Carl Foster

Carl Foster
University of Wisconsin - La Crosse | UWLAX · Department of Exercise and Sport Science

Ph.D.

About

645
Publications
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22,751
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Publications

Publications (645)
Article
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Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes' knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020...
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The purposes of this study were to ascertain how physiological adaptations, as reflected by critical speed and distance above critical speed ( D′), impact the competitive performance of a world-class female long-distance swimmer; and to determine whether a model including the expenditure and recovery of D′ could be used to understand pacing in swim...
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Training intensity distribution is important to training program design. The zones 1 to 2 boundary can be defined by the Talk Test and the rating of perceived exertion. The zones 2 to 3 boundary can be defined by respiratory gas exchange, maximal lactate steady state, or, more simply, by critical speed (CS). The upper boundary of zone 3 is potentia...
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The role of physical activity in improving overall aspects of health regardless of age is well documented. Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, preventive measures to limit airborne infection have been introduced, with people, especially older adults, advised to stay at home, thus increasing sedentary lifestyle and the risk of chronic dise...
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Introduction: The relationship between the percentage of a fatiguing ambulatory task completed and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) appears to be linear and scalar, with a relatively narrow "window." Recent evidence has suggested that a similar relationship may exist for muscularly demanding tasks. Methods: To determine whether muscularly dema...
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The effects of plyometric training on middle- and long-distance running performances are well established. However, its influence on pacing behavior is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on pacing behavior. Also, verify whether the adaptations induced by plyometric training would change ratings o...
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of post-exercise rating times (from 0-min to 4-wks) on sRPE. Twenty five athletes (12 females and 13 males) from different sports (sprinting, endurance running, cycling and volleyball) were involved in this study. At least 3 training sessions per subject were quantified based on sRPE using a visua...
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This study was intended to investigate the associations between session Ratings of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) and Edwards’ training load (TL) and Banister training impulse (TRIMP) in order to determine the validity of the sRPE method for TL assessment in karate kata discipline. Eight elite karate kata athletes, members of the national karate team, t...
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Purpose: To determine if workload and seasonal periods (preseason vs in season) are associated with the incidence of injuries and illnesses in female professional cyclists. Methods: Session rating of perceived exertion was used to quantify internal workload and was collected from 15 professional female cyclists, from 33 athlete seasons. One week...
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This study aimed to investigate whether (semi-)professional cyclists’ execution of a training program differs from the coach’s designed training program. Also, the study sought to ascertain, in instances where the training sessions were indeed executed as designed by the coach, whether the perception of the cyclists differed from the intention of t...
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PURPOSE: Performance in running events, such as 1-Mile World Records (WR), depends both on having and effectively using energetic resources. Although often understood in terms of physiological capacity based on the Joyner model, the Critical Speed/D’ model is an alternative method of accounting for energetic capacity and use, based on prior perform...
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Exercise prescription based on exercise test results is complicated by the need to downregulate the absolute training intensity to account for cardiovascular drift in order to achieve a desired internal training load. We tested a recently developed generalized model to perform this downregulation using metabolic equivalents (METs) during exercise t...
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Walking tests, such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT), are popular methods of estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in clinical populations. However, the strength of the distance vs. VO2peak relationship is not strong, and there are no equations for estimating ventilatory threshold (VT), which is important for training prescription and prognosis. Sin...
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Exercise training is an important component of clinical exercise programs. Although there are recognized guidelines for the amount of exercise to be accomplished (≥70,000 steps per week or ≥150 min per week at moderate intensity), there is virtually no documentation of how much exercise is actually accomplished in contemporary exercise programs. Ha...
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Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of f...
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Ever since the farm boy, Milo of Crotone, lifted a growing bullock every day, to become the strongest man in the world, and six-time champion of the ancient Olympic Games, we have known about the principle of progression of exercise training [...]
