
Article
This paper examines the role of guanxi in the emergence of the Chinese institutional environment, institutional structure and business environment. In China, the institutional environment, institutional structure and resulting business environment are rapidly evolving and are not yet stable or predictable. Under these circumstances, guanxi is impor...
Article
Full-text available
An imbalance exists in almost any type of knowledge and technology transfer due to the information asymmetry of the relationship. However, this is especially the case for reverse technology and knowledge transfer which is epitomised for us by "transfers from an MNC's subsidiary to its headquarters". This paper builds on the few pieces of research i...
Article
Full-text available
Call for Papers Special Issue Journal of Business Ethics Global Leadership, Global Ethics? : In Search of the Ethical Leadership Compass Guest Editors: Dr Marc Jones and Prof. Carla Millar DEADLINE: June 1, 2009 Call for papers: The topics of business ethics, leadership and corporate social responsibility are increasingly prominent in discussions a...
Article
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Using data from 188 female full professors from all 14 Dutch universities this study examines whether skewed sex ratios in the environment and the absence of a women-friendly environment are related to their career path experiences and to their perception of the general ease of women’s obtaining a professorship. Results from multi-level analyses sh...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the concept of worker identity and the liability of foreignness caused by over‐reliance on expatriate managers and under‐reliance on local managers, and explores the implications for foreign enterprises and global organizational change. Design/methodology/approach – The authors posit that being a successful glo...
Article
With perfect information an economically rational market is expected. In the ICT age the introduction of a shopping/price comparison facility (Froogle) by a company with a search reputation as pre-eminent as Google leads to the expectation that it will allow comparison of products in terms not only of price but also of other aspects to an extent th...
Article
In de kenniseconomie van de 21 e eeuw neemt de kennisintensieve sector en daarmee stille kennis2 X De term 'tacit knowledge' kan misschien het beste vertaald worden met 'het stille weten', of 'het stille kennen', maar ook dit dekt het Engelse begrip toch nog onvolmaakt. De vertaling door 'stille kennis' lijkt directer en implicieter en zal normalit...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop further the concept of increasing returns in technology industries, including social and critical mass factors. The paper applies this framework to the twenty‐first century with the example of the three‐way competition among Nokia, Microsoft and Linux for the global mobile software standards competi...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to present an approach to the knowledge‐based economy that focuses on the developmental synergies between technology (especially information and communication technologies), culture and place (hub) as expressed in the innovative milieu of the inner city. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on research in city and u...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is threefold: to contribute to the increasing global debate in organization theory about corporate ethics; to focus on the importance of measurement costs and its influence on organizational change in stakeholder systems; and to provide a framework for overcoming the inherent ambiguity and increased measurement cos...
Article
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This theoretical paper is about global sourcing partnerships for emerging Multinational Corporations (MNCs), such as Eastern European MNCs and the difficulties they face in accessing local knowledge networks in developed economies, a key issue given the continuing enlargement of the European Union with the addition of new members. Given the sociall...
Article
Although Taiwan has become the world's third largestproducer of information technologies, researchers have yet to explore fully thesource of its business success. The focus of this study is the role of publicpolicy and the state in East Asian business systems and in Taiwan inparticular. First, Taiwan is analyzed in the context of research on capita...
Book
This book looks at the complexity of knowledge. It takes into account diverse disciplines such as economics, social sciences, international business, and organization studies. The authors focus on knowledge internationally from a macro to a more micro level, from the state to households, from knowledge production to knowledge consumption, lifting t...
Article
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Throughout the world the creation of successful technology districts has become a major issue for public policy makers. This paper analyses the potential role of the state in entrepreneurship and the creation of technology districts, and outlines implications for China's social market economy. We identify three types of technology districts: (1) ma...
Article
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ABSTRACT. This paper posits that differences in corporate governance structure partly result from differences in institutional arrangements linked to business systems. We developed a new international triad of business systems: the Anglo-American, the Communitarian and the Emerging system, building on the frameworks of Choi et al. (British Academy...
Article
Purpose – To reframe analysis of the open source software (OSS) phenomenon from an AQAL perspective Design/methodology/approach – The approach is a review of current research thinking and application of the AQAL framework to suggest resolution of polarizations. Findings – The authors find that AQAL is valuable as an integrating framework allowing...
Chapter
This chapter seeks to draw a parallel between organizations and households in the areas of knowledge and value creation. We introduce comparisons between firms and households because factors such as the nature of competition, collaboration, community and sharing within households provide examples of effective knowledge and value creation and exchan...
Chapter
Urban areas such as major cities are crucial in the development and utilization of knowledge as a resource. Many talented knowledge workers in the consulting, investment-banking, law and science and technology industries are attracted to certain global cities, not only because of the attractive work environment but also their attractive social amen...
Chapter
The State has been seen as crucial for the phenomenal economic success of capitalism in Asian countries such as Korea and Taiwan (Amsden, 1989; 2001; Wade, 1990). Entrepreneurship on the other hand has been seen to flourish in countries in which free markets operate, and where the state’s role has been minor, such as in Hong Kong (Redding, 1990).
Chapter
Our interest in devoting a chapter to knowledge exchange and the ethical issues that come to the fore stems from the fact that a growing body of literature in business ethics considers the concept of exchange as central in understanding business ethics.
Chapter
This chapter combines looking at complexity with a consideration of value creation in knowledge-based industries. Our main conjecture is that indices (Jervis, 1985), or external truthful signals, can be used by the market to certify and rank the value of an actor’s product or services. Such path-dependent effects can lead to winner-take-all (Frank...
