Carl H Key

Carl H Key
United States Geological Survey | USGS · Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center

About

35
Publications
25,940
Reads
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4,078
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
1746 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Introduction
Additional affiliations
June 1993 - December 2011
United States Geological Survey
Position
  • Research Geographer
January 1981 - June 1993
National Park Service
Position
  • Research Geographer

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Identifying meaningful measures of ecological change over large areas is dependent on the quantification of robust relationships between ecological metrics and remote sensing products. Over the past several decades, ground observations of wildfire and prescribed fire severity have been acquired across hundreds of wildland fires in the United States...
Data
These data were collected between 1996 and 2018 to represent the on the ground burn severity as estimated by the Composite Burn Index (CBI). These data can be regressed against satellite estimates of burn severity (e.g. Landsat Normalized Burn Ratio) to develop regression equations.
Raw Data
These data provide on the ground estimates of burn severity as estimated by the Composite Burn Index (CBI). Data were collected between 1996 and 2018 for fires that burned during this time period. Landsat imagery was used to develop regression relationships between the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and differenced NBR (dNBR). https://www.sciencebase....
Article
For decades, wildfire studies have utilized fire occurrence as the primary data source for investigating the causes and effects of wildfire on the landscape. Fire occurrence data fall primarily into two categories: ignition points and perimeter polygons which are used to calculate a ‘burned area’ for a fire. However, understanding the relationships...
Article
For decades, wildfire studies have utilized fire occurrence as the primary data source for investigating the causes and effects of wildfire on the landscape. Fire occurrence data fall primarily into two categories: ignition points and perimeter polygons which are used to calculate a 'burned area' for a fire. However, understanding the relationships...
Article
Full-text available
It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can provide multitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to exam...
Article
Land use change, natural disturbance, and climate change directly alter ecosystem productivity and carbon stock level. The estimation of ecosystem carbon dynamics depends on the quality of land cover change data and the effectiveness of the ecosystem models that represent the vegetation growth processes and disturbance effects. We used the Integrat...
Article
Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the L...
Article
Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for...
Article
The interactions of climate change, wildland fire, and human activities make the calculation of regional ecosystem carbon balance extremely difficult. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of newly available, relatively high resolution (mostly 30- to 60-meter) fire and land cover change data to examine the effects of atmospher...
Article
Full-text available
The perception is that today's large fires are an ecological catastrophe because they burn vast areas with high intensities and severities. However, little is known of the ecological impacts of large fires on both historical and contemporary landscapes. The present paper presents a review of the current knowledge of the effects of large fires in th...
Article
Ecological definition and detection of fire severity are influenced by factors of spatial resolution and timing. Resolution determines the aggregation of effects within a sampling unit or pixel (alpha variation), hence limiting the discernible ecological responses, and controlling the spatial patchiness of responses distributed throughout a burn (b...
Article
Full-text available
________________________________________________________ Monitoring and inventory to assess the effects of wildland fire is critical for 1) documenting fire effects, 2) assessing ecosystem damage and benefit, 3) evaluating the success or failure of a burn, and 4) appraising the potential for future treatments. However, monitoring fire effects is of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of b...
Article
Full-text available
Our study compares data on burn severity collected from multi-temporal Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) with similar data from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) using the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Two AVIRIS and ETM+ data acquisitions recorded surface conditions immediately before the Hoover Fire be...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from La...
Article
We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on nilgrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golde...
Article
Full-text available
Glacier National Park served as a test site for ecosystem analyses that in- volved a suite of integrated models embedded within a geographic information system. The goal of the exercise was to provide managers with maps that could illustrate probable shifts in vegetation, net primary production (NPP), and hydrologic responses associated with two se...
Article
Full-text available
Burned forested areas have patterns of varying burn severity as a consequence of various topographic, vegetation, and meteorological factors. These patterns are detected and mapped using satellite data. Other ecological information can be abstracted from satellite data regarding rates of recovery of vegetation foliage and variation of burn severity...
Article
We conducted a detailed investigation of fire frequencies, patterns of fire spread, and the effects of fire on tree succession in the western larch – lodgepole pine (Larixoccidentalis – Pinuscontorta var. latifolia) forests west of the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana. Master fire chronologies for 1650 to the present were constr...
Article
We used 10 Telonics ST-3 platform transmitter terminals (PTT's) configured for wolves and ungulates to examine the performance of the Argos satellite telemetry system. Under near-optimal conditions, 68 percentile errors for location qualities (NQ) 1, 2, and 3 were 1,188, 903, and 361 m, respectively. Errors (r(E)) exceeded expected values for NQ =...
Article
Centaurea maculosa is an introduced species to the Pacific Northwest, and competitor with native species. This study assessed 1) the capability of spotted knapweed to invade fescue grasslands in Glacier National Park, and 2) the effects of spotted knapweed on these indigenous communities. Seed production in roadside areas was relatively high, facil...
Article
Specific temporal and spatial use patterns are valuable in determining sensitive times and areas of Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) use, allowing appropriate management or mitigation actions to be developed. The method accommodates study of one to several Bald Eagles, long-or short-term data sets, radio transmitter or visual locations, varyin...

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