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Background: The association between heart rate variability (HRV), training load (TL), and performance is poorly understood. Methods: A middle-aged recreational female runner was monitored during a competitive 20-wk macrocycle divided into first (M1) and second mesocycle (M2) in which best performances over 10 km and 21 km were recorded. Volume (km)...
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Background: During self-paced (SP) time trials (TTs), cyclists show unconscious nonrandom variations in power output of up to 10% above and below average. It is unknown what the effects of variations in power output of this magnitude are on physiological, neuromuscular, and perceptual variables. Purpose: To describe physiological, neuromuscular,...
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The aerobic cost of running (CR), an important determinant of running performance, is usually measured during constant speed running. However, constant speed does not adequately reflect the nature of human locomotion, particularly competitive races, which include stochastic variations in pace. Studies in non-athletic individuals suggest that stocha...
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During competitive events, the pacing strategy depends upon how an athlete feels at a specific moment and the distance remaining. It may be expressed as the Hazard Score (HS) with momentary HS being shown to provide a measure of the likelihood of changing power output (PO) within an event and summated HS as a marker of how difficult an event is lik...
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The assessment of speech production difficulty has been used to control aerobic exercise intensity through the Talk Test method. The aim of this study was to compare the Talk Test variables to lactate thresholds using an incremental test. Thirteen male subjects performed an incremental cycle test to identify the first lactate threshold (LT1), secon...
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The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method was developed 25 years ago as a modification of the Borg concept of rating of perceived exertion (RPE), designed to estimate the intensity of an entire training session. It appears to be well accepted as a marker of the internal training load. Early studies demonstrated that sRPE correlated wel...
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Although cycling class intensity can be modified by changing interval intensity sequencing, it has not been established whether the intensity order can alter physiological and perceptual responses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of interval intensity sequencing on energy expenditure (EE), physiological markers, and perceptual...
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We aimed to develop models to explain performance and pacing during a 10-km running trial. Well-trained runners (n = 27, VO2max = 62.3 ± 4.5 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) divided into High (HPG, T10km = 33.9 ± 1.2 min, n = 9) and Low (LPG, T10km = 37.9 ± 1.2 min, n = 18) performers completed, in different days, the half squat and loaded squat jump (LSJ) exercises...
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To describe the pacing pattern of 400m freestyle swimmers, understand how athletes select the first half compared to their 200-m race pace, and correlate critical speed (CS) and D’ with pacing parameters. The best all-time 400m performances were obtained, and 200m performances were retrieved from the same competition. Twenty-four performances were...
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The time to exhaustion (tlim) at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and whether a physiological steady state is observed at this workload remains unknown. Thus, this study analyzed tlim at the power output eliciting the RCP (tlim at RCP), the oxygen uptake (VO2) response to this effort, and the influence of endurance fitness. Sixty male recre...
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Although there is evidence supporting the benefit of regular exercise, and recommendations about exercise and physical activity, the process of individually prescribing exercise following exercise testing is more difficult. Guidelines like % heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) require an anchoring maximal test and do not always provide a homogenous train...
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We are glad to introduce the Third Journal Club of Volume five, the third issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of PhysioMechanics of Human Locomotion, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion...
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Time-of-day dependent fluctuations in exercise performance have been documented across different sports and seem to affect both endurance and resistance modes of exercise. Most of the studies published to date have shown that the performance in short-duration maximal exercises (i.e. less than 1 min - e.g. sprints, jumps, isometric contractions) exh...
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Background and Objectives: Hemodynamic stress during resistance training is often a reason why this training method is not used in cardiac patients. A lifting protocol that imposes rests between repetitions (IRRT) may provide less hemodynamic stress compared to traditional resistance training (TT). The aim of this study was to verify differences be...
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Purpose: This study investigated the effect of cooldown modality (active vs passive) and duration (5, 10, and 15 min) on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Secondarily, the possible influence of training sessions' demand on this effect was studied. Methods: A total of 16 youth male soccer players (15.7 [0.4] y) completed 2 standardized...
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Background and Objectives: Hemodynamic stress during resistance training is often a reason why this training method is not used in cardiac patients. A lifting protocol that imposes rests between repetitions (IRRT) may provide less hemodynamic stress compared to traditional resistance training (TT). The aim of this study was to verify differences be...
