Carl F. Fey

Carl F. Fey
BI Norwegian Business School | BINBS

Doctor of Business Administration

About

99
Publications
23,247
Reads
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5,903
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor
January 2016 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Professor
March 2011 - October 2015
University of Nottingham Ningbo China
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Education
September 1993 - April 1997
The University of Western Ontario
Field of study
  • Business Administration

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends the literature on organizational culture and effectiveness by examining a set of foreign-owned firms operating in Russia. Beginning with an existing model of organizational culture and effectiveness, the paper presents two linked studies. The first study is a survey of 179 firms designed to test the applicability of the model in...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary human resource management (HRM) practices, absorptive capacity, and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application of specific HRM pract...
Article
Twenty years after the prior survey, the seventh international business curriculum survey was conducted in 2020 under the sponsorship of the Academy of International Business (AIB) and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). This paper reports the survey's findings and makes relevant comparisons with the results of the tw...
Article
Full-text available
When small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) enter export markets, they face liabilities of smallness and foreignness. Their chances of success increase if they receive some support. Thus, many governments provide some export support for SMEs having realized that success in exports helps firm success and creates positive spillovers. We test the e...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the relationship between the capabilities of HR departments and the level of adoption of corporate HRM practices in MNC subsidiaries. To explain this relationship, we leverage paradox theorizing, still rare but gaining increasing attention in HRM research, and integrate the studies of practice transfer, organizational ambidext...
Article
Full-text available
Informal networking can be seen as a positive activity with beneficial outcomes for individuals, firms, and society as a whole, but informal networking can also lead to collusion, cliques, nepotism, and other forms of unethical or corrupt conduct-largely related to research on emerging markets. To date, the construction of informal networks and the...
Article
Full-text available
Management and Organization Review Special Issue ‘Social Networks ‒ The Dark and Bright Sides of Informal Networks’ - Volume 14 Issue 4 - Sven Horak, Fid Afiouni, Yanjie Bian, Alena Ledeneva, Maral Muratbekova-Touron, Carl Fey
Article
Full-text available
Research on the mechanisms of organizing and managing via interpersonal relations has a rich history in the management and organization-oriented literature. So far, however, the informal dimension of managing and organizing by drawing on informal networks in an international context has received comparably less attention. Recent research has pointe...
Article
Transfer of knowledge-based resources from acquirers to the acquired units has been ubiquitously emphasized as an important driver of post-acquisition integration. Equally emphasized is the importance of recipient unit's absorptive capacity for the success of knowledge transfer and the facilitating role of HRM practices in developing absorptive cap...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the mechanisms of organizing and managing via interpersonal relations has a rich history in the management and organization-oriented literature. So far, however, the informal dimension of managing and organizing by drawing on informal networks in an international context has received comparably less attention. Recent research has pointe...
Article
This study applies a network approach to develop a model that highlights the role of resource acquisition through networks as an important mediating mechanism through which entrepreneurial orientation (EO) influences firm performance. This approach provides an alternative explanation for the divergent findings of the EO-performance relationship. We...
Article
Full-text available
Transforming economies such as the BRIC countries – Ex-Soviet Republics, or Eastern European countries – share national aspirations of becoming innovation economies. These aspirations have stimulated a push for entrepreneurship and experimentation with new ways of doing things. This has created a fascinating context for research on business model i...
Article
Multinationals (MNCs) need to find the balance between developing a globally standardized organizational culture and having multiple locally- adapted organizational cultures. Past literature embodies the bias that differences between MNC units, unless managed, would lead to adverse consequences. To counter this negative bias, we focus on cultural f...
Article
Full-text available
Transforming economies such as the BRIC countries – Ex-Soviet Republics, or Eastern European countries – share national aspirations of becoming innovation economies. These aspirations have stimulated a push for entrepreneurship and experimentation with new ways of doing things. This has created a fascinating context for research on business model i...
Article
Full-text available
Transforming economies such as the BRIC countries – Ex-Soviet Republics, or Eastern European countries – share national aspirations of becoming innovation economies. These aspirations have stimulated a push for entrepreneurship and experimentation with new ways of doing things. This has created a fascinating context for research on business model i...
Article
At the June 2016 meeting of the International Association for Chinese Management Research, MOR organized a symposium to discuss the mounting criticisms of empirical social science and subsequent changes, as part of ongoing discussions affecting journal reviewing policies. This article overviews the history of modern empirical social science as the...
Article
The concept of psychic distance has several entrenched assumptions that have not been put to sufficient systematic scrutiny. We address this gap by investigating the assumptions of symmetry (i.e., whether psychic distance from Country A to Country B is the same as that from Country B to Country A) and discordance (i.e., whether differences in psych...
Article
Traditionally, few companies were worried about Chinese, Indian, or Russian companies becoming important global players. Now companies from emerging market economies are starting to do just this and are emerging as significant global competitors. It is clearly time to pay attention to emerging market multinational corporations as serious competitor...
Article
