Carl Latkin

Carl Latkin
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health | JHSPH · Department of Health, Behavior and Society

Ph.D., MS

About

920
Publications
114,647
Reads
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23,531
Citations
Citations since 2017
512 Research Items
13671 Citations
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Publications

Publications (920)
Article
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Purpose Mental wellbeing and life satisfaction play an important role in the development of adolescents, yet factors potentially influencing these states have not been sufficiently studied, especially in Vietnam. This study aims to fill the research gaps by exploring the associations of the parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and resilience on...
Article
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Introduction: This study aimed to determine latent profiles from the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short Form-6 (PIUQ-SF-6) score of Vietnamese youths and adolescents, which supports the diagnosis of problematic internet use among a large sample size. Moreover, it also explored factors that affect each latent profile of the PIUQ-SF-6 score...
Article
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Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the health status and healthcare utilization factors associated with middle-aged women in the rapid urbanization context of Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a systematic random sampling technique was conducted in Hung Yen city. A systematic random sampling technique was used to s...
Article
Black sexual minority men (BSMM), including those with HIV, have disproportionate rates of syphilis infection. This study examines the associations of social network characteristics on syphilis testing, given that social network approaches are well established as effective methods to establish health-promoting social norms. We analyzed baseline dat...
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Introduction An estimated 100,306 people died from an overdose from May 2020 to April 2021. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are often the first responder to opioid overdose, and EMS encounter records can provide granular epidemiologic data on opioid overdose. This study describes the demographic, temporal, and geographic epidemiology of suspected...
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Background: Delayed childbearing has become a concern among policymakers across the world. In Vietnam, population policies have been adjusted to cope with this issue. In 2020, Decision 588/QD-TTg was ratified to encourage people to marry and give birth before the age of 30. This study reviewed recent changes in Vietnam’s population policies and ass...
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Social isolation among older adults living in the United States is a major public health problem that disproportionately affects those living below the poverty line. Though decades of epidemiological studies have provided important insights on the impact of social isolation on health, there have been limited qualitative studies on the dynamics of s...
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Social isolation is prevalent among community dwelling older adults. Low income older adults living in subsidized housing may have increased risk for social isolation. To examine resident experiences and perspectives relating to their social connections during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 older adults (62+)...
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Background Given the steady increase of emergency department (ED) visits related to opioid overdoses, this study aims to determine the design and usability of an ED-centered mHealth patient-to-peer referral prototype tool that allows patients to refer peers to comprehensive HIV/HCV and opioid misuse prevention services. Methods Two iterative focus...
Article
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Cancer led to nearly 10 million deaths in 2020, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). Consequently, both biomedical therapeutics and psychological interventions have been implemented to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease. However, the research conducted so far has only described some aspects of these interventions, w...
Article
This study explores the role of perceived HCV stigma and social networks on HCV care among people who inject drugs (PWID) of both sexes, and solely among women who inject drugs (WWID). Data were from 269 HCV positive PWID, community-recruited through street-based outreach in Baltimore, MD. We defined HCV stigma based on participants’ perceptions of...
Article
Introduction COVID-19 vaccine uptake has been a major barrier to stopping the pandemic in many countries with vaccine access. This longitudinal study examined the capability to predict vaccine uptake from data collected early in the pandemic before vaccines were available. Methods 493 US respondents completed online surveys both at baseline (March...
Article
Background: This study aimed to evaluate portable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) device as an adjunct diagnostic tool for bipolar and unipolar disorders while performing cognitive tasks. Methods: 150 participants were divided into three groups including bipolar, unipolar disorder, and healthy controls (50:50:50), matched by age, g...
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Background The abbreviated version of the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument has been widely used to assess the quality of life (QOL) of different population groups. Aims This study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the Vietnamese version of WHOQOL-BREF in evaluating the QOL of Vietnamese young adul...
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A three-armed drinking cessation trial in Vietnam found that both a brief and intensive version of an intervention effectively reduced hazardous drinking in people living with HIV. We used group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) to assess the extent to which findings may vary by latent subgroups distinguished by their unique responses to the interve...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The use of spatial methods to inform smartphone-based smoking cessation intervention delivery has been understudied. Such methods can facilitate person- and time-specific intervention delivery. OBJECTIVE This study aims to demonstrate an exploratory method of generating person-specific geofences around high-risk smoking areas for a smok...
