Carl Blais

Carl Blais
Laval University | ULAVAL · Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

PhD

About

103
Publications
13,138
Reads
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593
Citations
Citations since 2017
36 Research Items
413 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
Additional affiliations
June 2002 - present
Université Laval
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Work on the production and sintering of metal powders for numerous applications.

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
The effects of the Engineered Micro-Geometry (EMG) of the carbide teeth of circular saws on their wear rate and resulting sawing variation for 2-time intervals were studied. The objective was to improve the wear resistance of circular saws used during the primary transformation of wood. The tests were carried out under industrial production conditi...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced performance of circular saws due to premature chipping of their teeth has been a critical issue in woodcutting industry for many years. This research examined the impact of surface coating and variable engineered micro-geometry of the cutting edges of carbide teeth (tips) on the wear resistance of circular saws used in primary wood processi...
Article
A conventional straight knife cutterhead and three helical knife cutterheads were tested for planing sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) woods. The effects of helix angle and feed per knife (FK) on roughness, tactical perception, and anatomical features of the planed surfaces were evaluated. Rk and Rp...
Article
The cutting speed (CS) and feed per knife (FK) are among the most important variables affecting chip size produced by chipper-canters. Nine groups of black spruce logs were processed at three CS (20, 25, and 30 m/s) and three FK (19, 25, and 32 mm). Each log was processed under frozen (−13°C) and unfrozen (19°C) conditions. Chip size was assessed b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Production of thin rotary cutting tools involves several challenges related to the maximization of uniform tensile and bending properties and levelness. This research project investigates the feasibility of manufacturing these tools through cross-rolling and austempering-tempering of a high carbon low alloy steel. In this regard, the combination of...
Article
Full-text available
Fabrication of guided rotary tools requires perfectly levelled thin plates having an excellent combination of high strength and toughness. Uniformity of the mechanical properties is another challenge in the manufacturing process of these tools. The present research studies the influence of cross-rolling and austempering–tempering heat treatment on...
Article
Full-text available
The development of uniform tensile properties in cold-rolled BCC metals is generally achieved by annealing. The final microstructure of these components is typically characterized as having a rather coarse microstructure and therefore lower tensile properties. Cross-rolling offers a great potential of homogenizing the microstructure without losing...
Article
A conventional straight knife cutterhead and three helical knife cutterheads were tested for planing black spruce wood (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Effects of helix angle and feed per knife (FK) on maximum cutting forces and sound level were evaluated. A 3-axis dynamometer and an array microphone were used to simultaneously record the forces and...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic welding additive manufacturing (UWAM) enables the production of metallic components by forming metallurgical bonds between superimposed thin foils using continuous ultrasonic welding. The aluminum alloys that were considered in this study were AA5005 (0.8%-wt. Mg), AA5052 (2.4%-wt. Mg), and AA5056 (4.9%-wt. Mg). The influence of Mg conte...
Article
Liquid phase sintering (LPS) of powder metallurgy (PM) components is a well-recognised strategy to enhance the densification of pressed-and-sintered compacts. This work reports the investigation on the liquid phase formation when a Fe–Ni–Mn–C–B master alloy (MA) is used as a boron carrier in combination with two iron base powders pre-alloyed with M...
Article
Full-text available
Four matched groups of 15 black spruce logs were processed with a chipper–canter at temperatures of 20, 0, −10, and −20°C. Each log was transformed at two moisture contents (MCs) (green and air-dried) using two cutting widths (CWs) (12.7 and 25.4 mm). Mean MC for each CW was assessed from a sample of the obtained chips. The results showed that mean...
Article
Full-text available
Four matched groups of black spruce logs were processed with a chipper-canter at temperatures of 20, 0,-10, and-20 °C. Each log was transformed at two moisture contents (MC, green and air-dried) using two cutting widths (CW, 12.7 and 25.4 mm). Mean MC for each CW was assessed from a sample of the obtained chips. Knot characteristics were measured o...
Article
