Carl-Gustav Linden

Carl-Gustav Linden
University of Bergen | UiB

PhD

About

52
Publications
13,433
Reads
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341
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - December 2016
Södertörn University
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2015 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2012 - December 2013
United Nations University (UNU)
Position
  • Senior Communications Consultant

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
This deliverable aims to derive and prioritise the user needs of the fact-checkers participating in the NORDIS project. We analyse innovation challenges in fact-checking and, together with fact-checkers, develop our understanding of work processes and the current state-of-the-art technology with regard to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) too...
Chapter
This chapter explores how three Scandinavian legacy media companies have reinvented their business models to focus on creating value for digital subscribers. They have developed similar strategies to measure value, for instance, with tailor-made analytical systems that are attuned to the editorial goals of the newsroom. In general, metrics-based au...
Article
As artificial intelligence (AI) technologies become more ubiquitous for streamlining and optimizing work, they are entering fields representing organizational logics at odds with the efficiency logic of automation. One such field is journalism, an industry defined by a logic enacted through professional norms, practices, and values. This paper exam...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this report is to summarise the state of art in fact-checking technology in Europe and the United States. We aim to build a knowledge foundation to inform and guide coming work in the NORDIS project. The report contains an exploration of how fact-checking practices are augmented with different technical tools and an overview of avail...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of the Road to freedom research project was to fnd out how the Finnish news media are dependent on the technology giants of Silicon Valley, mainly Meta (Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, Whatsapp), Alphabet (Google, Youtube, Android), Apple and Amazon. In this report we present an examination of whether the nature of dependence is disproporti...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of the Road to freedom research project was to find out how the Finnish news media are dependent on the technology giants of Silicon Valley, mainly Meta (Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, Whatsapp), Alphabet (Google, Youtube, Android), Apple and Amazon. In this report we present an examination of whether the nature of dependence is disproport...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the role of passion in news journalism from a managerial perspective. The analysis is based on a data set of 40,621 web-based job advertisements obtained from Journalismjobs.com, from the year 2002 to 2017. The quantitative analysis shows that passion has been on the rise as only 4% of the job advertisements in 2002 asked fo...
Book
Full-text available
Kingdom of Nokia tells a fascinating story of corporatism in Finland. How did the mobile phone giant Nokia make the Finnish elite willing to serve the interests of the company? Nokia became a global player in mobile communications in the 1990s, and helped establish Anglo-Saxon capitalism in Finland. Through its success and strong lobbying, the comp...
Article
Full-text available
This article captures the dynamics of a special case when it comes to media systems, namely the Åland Islands, or Åland, with 6,700 islands and 30,000 inhabitants. Åland is one of three self-governed areas in the Nordic region (the others being the Faroe Islands and Greenland) and is an officially monolingual Swedish-speaking part of Finland, where...
Book
Full-text available
The book is written in Swedish and explores how newsmedia has become dependent on Silicon Valley tech giants and what the media can do to find a way out of the situation.
Chapter
Researchers and academics in media economics and management with a Northern European affiliation have played a major role in the development of the field and in creating strong international networks, including The World Media Economics and Management Conference (WMEMC) and European Media Management Association (emma). The chapter provides an overv...
Chapter
The aims, functions and work practices of hyperlocal start-ups and citizen- or community-initiated information sharing vary. We know little about how hyperlocal practitioners’ perceptions of their roles are constructed as a part of wider media ecosystems. This article examines how Nordic and Russian hyperlocal practitioners define their roles, focu...
Article
Full-text available
The combined set of skills needed for producing data journalism (e.g., investigative journalism methods, programming, knowledge in statistics, data management, statistical reporting, and design) challenges the understanding of what competences a journalist needs and the boundaries for the tasks journalists perform. Scholars denote external actors w...