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Background Concerning rates of psychological disorders are increasingly recognized in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the associations of different structural and functional social supports on depression, anxiety, and stress among young adults in Vietnam. Methods An online cross-sectional study was performed...
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Family discussions about climate change are a critical factor influencing children’s climate change perceptions and behaviors. Yet, there is limited research on family communication about climate change in the US. Drawing from an online longitudinal sample, 214 parents reported on their 336 children. Descriptive statistics examined engagement in fa...
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Social networks (SN) shape HIV risk behaviors and transmission. This study was performed to quantify research development, patterns, and trends in the use of SN in the field of HIV/AIDS, and used Global publications extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection database. Networks of countries, research disciplines, and most frequently used term...
Article
In addition to the pervasive anti‐Black racism faced by Black people in the United States, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) face sexual minority stigma and, among BMSM living with HIV, HIV‐related stigma. These multilevel social forces shape social networks, which are important sources of resources, support, and behavior regulation. This stud...
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Introduction Although the pathogenesis of depressive disorders is not fully elucidated, untreated adolescent depression can lead to serious sequelae such as impaired academic performance and social functioning, substance use disorders, poor self-esteem, and increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts. Literature on adolescent mental health in...
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Background There is a tremendous gap between the proportion of the population expressing concern about climate change and those engaged in climate change activism. We examined barriers to climate change activism among respondents stating climate change was an important issue to them. Methods Participants in a national online longitudinal study rep...
Article
Globally, people who inject drugs (PWID) experience some of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics. Network-based approaches represent a powerful tool for understanding and combating these epidemics; however, detailed social network studies are limited and pose analytical challenges. We collected longitudinal social (injection partners) and spatial (inj...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority men (SMM) have expressed acceptability of patient portals as tools for supporting HIV prevention behaviors, including facilitating disclosure of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV) laboratory test results. However, these studies, in which Black/African-American SMM were under-sa...
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Background: Among people who inject drugs (PWID), depression burden is high and may interfere with HIV prevention efforts. Although depression is known to affect injecting behaviors and HIV treatment, its overall impact on HIV transmission has not been quantified. Using mathematical modeling, we sought to estimate secondary HIV transmissions and i...
Article
Many children have experienced unprecedented levels of stress as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic due to school closures, strained resources, and excess morbidity and mortality. The current study examines change in children's mental health and sleep during the early months of the US pandemic and identifies risk and protective factors. In May 2020,...
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Background The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of people who respond to two or more overdoses (i.e., multiple overdose responders; MOR) compared to those who respond to zero or one, and the association between MOR status and changes in network size. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial among 199 PWUD in...
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Introduction Tetanus vaccine coverage in Vietnam has been declining in recent years due to a rapid population growth rate, shrinking budget, and inefficient resource mobilization strategy. This study examined the uptake, demand, and willingness to pay (WTP) for tetanus vaccines in Vietnamese women of reproductive age as well as determined associate...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 booster vaccination rate has declined despite the wide availability of vaccines. As COVID-19 is becoming endemic and the introduction of charges for regular booster vaccination, measurement of public acceptance and willingness to pay for regular COVID-19 boosters is ever more crucial. This study investigated the Vietnamese p...
Preprint
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Background. Sharing of syringes is the leading transmission pathway for hepatitis C (HCV) infections. The extent to which HCV can spread among people who inject drugs (PWID) is largely dependent on syringe-sharing network factors. Our study aims to better understand partnership characteristics and syringe and equipment sharing with those partners,...
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Preparedness and responses to infectious disease epidemics and pandemics require the understanding of communities' and multisectoral systems' characteristics with regards to diseases transmission and population's vulnerabilities. This study aimed to summarize measurement profiles of existing risk assessment toolkits to inform COVID-19 control at gl...
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Art therapy has been widely offered to reduce symptoms of psychological disturbance. Pooled evidence about its effectiveness in epidemic contexts, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, has not been yet established. This study reviewed the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of art therapy on children and adolescents during the COVID-...
Article
Background eHealth is increasingly becoming an indispensable part of health practice and policy-making strategies. However, the use of eHealth tools in clinical practice and the perceptions of eHealth among medical students and health care professionals in Vietnam are not well understood. Objective This study aims to investigate perceptions and pr...