A conventional straight knife cutterhead and three helical knife cutterheads were tested for planing sugar maple wood (Acer saccharum Marsh.). Effects of helix angle and feed per knife (FK) on maximum cutting forces, sound level, and power consumption were evaluated. A 3-axis dynamometer, an array microphone and a watt transducer were used to simul...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the radial force applied by a ring tip debarker and the rake angle on debarking quality of frozen and unfrozen black spruce logs were studied. A one-arm ring debarker prototype was built, which controlled the radial force, the rake angle, and the cutting and feed speeds. The experiment consisted of debarking logs using three radial f...
Article
In this paper, rolled sheets of aluminum alloy 5052-H18 were joined by friction stir welding. Several samples were welded by varying the principal parameters including tool rotational speed, linear speed, tool shoulder diameter, and pin diameter. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used as the statistical design of experiment technique for param...
Article
One of the most exciting possibilities brought forward by some additive manufacturing (AM) processes is their ability to deposit materials on existing parts. Mainly achievable with directed energy deposition systems, it is thus possible to repair worn or broken components. Two applications were studied in this research: (1) complete construction an...
Article
The effect of the radial force applied by a ring debarker tip to frozen black spruce logs, obtained at three positions on the stem, was studied. A one-arm ring-debarker prototype was developed, which controlled the radial force, rake angle, and cutting and feed speeds. The experiment consisted of debarking logs using three different levels of radia...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of temperature (T) and moisture content (MC) on bark/wood shear strength (BWSS) were studied. Fifteen stems of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) logs were selected and cross-cut into three 1.25 m log sections, corresponding to bottom (1.3 m), middle (3.8 m), and top (6.3 m) positions....
Article
The effect of the radial force applied by a ring debarker tip to frozen balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) logs, obtained at three positions on the stem, was studied. A one-arm ring debarker prototype was built, which controlled the radial force, the rake angle, and cutting and feed speeds. Balsam fir logs at -19°C were debarked at three levels...
Article
Iron aluminide coatings, reinforced with 50 vol% TiC, were prepared using the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) process. The reinforcing particles, TiC, were used in two length-scales; fine in-situ particles and coarse ex-situ particles. High-energy ball milling was used to homogenize the spatial distributions of the two types of TiC particles within t...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of oblique cutting on the chipper-canter wood chipping mechanism was studied. A bent knife was modified to obtain inclination angles (IAs) of 30° and 50° between the chipping edge and the log feeding direction. The standard knife had an IA of 40°. These three knives were tested on 15 logs each, under frozen (À10°C) and unfrozen condition...
Article
Some AM processes such as directed energy deposition (DED) have typical powder usage efficiencies ranging between 40 and 80%. Since, for a given alloy, powder cost is proportional to its purity, choosing a less expensive powder or reusing powders is interesting for economical and environmental reasons. The work summarized below studied the effect o...
Article
This study was undertaken to thoroughly characterize the relationship that exists between microstructure, strength and fracture mechanisms of Fe-Mn-C powder metallurgy steels. Indeed, up to now the peculiar fracture behaviour of PM components made from this metallurgical system was not clearly understood by the PM community. A design of experiments...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the thermal stability of nanostructured Al-Mg alloy powders was investigated. Two alloy compositions, Al-5Mg-0.1Er and Al-5Mg-0.5Er (wt.%), were cryogenically milled for 30 h to produce nanostructured powders. The microstructure of the milled powders with increasing temperature was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (D...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of cutterhead diameter and log infeed position on the mechanism of chip formation and size distribution of black spruce chips produced by a chipper canter were evaluated. Two cutterhead diameters (448.7 and 661.5 mm) combined with three infeed positions or vertical distance from the cutterhead axis to the bedplate on which the log was suppo...
Article
Industrial applications of PM steels is increasing due to their intrinsic sustainability and low production costs. Nevertheless, fatigue properties of PM components are typically not as high as those of their wrought counterparts. Improving fatigue properties of PM steels relies on a deep understanding of the effect of their specific features such...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the cutterhead diameter and log infeed position on surface quality of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill] B.S.P.) cants processed by a conical chipper-canter were evaluated. Three cutterhead diameters (345.2, 448.7, and 661.5 mm) combined with three infeed positions or vertical distance from the cutterhead axis to the bedplate on whic...
Article
Full-text available