This study advances research on innovation by unfolding a particular innovation type, indigenous innovation, into three patterns (i.e., original innovation, integrative innovation and re-innovation). We examine how social network ties (business and institutional) influence indigenous innovation and the moderating effects of learning intent. Results...
Article
This article explores how foreign headquarters can enhance cross–border knowledge transfer to their acquired local subsidiaries as a way to foster post-merger integration. Grounded in the knowledge–based view, we propose and test a two stage model of knowledge transfer including knowledge exposure and practices use. Building on the stage concept of...
Article
Notwithstanding its importance for IB field, the concept of psychic distance entails several entrenched assumptions that have not been put to sufficient systematic scrutiny. We use the context of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) to address this gap by investigating assumptions of symmetry and discordance, and their boundary conditions....
Article
In this retrospective, we revisit the goals of the original paper, and we review the studies that have used our paper to discuss the “concept” and the “development” of absorptive capacity. We also propose directions for future research, stressing the need to develop thorough theoretical and empirical models of absorptive capacity as a multi-level a...
Article
This article conceptualizes strategic alliances as social dilemma settings in which private interests of alliance partners are inherently in conflict with the collective value creation abilities of the alliance, therefore jeopardizing the alliance success. Acknowledging the cooperative and competitive dynamics in alliances and drawing on game theor...
Article
Institutional theory has been increasingly used to decipher implications of the liability of being a foreign firm. Earlier studies have argued that multinational corporations bear social costs arising from lack of legitimacy and thus need to engage in isomorphism to increase their likelihood of survival. Drawing on insights gained from transforming...
Article
In this study, we examine the main and interaction effects of insurance agent-focused collaborative HR practices and insurance agents' social capital on their sales performance. Data from 984 participants were collected in five subsidiaries of a large Chinese life insurance company. The results show a strong relationship between social capital and...
Chapter
Outward FDI flows from emerging economies have increased with an astonishing rate during the last several decades (Figure 16.1). While annual outward FDI flows originating from these economies were slightly less than US$ 12 billion in 1990, this figure increased by almost twenty-fold and reached US$ 253 billion in 2007 (UNCTAD, 2008). Concomitant w...
Article
Russia possesses many opportunities for the development of business. It is the world’s largest country in terms of territory, possesses vast natural resources, has a population of over 140 million people, has had of the world’s fastest GDP growth rates of 7.4% from 2001-2008, and has less competition in many industries than in many countries. Like...
Article
Despite wide recognition of the central role of knowledge and its transfer, extant research has focused much on some important aspects of knowledge transfer and paid little attention to others. We focus on two underexplored issues in the knowledge transfer literature, namely: (a) compatibility of new knowledge with recipients' needs, interpretation...
Article
Full-text available
We examine how the local national cultural and institutional context impacts the relationship between an individual's social network (ties and position) and creative performance in a multinational. Hypotheses are tested using hierarchical level modeling to investigate sociocentric data from one entire multinational of 1639 individuals in 28 subsidi...
Article
This paper investigates the extent to which different human resource management (HRM) practices work better in different countries. We also try to open the black box between HRM and multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary performance by considering mechanisms through which HRM practices affect MNE subsidiary performance. The study utilizes a uniq...
Article
Growing interest has emerged in viewing the multinational corporation as a knowledge creating and diffusing entity. The importance of sharing knowledge across organizational and national boundaries has been established in previous research. However, the question of which organizational policies lead to knowledge sharing between multinational units...
Article
Russia possesses many opportunities being the world's largest country in terms of territory, possessing vast natural resources, having a population of over 150 million people, having had one of the world's fastest GDP growth rates of 7.5% from 2001-2005, and having less competition in some industries than is the case in many countries due to the ec...
Article
Using data on Russia's competitiveness collected by our research team as part of the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report (GCR), literature on competitiveness, in particular Michael Porter's theories on economic development and competitiveness, and benchmarking data from the global competitiveness project for other countries, this p...
Article
Full-text available
This study sets out to explore human resource management (HRM) practices in multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiaries within an institutional theory framework. Based on a sample of 158 subsidiaries of MNCs operating in the United States, Russia and Finland, the paper examines factors hypothesised to influence the HRM practices adapted in US, Jap...
Article
This inductive interview-based study aims to develop a model which describes the kinds of e-commerce business models that create value in Russia. We suggest that prior e-commerce research has not paid enough attention to the environment's role in determining how value is created by different e-commerce business models and thus explore how key facto...
Article
Much has been written about how e-business can serve as a strong homogenizing influence and essentially make the world into one market. Yet, little research has empirically investigated this question. This study seeks to describe e-business activity in China, Sweden, and Russia to identify similarities and differences in the portfolios of e-busines...
Article
This article examines how the choice of governance mode for external R&D, along with openness to new ideas and codifiability of knowledge, affects R&D performance. Superior R&D performance is therefore viewed as arising through (a) the choice of approaches used by the firm to access knowledge from outside (university partnering, alliance partnering...
Article
Based on a sample of 82 Swedish managers and 86 Russian managers, this study investigates whether similar factors motivate middle managers in Sweden and Russia. Hypotheses are formulated using our understanding of national cultural differences and several popular theories of motivation: need theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and feedback...