Chapter
This chapter reports on two Finnish cases based on recently commissioned research projects on media management: a study focusing on the state of media and communications policy in Finland, and a three-study project on new business models in news media (focusing on Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the United States and Germany). A public authority, the M...
Article
Full-text available
This article features a comparative study of the making of business news based upon interviews (2005 to 2010) with senior business journalists in Finland and Sweden as well as communication managers at two global telecom companies, Nokia and Ericsson. The article shows the complex and fluid dynamics of social construction. There are spans when corp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Den här artikeln behandlar den finlandssvenska författaren Jörn Donner (född 1933), som hösten 2015 kom ut med sin andra reportagebok om Sverige efter en paus på mer än fyrtio år. I inter-vjuer genomförda vintern 1986-87 och 2014 förklarar Donner sin syn på reportageskrivande, journalistik, sociala medier, var han hittar inspiration och varför det...
Article
Full-text available
Although data journalism is practiced globally, data journalism research has traditionally focused on a limited set of countries, primarily within the liberal and democratic corporatist media systems. Many recently published studies illustrate a growing scholarly interest in data journalism in other parts of the world, but these studies are still l...
Article
Full-text available
In the Nordic countries, local and regional newspapers have functioned as keystone media. This article examines the emergence of hyperlocal initiatives as part of evolving local media ecosystems in Finland, analysing the extent and characteristics of hyperlocal media, and how they relate to wider changes in the Finnish media ecosystem. The data gat...
Article
Full-text available
News automation is an emerging field within journalism, with the potential to transform newswork. Increasing access to data, combined with developing technology, will allow further inquiries into automated journalism. Producing news text using NLG (natural language generation) is currently largely undertaken in specific, predictable news domains, s...
Article
This paper focuses on media innovation among publishers of metropolitan newspapers in the United States, in cities such as San Diego, Boston, Miami, Philadelphia and Dallas. The situation for metropolitan newspapers is difficult, as they fall between national newspapers, which can aim for extending their reach both nationally and globally, and loca...
Article
Full-text available
News automation is an emerging field within journalism, with the potential to transform newswork. Increasing access to data, combined with developing technology, will allow further inquiries into automated journalism. Producing news text using NLG (natural language generation) is currently largely undertaken in specific, predictable news domains, s...
Book
Full-text available
This is a report we produced for members of WAN-IFRA which is now open access. Citation: Lindén, C-G., Tuulonen, H., Bäck, A., Diakopoulos, N., Granroth-Wilding, M., Haapanen, L., Leppänen, L., Melin, M., Moring, T., Munezero, M., Sirén-Heikel, S., Södergård, C., Toivonen, H. (2019). News Automation: The rewards, risks and realities of ‘machine jou...
Article
Full-text available
This article deals with the problematic use of the metaphor "robot journalism" which is frequently used among journalists and researchers.
Book
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to analyse how the digital environment affects the ecosystem of news media in Germany. We explore how the business operations of news organizations, especially newspapers, are changing. This report offers a fresh perspective on new business models and forms of revenue in Germany, which can be utilized by the Finnish new...
Article
Full-text available
The article focuses on innovation and social media strategies in newspaper companies in the US and three Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway and Denmark). Many previous studies have focused on the state of journalism and media industry in single countries, although media have distinct features in different countries. Through the comparative sett...
Book
Full-text available
NEW BUSINESS MODELS IN U.S. NEWS MEDIA The purpose of this study is to analyse how the digital environment affects the ecosystem of news media in the United States. We explore how the business operations of news organizations, especially newspapers, are changing. This report offers a comparative perspective on new business models and forms of reven...
Article
Full-text available
Software-generated news, sometimes called “robot journalism,” has recently given rise to concerns that the automation of news will make journalists redundant. These arguments follow a deterministic line of thinking. Algorithms choose information for users but are also the construct of social process and practice. The aim of this essay is to explore...
Book
Full-text available