Chapter
Already in 1945 Hayek pointed out that it was difficult and complex to analyse knowledge as a resource due to its intangibility and randomness: the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form, but solely as the dispersed hits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge…a problem...
Chapter
An organization’s ability to create and exchange knowledge within a network of social and technological relationships has become crucial in today’s international business world. The ability to measure and value such knowledge assets has become important because of the role they have as fundamental drivers of global success. This is especially true...
Article
Full-text available
Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge “subnetworks” or smaller groupings within larger networks can become key repositories of knowledge. The conce...
Book
The world and humanity are changing at an unprecedented rate. This book explores the processess that underlie this changing but coherent canvas. What is fuelling them? What is driving them? Can we control them? Mankind has always found ways to order life so as to reduce uncertainty and has sought to enhance the wellbeing of individuals, peoples and...
Book
“Emergent Globalization” Choi, J. C., Hilton, B. J. and Millar, C. Palgrave MacMillan, May 2004
Chapter
In emergent contexts, opportunity and crisis, co-operation and competition, and order and disorder, are three different perspectives on the same thing. In response to opportunities, enterprises operating in emerging industries or markets quickly abandon the previous institutional legitimacy for any new ones that might support their activities. This...
Chapter
In complex environments co-evolving emergent behaviour has a multiplicity of causes. Direct causal links between intentions, decisions and outcomes disappear. Long-term prediction is impossible.1 The inherent uncertainty in complex environments is such that what evolves is not a process for forecasting followed by informed rational action, it is a...
Chapter
Fundamental to success in today’s global market is an enterprise’s ability to create, use, exchange and exploit knowledge. The value of knowledge is inextricably intertwined with the credence of a specific and identifiable supplier and buyer. Knowledge of a supplying enterprise’s ‘identity’ is basic to evaluating its market offering. Identity is no...
Chapter
If the conjectures in Chapter 9 are sustainable, then we must expect to see Asian development as unique. Psychic if not technological distance will be maintained but perhaps also transformed by the process required to sustain necessary global information exchange. This has clear implications for any collaborations that may be envisaged within the e...
Chapter
Earlier, we noted the importance of identity to exchange, especially regarding the exchange of knowledge. Now we raise the issue of communication between identified individuals or enterprises. For communication, anonymity in exchange is not an option. Exchange requires mutual comprehension and will be more difficult when transactors are embedded in...
Chapter
At this stage we would like to distinguish between two major types of exchange that we find in knowledge-creating networks: (1) Internal trade based on formal exchange for a monetary consideration (2) Reciprocal exchange based on informality and mutual trust.
Chapter
Internationally, the structure and conduct of enterprises and social institutions varies. Associated performance varies less. This could be seen as unfortunate. Practical people, in both government and business, would like to use the form and behaviour of enterprises as a guide to best practice in their design and operation.
Chapter
Precisely because there is no global state the role of the state is an issue in our current age of global emergence. As mentioned in Chapter 2, there has always been an intense debate on the role the state can play in encouraging enterprise and development, especially where it involves international business and sources of wealth beyond the bounds...
Chapter
Before addressing the essential issue of corporate governance in the information age we will explain how the co-evolutionary dynamics of the relationship between institutions and enterprise play out. We will construct a model of the process, taking care not to confuse – as is often done – institutions with organizations. We distinguish the two and...
Chapter
Emergent systems1 face major challenges. To take advantage of the business opportunities available they need a well-ordered institutional environment; enterprise requires this. Generally they cannot provide this themselves and thus third-party intervention is required. The states in this category have nevertheless all had phenomenal economic growth...
Chapter
Increasingly value creation through enterprise is based on ‘lean thinking’.1 Each enterprise keeps ‘lean’ by situating itself in a value-generating network with others. Each enterprise concentrates on adding value for the ultimate customer. Each does this by focusing on its own area of core competencies and the role that it can play in delivering v...
Chapter
Only time will tell whether our analysis provides the right means to interpret events in the globalising business environment. But it is clear that dramatic change is already happening in the global networks now made possible by the emergent knowledge industries. New technologies, new industries and new markets will succeed existing ones. They them...
Chapter
Having set up a model to assist understanding how business systems are constructed, we now wish to explore how emergence changes them. How do business systems that are settled into a fluctuating but basically stable state achieve a revitalizing impetus that drives changes that generate massive new value added? This is emergence. What fuels the inst...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between culture and organization has often been discussed, but rarely explored directly. This paper implements a cultural values instrument taken from Hofstede together with a behavioural instrument derived from Van de Ven to matched samples of British and French managers working on the Channel Tunnel project. The results largely r...
Article
In today''s business environment, the knowledge-based society, globalisation, and information and communication technologies (ICT) have increased the role of "intangible" values of assets and resources for all industries. As a result there is an increased role for knowledge intermediaries; one of these, advertising, plays an important role in affec...
Article
The East Asian economic crisis of 1997 and the rapid recovery by 1999 has become a widely debated topic among researchers; its analysis primarily based on economic theories of financial crises and their origins. This paper sets out to show how analyses based on an institutional and organizational perspective can add insight to the problem. This vie...
Article
We review the argument for and against keeping slack during the transformation of a plan-filling organization to a profit-seeking firm. Before the demise of the command economies, organizations in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries were typified as being overstaffed, although the degree of overstaffing (slack) varied from country to count...

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