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The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors (i.e., substrate utilization, measures of gas exchange...
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Although maximal incremental exercise tests (GXT) are the gold standard for outcome assessment and exercise prescription, they are not widely available in either fitness or clinical exercise programs. This study compared the prediction of VO 2 max in healthy, sedentary volunteers using a non-exercise prediction (Matthews et al., 1999), RPE extrapol...
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Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE (sRPE) are reliable tools for predicting exercise intensity and are alternatives to more technological and physiological measurements, such as blood lactate (HLa) concentration, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). As sRPE may also convey some insights into accumulated fatigue, the purpose of th...
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Background: Gross efficiency (GE) declines during high-intensity exercise. Increasing extracellular buffer capacity might diminish the decline in GE and thereby improve performance. Purpose: To examine if sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation diminishes the decline in GE during a 2000-m cycling time trial. Methods: Sixteen male cyclists...
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Purpose: Resistance training can result in increased lean mass, maximal strength, muscular power and facilitates similar acute physiological responses and chronic physiological adaptations to traditional aerobic exercises. This study aimed to determine the effects of resistance training on PV and VHRDP in sedentary women. Methods: Sixteen sedentary...
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This study was designed to assess the ability of the Talk Test (TT) to track training-related changes in ventilatory threshold (VT). Thirteen recreational athletes (20.5±1.91 years, males=7) completed two incremental exercise tests (one with respiratory gas exchange and one with the TT) before and after six weeks of self-directed increases in train...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to present the load, intensity and performance characteristics of a general classification (GC) contender during multiple grand tours (GTs). This study also investigated which factors influence climbing performance. Methods: Power output (PO) data were collected from a GC contender from the Vuelta a España 2...
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Purpose: To characterize, for the first time, the mechanical properties of treadmill surfaces along with a practical interpretation of their influence on physiological and perceived demands during endurance running compared with other widely used surfaces such as asphalt and tartan tracks. Methods: Ten experienced male endurance runners performe...
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The Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is an important measure of exercise intensity, which is useful both as a primary and adjunctive method of exercise prescription. However, there are multiple variants of the Borg RPE scale, primarily the Borg 6-20 RPE scale (BORG-RPE) and the Borg Category-Ratio-10 scale (BORG-CR10). There are inadequate data a...
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Purpose: This study evaluates whether intra-individual pacing used by elite runners to break their own WR (1-mile, 5-km, 10-km) is related to the evolution of pacing strategy. We provide supportive data from analysis in sub-elite runners. Methods: Men's WR performances (with 400-m or 1-km splits) in 1-mile, 5-km and 10-km were retrieved from the...
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Purpose: Although the Session RPE (sRPE) is primarily a marker of internal training load (TL), it may be sensitive to external TL determining factors such as duration and volume. Thus, sRPE could provide further information on accumulated fatigue not available from markers of internal TL. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sRP...
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Purpose: A valid measure for training load (TL) is an important tool for cyclists, trainers, and sport scientists involved in professional cycling. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of exercise intensity on the association between kilojoules (kJ) spent and different measures of TL to arrive at valid measures of TL. Methods: Four...
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Background: The interpretation of young athletes´ performance during pubertal years is important to support coaches´ decisions, as performance may be erroneously interpreted due to the misalignment between chronological age (CA), biological age (BA) and sport age (SA). Aim: Using a Bayesian multilevel approach, the variation in longitudinal change...
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether the change in (sub)maximal heart rate after intensified training is associated with the change in performance. Thirty subjects were recruited who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests to exhaustion 2 weeks before (pre), 1 week after (post) and 5 weeks after (follow-up) an 8-day non-competitive amat...
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Although cyclists often compete at altitude, the effect of altitude on gross efficiency (GE) remains inconclusive. Purpose To investigate the effect of altitude on GE at the same relative exercise intensity and the same absolute power output (PO). Additionally, we sought to determine the effect of altitude on the change in GE during high-intensity...
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Multiple ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are purported to offer favorable acute metabolic changes potentially leading to improvements in body composition and training adaptations over time. However, there is limited information available regarding the long-term benefits and safety of consuming MIPS, specifically in female populations. The...