Perinteisen median vaikeudet eri puolilla maailmaa ovat pitkälti seurausta mainostajien valinnoista ja yleisön muuttuvista median kulutustavoista, mitkä johtuvat suurelta osin digitaalisen teknologian nopeasta kehityksestä ja erityisesti internetin tarjoamia mahdollisuuksia hyödyntävien uusien liiketoimintamallien esiinmarssista. Viime vuosina muut...
Article
This case study takes a brief look at commercial operations with automated news in the United States as well as five European countries to explore how the logic of journalism has been interpreted and translated into software and how industry experts anticipate the future. The empirical material consists of 31 qualitative research interviews with da...
Article
Full-text available
This essay examines the cultural, economic and political contexts of the small but vibrant media market on the Åland islands as well as competition strategies deployed by managers at two local Finnish newspapers , Ålandstidningen and Nya Åland. The case study has a managerial framework and aims to address four questions: 1) what is the foundation f...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores attitudes of social scientists engaged in international development research, mainly development economists, towards the role of communication in influencing development policy. It is based on an international survey of researchers (N = 79) as well as in-depth interviews (N = 6) with representatives of the same group. Results...
Book
The book Sanomalehti uudessa mediamaisemassa [The newspaper in the new media landscape] discusses the current and future newspaper publishing challenges using Finnish newspaper industry as a case. Topics covered include e.g. the challenges from convergence, the changing reading habits, changing media regulation, changes in journalistic work and way...
Article
This article features a comparative study of the making of business news based upon interviews (2005 to 2010) with senior business journalists in Finland and Sweden as well as communication managers at two global telecom companies, Nokia and Ericsson. The article shows the complex and fluid dynamics of social construction. There are spans when corp...
Article
This paper deals with the concentration of the newspaper market in Finland from a regional perspective. The development started in the late 1970s when Tampere based Aamulehti (“Morning Newspaper”) went on a shopping spree that started the mergers and acquisitions trend in a market that had until then been characterized by local ownership. Today Aam...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to study how the newspaper industry in Finland responds to the challenges arising from technological change and socio-economic transformation. For the newspaper industry, media convergence represents enormous challenges but also possibilities to utilize new platforms and contents to serve new consumer needs. Characteriz...
Article
Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för läsesalsbruk i Statsvetenskapliga biblioteket (Unionsgatan 35). Dessa avhandlingar fjärrutlånas endast som microfiche. Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Library of Social Sciences (Unioninkatu 35) . Microfiche c...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
This project is an attempt to revive a researcher that missed the step from the analogue to the digital world when he tragically died in March 1998. The title of this project, funded by the The Swedish Cultural Foundation in Finland, aims at creating awareness of his research on the rise of the political right in the Eastern Bloc. That is also called the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc and consisted of a group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe and South East Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union (USSR) that existed during the Cold War (1947–1991). Tomas Hellén was a young bright Finnish journalist and promising researcher within the field of political history that better than many understood what the downfall of the Soviet empire would mean. His doctoral dissertation in 1996, Shaking Hands with the Past, received highest honours. References Berglund, S., Hellén, T., & Aarebrot, F. (1998). Foundations of change. In S. Berglund, T. Hellén & F. Aarebrot (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe (pp. 1-12). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Hellén, T. (1996). Shaking hands with the past: Origins of the political right in Central Europe. Doctoral dissertation. Hellén, T., Berglund, S., & Aarebrot, F. (1998). The challenge of history in Eastern Europe. In S. Berglund, T. Hellén & F. Aarebrot (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe (pp. 13-54). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Hellén, T., Berglund, S., & Aarebrot, F. (1998). From transition to consolidation. (pp. 365-377). In S. Berglund, T. Hellén & F. Aarebrot (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Project
The aim of the research project is to find out how the Finnish news media is dependent on the activities of the Silicon Valley technology giants - mainly Facebook, Alphabet (Google, Youtube, Android), Apple and Twitter. The study examines whether dependence is excessive and, if so, how it is possible for the news media to break free from the excessive influence of technology giants.