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Introduction Non-fatal shooting rates vary tremendously within cities in the USA. Factors related to structural racism (both historical and contemporary) could help explain differences in non-fatal shooting rates at the neighbourhood level. Most research assessing the relationship between structural racism and firearm violence only includes one dim...
Article
Increasing vaccine utilization is critical for numerous diseases, including COVID-19, necessitating novel methods to forecast uptake. Behavioral economic methods have been developed as rapid, scalable means of identifying mechanisms of health behavior engagement. However, most research using these procedures is cross-sectional and evaluates predict...
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Background Self-care behaviors during pregnancy significantly impacts mother and children's health. This study aimed to explore the self-care behaviors and the associations of these behaviors with the psychological well-being of women during pregnancy, as well as the mediating effects of different social support with these associations. Methods A...
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Peer-driven interventions can be effective in reducing HIV injection risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). We employed a causal mediation framework to examine the mediating role of recall of intervention knowledge in the relationship between a peer-driven intervention and subsequent self-reported HIV injection-related risk behavior a...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Increased workload, complexity of conditions, and delayed supports for COVID-19 control reinforce each other to create an extra burden among Vietnamese health workers during the most severe wave of the pandemic in 2021. OBJECTIVE In this study, we assessed the psychological impact posed by COVID-19 and its associated factors on the heal...
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Plastic containers are a major source of pollution and contribute to greenhouse gases. Many plastic containers are embossed with a small symbol of three arrows forming a triangle and a number in the middle of the triangle. As part of a US online study, we assessed the meaning of this symbol. Of the 808 respondents presented with a visual image of t...
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Background This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and assess the relationship between the PHQ-9 domain and demographics and health behaviors in Vietnamese people. Materials and Methods The PHQ9 was administered to 899 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses wer...
Article
Background The opioid epidemic in the United States continues to surge, reaching record deaths from opioid and fentanyl overdoses in 2020. This study analyzes spatial and neighborhood correlates of free naloxone distribution sites as well as overdose and naloxone reversal events in Baltimore, Maryland, which has one of the highest overdose rates in...
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Purpose of Review There are three main components of peer-based approaches regardless of type: education, social support, and social norms. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine evidence in the literature among peer-based interventions and programs of components and behavioral mechanisms utilized to improve HIV care cascade outcomes. R...
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Objectives This study examines the relationship between COVID-19 disclosure stigma and COVID-19 testing hesitancy and assesses their changes between November 2020 and 2021. Study design Longitudinal cohort. Methods 355 participants completed four study waves between November 2020 to November 2021. Factor analyses and Cronbach’s alpha assessed the...
Article
Tobacco smoking undermines the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and potentially associates with other health problems. This study aimed to analyze the growth and content of research on smoking among PLWHA on Web of Science Database. Co-occurrence analysis and Jaccard's' similarity index calcula...
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Urban Black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and syphilis in the U.S. Experiences of enacted sexual minority stigma and psychological distress among these men may be associated with HIV/STI sexual and drug risk behaviors. The objective was to determine the associations between enacted sexual minority stigma, psy...
Article
Branched sexuality - in form of combinations of sexual identity, behaviour and attraction (e.g. heterosexual identity, sex with men, attraction to women) that differ from coincident combinations (e.g. gay/homosexual/same-gender-loving identity, sex with men, attraction to men) - has been observed among Black sexual minority men and may correlate wi...
Article
Background The intersecting epidemics of opioid misuse, injection drug use, and HIV/HCV have resulted in record overdose deaths and sustained high levels of HIV/HCV transmissions. Literature on social networks suggests opportunities to connect people who use drugs (PWUD) and their peers to HIV/HCV and opioid overdose prevention services. However, l...
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Injection drug use is a significant mode of HIV transmission. Social networks are potential avenues for behavior change among high-risk populations. Increasing knowledge should include a classification or taxonomy system of networks’ attributes, risks, and needs. The current study employed 232 networks comprising 232 indexes, with 464 network membe...
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Background Hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been rising in the suburban and rural USA, mainly via injection-based transmission. Injection and sexual networks are recognized as an important element in fostering and preventing risky behavior; however, the role of social support networks has received somewhat less attention. Methods Using baseline dat...