Article
This paper examines the link between organizational culture and effectiveness for foreign-owned firms operating in Russia. Beginning with a model of organizational culture developed in the United States, the paper presents a multimethod analysis of culture and effectiveness in a transition economy. The authors argue that effectiveness in Russia rel...
Article
This article examines how the choice of governance mode for external R&D, along with openness to new ideas and codifiability of knowledge, affects R&D performance. Superior R&D performance is therefore viewed as arising through (a) the choice of approaches used by the firm to access knowledge from outside (university partnering, alliance partnering...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between a bundle or system of human resource (HR) practices and firm performance and the processes through which these HR practices affect organizational outcomes. Using a sample of fifty-two Japanese multinational corporation subsidiaries operating in the United States and Russia, we examine...
Article
This paper examines the link between organizational culture and effectiveness for foreign-owned firms operating in Russia. Beginning with a model of organizational culture developed in the USA, the paper presents a multi-method analysis of culture and effectiveness in a transition economy. We argue that effectiveness in Russia relies more on adapta...
Chapter
This paper examines how research and development is organized in large multinational firms. The paper identifies three key criteria which differentiate the different organizational systems firms use: doing R&D at the corporate level vs. divisions, the degree of geographic dispersion of R&D activities, and the degree of choice in where to conduct R&...
Article
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of MNCs operating in USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary HRM practices, absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer. The paper makes two key contributions. First, the paper examines the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the le...
Article
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of MNCs operating in USA, Russia, and China, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary HRM practices, absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer. The paper makes two key contributions. First, the paper examines the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the...
Article
Choosing a leader with an appropriate leadership style is critical for a firm's success. Thus, it is important to understand which leadership styles are most effective. Furthermore, past research suggests that different leadership styles are effective in different national contexts. However, little research has focused on which leadership styles ar...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines how organizational climate dissimilarity between parent firms and the joint venture organization (JVO) affects joint venture performance. Data were obtained from interviews with the general manager of 40 IJVs and questionnaires were completed by top-level managers from both parents and the JVO (6 people / IJV). Results indicate...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and the performance of 101 foreign-owned subsidiaries in Russia. The study's results provide support for the assertion that investments in HRM practices can substantially assist a firm in improving performance. Further, different HRM practices for managerial and non-ma...
Article
Full-text available
Determining how a firm can best be organized to facilitate innovation is a topic of central importance to managers and academics alike and is thus the focus of this paper. Specifically, this paper focuses on two important components of organizing for innovation: design of R&D resource allocation systems and the use of external sources of technology...
Article
This paper investigates the importance of firms forming joint ventures having similar organizational climates such that the chances of inter-party conflict arising will be minimized. The study is based on 40 Russian international joint ventures (IJVs) and has both qualitative and quantitative elements. Support was provided for inter-party IJV confl...
Article
Based on 101 foreign firms operating in Russia, the effect of human resource management (HRM) on firm performance in Russia is investigated. This is accomplished by developing and testing a model including HR outcomes (motivation, retention development) as a mediating variable between HRM practices and firm performance. Our study provides some supp...
Article
I study a budget-constrained, private-valuation, sealed-bid sequential auction with two incompletely-informed, risk-neutral bidders in which the valuations and income may be non-monotonic functions of a bidder's type. Multiple equilibrium symmetric bidding functions may exist that differ in allocation, efficiency and revenue. The sequence of sale a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends the literature on organizational culture and effectiveness by examining a set of foreign-owned firms operating in Russia. Based on a large-scale empirical study of 179 firms and four in-depth case studies, this study examines the applicability of an American model of organizational culture and effectiveness in the Russian context...
Article
Full-text available
Firms that plan to do business in Russia must be prepared to master the human resources management challenges that exist. A study of 18 western firms found success lay in use of western "high performance" practices adapted to fit the Russian environment. The practices studied covered all aspects of human resources management, from recruitment to co...
Article
Based on an analysis of the experiences of 40 Russian IJVs, this study presents nine strategies for managing intra-IJV conflict such that it will have a minimal negative impact on IJV performance. Following the strategies suggested in this paper presents an opportunity for other Russian IJVs to learn from the experience of the IJVs in this study an...
Article
This article identifies key success factors (KSFs) for Russian-foreign joint ventures. Based on case studies of two successful and two unsuccessful Russian-foreign joint ventures, four KSFs are identified. The presence of the four KSFs is then assessed in a sample of 30 Russian-foreign joint ventures. To assess the generalizability of the KSFs, dis...
Article
This article investigates design characteristics important to the success of Russian-foreign joint ventures (R-FJVs). The article also presents the major reasons 20 R-FJVs general managers gave for being dissatisfied with their parent firms and for the performance of their IJVs. This information can help managers of firms interested in starting R-F...