Carl Hult

Carl Hult
Linnaeus University | lnu

About

26
Publications
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403
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Publications

Publications (26)
Chapter
Non-technical skills (NTS) training is an important part of frontline operator training across many high-risk domains. Within maritime education and training (MET), NTS are trained as part of Maritime Resource Management (MRM) courses. MRM represents the maritime adaptation of the original crew resource management training from the aviation domain....
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on the pattern of organizational commitment and job satisfaction among seafarers working on passenger vessels, compared to those working on board other types of ships. The dependent variable in the study is organizational commitment. Work position, age and job satisfaction are used as independent variables. The question po...
Article
Full-text available
Shipping can be regarded as a high‐risk domain with a large complexity in operations. Accidents and incidents may involve serious danger for seafarers and passengers, as well as for the environment and society at large. Education and training play a crucial role for the safe conduct of ships. While technical skills have been at the core of a marine...
Chapter
This study presents a survey that has been conducted as part of a larger research project focused on crew resource management in the maritime domain. As research focused on this type of training is currently limited, the Ship Management Attitude Questionnaire (SMAQ) developed by a Swedish marine insurance company, has been adopted to explore NTS kn...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this project has been to explore future shipping centering around the human operators in the system. The ambition has been to offer a complementary perspective to ongoing technical developments and to put these into a social and organizational context. This report’s purpose has been to provide supportive information to administrations, t...
Article
Full-text available
The service crew is a vital part of the customer experience on board passenger ships, but also has important duties in the safety organization in case of emergencies. Yet, they are not always recognized as seafarers and have received less attention in research that addresses occupational safety and health in the maritime domain. This study explores...
Chapter
This article presents findings from an ongoing research project aiming to study the future of shipping operations with a specific focus on issues related to human roles, responsibilities and the organization of work. A focus group with representatives for the Swedish shipping cluster (n = 6) and academia (n = 2) has been conducted to explore potent...
Article
Full-text available
This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept ‘autonomous ships’ has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete...
Chapter
This paper presents findings from a study concerning the work environment on board Swedish passenger vessels. The study explored work-related expe-riences of personnel in the service department (hotel, restaurant, catering, shops) based on individual and group interviews, observations, survey data and social insurance statistics concerning sick lea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from three workshops focused on the physical, organizational and social work environment of service crew working on board Swedish passenger vessels. The first workshop aimed to identify underlying causes of long‐term sick leave among employees in the service department, and potential measures that can be taken to reduce...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from a workshop focused on the physical, social and organizational work envi-ronment in the service department on board Swedish passenger vessels. Twenty-seven maritime profession-als participated to provide input to potential causes and measures for long-term sick leave. During the work-shop, an affinity diagram was cr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Det här projektet undersöker arbetsmiljön för intendenturpersonalen på svenska passagerarfar-tyg. Bakgrunden till projektet ligger i upptäckten att intendenturpersonal ombord passagerar-fartyg år 2010 uppvisade en betydligt högre upplevelse av utmattning, jämfört med andra per-sonalgrupper. Utmattningsupplevelsen indikerades med ett utmattningsinde...
Article
Despite significant changes in work tasks performed on board, towards more sedentary monitoring and administrative work, the incidence of occupational injuries and disorders remains high among seafarers. In order to improve safety standards, industry stakeholders increasingly require written documentation of numerous routines, procedures and tasks...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing research has indicated important effects on seafarers’ occupational commitment due to gender and family situation. In this study, these findings have been elaborated further by controlling for the effect of perceived work content. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers collected from a national regi...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Today, the shipping industry faces important environmental challenges to reduce the impact of sea transport to the marine environment. In order to enhance compliance and encourage safe and efficient maritime operations, the implementation of a safety culture in both shore organisation and on board ships has been advocated. Similarly, it c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present study focuses on the pattern of Swedish seafarers’ occupational commitment relative to gender and family situation. Statistical analyses are employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers randomly collected from a national register in 2010. It was hypothesized that the effect from having children at home should be negative on co...
Article
Recent studies indicate that early retirement per se may have a negative effect on health to such an extent that it increases mortality risk. One type of early retirement often referred to in these studies is retirement with disability pension/benefit. Given the overall objective of disability benefit programmes - to help the disabled live socially...
Article
Full-text available
Due to ageing populations and a future shortage of labour active people, there is a political ambition to prolong people’s work force activities in Europe. The question of this paper is to what degree policy changes aimed at prolonging people’s working lives have been successful in influencing peoples’ commitment to paid work during the studied per...
Article
This study examines age differences in non-financial employment commitment in two types of `exit cultures'. Germany and Denmark represent the `early'-exit culture where early retirement has become the norm. Sweden and Norway represent the `late'-exit culture where labour market activity until advanced age is more common. The categorization of count...
Article
The main question this paper seeks to tackle is whether men and women, as some argue, commit themselves to employment differently or for different reasons. The focus is thus on the mechanisms behind non-financial employment commitment (such as the possible effect of family situation, occupational position, and of different work-related preferences...
Article
The connection between work environment and organizational commitment (OC) is investigated and compared across six western countries, using data from the 1997 International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Differences in work environment are examined on two levels: (1) with reference to theoretical literature and empirical findings in comparative rese...
Article
This study compares organizational commitment in six western countries: USA, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. The main focus is on the hypothesized existence of conflicting values due to different systems of norms. The assumption made is that the central norms, values, and expectations in any particular work organization, or...
Article
Work orientations are compared in six Western countries, using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The main issue in the paper is whether different 'production regimes' correspond to levels and patterns of employment commitment and organizational commitment among the working population. It is concluded that the level of employ...

Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
The aim of this project has been to explore future shipping centering around the human operators in the system. The ambition has been to offer a complementary perspective to ongoing technical developments and to put these into a social and organizational context. The role of human operators in future shipping has been explored based on two complementary perspectives, a sociological and a sociotechnical perspective. The main approach has been to collect, analyze and summarize attitudes, opinions and points of views of relevant actors. Data has been collected through focus groups with the advisory board, active seagoing officer and personnel in the maritime vocational education, as well as interviews with pilots and VTS-personnel. Further a survey was sent to all officers in the Swedish seafarer’s registry.
Project
We work in a complex world of changing pressures, relationships, interdependencies, and novel possibilities. Past performance and safety are no guarantee of continued success. What matters more and more is the ability to cope with the unexpected, and adapt to keep pace with change. As ever more organizations globally recognize and try to apply resilience engineering, we need to develop how we support the scaling up and speeding up of the adoption and application of these ideas. The program for the 8TH SYMPOSIUM OF THE RESILIENCE ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION (REA) will engage participants in what it means to embrace resilience in a turbulent world and explore how we scale up and speed up the adoption of the ideas of resilience engineering. The symposium will be held from the 24th to the 27th of June 2019 at Linnaeus University in Kalmar, Sweden. Throughout history, Kalmar has been forced to reinvent itself, recognize changes and exploit opportunities. Many historical sites recall the city's prominence as the birthplace of the Kalmar Union and the co-founding of the Hanseatic League—late-medieval alliances that allowed the city to scale up and speed up by adapting to and profiting from opportunities in changing political and commercial landscapes. Today, Kalmar is home to one of Sweden's largest and newest universities, Linnaeus University. Many organizations today have begun to recognize the limits of compliance—a model of success embodied in anticipation, plans, procedures, quality indicators, and automation. This model cannot effectively accommodate variability, disturbances, uncertainties or novelty, which is increasingly obvious in an interconnected and turbulent world. Compliance-oriented systems can experience surprising, sudden collapses in performance, such as dramatic service outages, despite a backdrop of improving safety and quality indicators. Instead of trying to eradicate the unexpected, today's organizations need to 'expect surprises' and to prepare for unexpected challenges and opportunities — in other words, they need to be poised to adapt in a world where surprising challenges and innovative opportunities are normal. But crucial questions remain in the quest to speed up and scale up the adoption of resilience principles. What are the 'measures' that are going to replace< traditional ones? How do we know whether teams, systems and organizations are resilient? What are regulators and auditors going to have to look for in order to assess resilience? What accounts for the differences in scaling up and speeding up the adoption of resilience ideas across different domains? How can organizations respond to residual failures and breakdowns without resorting to componential explanations and increased compliance demands? We invite practitioners, scholar and innovators to share ideas, discuss approaches and to jointly develop concepts and strategies on how to embrace resilience to prepare today's society for tomorrow's challenges. Let us take up the challenge of the Symposium theme, spark syntheses across diverse disciplines, and stimulate innovative practical approaches that address the societal need for resilience. The 8th Resilience Engineering Association’s Symposium on Resilience Engineering will be hosted at Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden, 24th -27th June 2019.