Article
Introduction Vaccinating children against COVID-19 protects children's health and can mitigate the spread of the virus to other community members. Objective The primary objective of this study was to use a socio-ecological perspective to identify multi-level factors associated with US parents’ intention to vaccinate their children. Methods This s...
Article
Background The current and future harms caused by climate change are highly distressing. Different theoretical models suggest diverse impacts of distress on behavior. We examined how psychological distress, climate change distress, and social norms may foster or impede climate change activism. Methods As part of an ongoing online longitudinal stud...
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Purposes This cross-sectional study assessed the quality of life and related factors of Vietnamese women during perimenopause in terms of vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual aspects. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study on 400 middle-aged women was conducted in Hung Yen, a delta province in Vietnam. Data about socioeconomic char...
Article
Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) have an elevated risk of fentanyl-related overdoses. This study explores fentanyl overdose concerns among PWID and the role of sex, racial minority status, and overdose prevention efforts in these concerns. Method: Data were from 498 PWID from Baltimore City, MD, recruited using street-based outreach be...
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There is a dearth of research on the intersection of incarceration and psychological distress among men who have sex with men including African American (AAMSM) and Latino MSM (LMSM), populations which bear a large burden of HIV in the U.S. Recent incarceration is an important context to examine psychological distress given the critical implication...
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People who inject drugs (PWID) are a population that disproportionately struggles with economic and mental health challenges. However, despite numerous reports of people globally experiencing new or exacerbated economic and/or mental health challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, the literature on the effect of the pandemic on PWID and their risk...
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Background: In many countries with high levels of COVID-19 vaccine access, uptake remains a major issue. We examined prospective predictors of COVID-19 vaccine uptake in a United States longitudinal study. Methods: An online longitudinal study on COVID-19 and well-being assessed vaccine hesitancy attitudes, social norms, and uptake among 444 res...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Vietnam's 2045 development plan requires thorough reforms in science and technology (S&T), which underlines the role of research-oriented universities in generating and transforming knowledge. Understanding the current research performance and productivity is important to exploit future agendas. OBJECTIVE This paper aimed to explore the...
Article
Background: Vietnam's 2045 development plan requires thorough reforms in science and technology, which underlines the role of research-oriented universities in generating and transforming knowledge. Understanding the current research performance and productivity in Vietnam is important for exploiting future agendas. Objective: This study aims to...
Article
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Depression and suicide constitute major public health problems, and their prevalence has been increasing among adolescents in the United States. More research is needed to understand the association between multilevel risk factors and depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents, particularly factors related to perceived social rank and environm...
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We developed and pilot-tested the Migrants’ Approached Self-Learning Intervention in HIV/AIDS for Tajiks (MASLIHAT). We recruited 30 Tajik labor migrants who inject drugs in Moscow as peer educators (PEs) to attend the 5-session intervention, then share what they learned with their peers. Each PE recruited two drug-injecting network members for int...
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We determined whether racial disparities in HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (MSM) may be partially explained by racial differences in the HIV transmission potential (i.e. mixing of people living with HIV and people not living with HIV or of unknown HIV serostatus) and density (i.e. sex partner concurrency) of sexual networks. Data included...
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Purpose: New COVID-19 variants pose great challenges in protecting the success of vaccination programs. Awareness of community becomes an important component to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze people's awareness of COVID-19 and identify the implications for optimal risk communication in Vietnam. Study methods and materi...
Article
Aims This study explores the effects of two evidence-based alcohol reduction counseling interventions on readiness to change, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, social support, and alcohol abstinence stigma among people with HIV (PWH) who have hazardous alcohol use in Vietnam. Methods PWH receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were screened for haz...
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Introduction: Being aware of one's HIV-positive status can help reduce unprotected sex and promote early treatment seeking. Therefore, HIV self-test (HIVST) programs may help control the HIV epidemic by case finding. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of HIVST programs on HIV case finding, time to confirmatory diagnosis and factor...
Conference Paper
Statement of Purpose A multitude of social and structural factors give rise to disparities in neighborhood violent crime rates. Research examining these factors from an intersectional perspective is limited. We investigated how two factors related to structural racism and economic isolation (redlining and racialized economic segregation) interact t...