Wear-resistant iron aluminide-based composites were coated on steel substrates with the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) technique using ball milled Fe3Al and TiC powders as feedstock. The phase composition, microstructure, microhardness, elastic modulus and dry sliding wear performance of unreinforced Fe3Al and Fe3Al–TiC composite coatings (reinforce...
Article
Due to their lower production costs, powder metallurgy (PM) steels are increasingly being considered for replacing wrought counterparts. Nevertheless, the presence of a non-negligible volume fraction of porosity in typical PM steels makes their use difficult, especially in applications where cyclic loading is involved. On the other hand, PM offers...
Article
Gun drilling produces deep, straight, and reamed holes in a single operation. With its single-cutting edge and its special geometry, the carbide tip is self-centering throughout the drilling operation. This technique permits production costs to be reduced significantly by minimizing production time. Moreover, ultrasound-assisted drilling has been p...
Article
Powder metallurgy (PM) steel components are generally considered ‘difficult’ to machine when compared with their wrought counterparts. Thus, efficient and cost effective machining strategies have to be devised. This paper summarises the results obtained by utilising ultrasounds to improve the machining behaviour of copper and sinter-hardenable PM s...
Article
The development of aluminum-lithium alloys for aerospace applications requires a thorough understanding of how processing and product geometry impact their microstructure, texture and mechanical properties. The anisotropy of the mechanical properties is in part related to the deformation texture formed during thermo-mechanical processing. In this s...
Conference Paper
Gun drilling produces deep straight and reamed holes in a single operation. With its single cutting edge and its special geometry, the carbide tip is self-centering throughout the drilling operation. This technique permits to significantly reduce production costs. Moreover, ultrasounds assisted drilling proved to be an effective method to increase...
Article
Powder metallurgy steels frequently withstand cyclic loading in service. Therefore, it is of high importance to thoroughly understand their fatigue properties. A detailed study of the effect of microstructure heterogeneity on fatigue properties of sinter-hardened PM steels was performed using admixed nickel PM steels (FN0208) as well as pre-alloyed...
Article
Nanoparticles of carbon black, silica and ferrous oxide were added to FC-0208 powder metallurgy blends prepared using ethylene bis stearamide as lubricant to investigate their influence on improving flowability of this formulation that tends to be cohesive. This study consisted in preparing multiple premixes having different quantities of nanoparti...
Article
Full-text available
This study reveals the effect of TiB₂ particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe₃Al-TiB₂ composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe₃Al and TiB₂ powders in a high energy ball mill. The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique was used to deposit the feedstock powder on a steel substr...
Article
It is well known that a large proportion of ferrous PM components require secondary machining operations for dimensional conformance or for producing geometrical features that cannot be generated during die compaction. Nevertheless, the machining behavior of PM parts is generally characterized as being “difficult” due to the presence of residual po...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of chipper-canter cutterhead diameter and log infeed position on maximum power and energy consumption during processing of black spruce logs were evaluated. Two cutterhead diameters (661.5 and 448.7 mm) combined with three infeed positions or vertical distance from the cutterhead axis center to the bedplate on which the log was supported we...
Article
Effect of knife wear on surface quality of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.) cants machined by a chipper-canter was evaluated. A set of eight canting knives with six levels of edge recession (207, 290, 349, 449, 519, and 549 pm) was studied. Logs were fed at 145 m/min through the canter head rotating at 726 rpm yielding a nominal feed per...
Article
This investigation aims to reveal the effect of TiC particles on the wear resistance of Fe3Al/TiC composite coatings against alumina counterbody. The coating feedstock, in powder form, was produced by high-energy ball milling of Fe3Al, Ti and graphite powders. The coatings were provided by spraying the feedstock on a steel substrate using the High-...
Article
Full-text available
Chipper-canters are used in primary wood industries for processing small diameter logs. Knife geometry is one of the principal parameters significantly affecting the chip size and cant surface properties. This work studied the patterns of tool wear, as edge recession (ER) in chipping and canting knives of a chipper-canter head. In addition, analyti...
Article
The development of aluminum–lithium alloys for aerospace applications requires a thorough understanding of how processing and product geometry impact their microstructure, texture and mechanical properties. The anisotropy of the mechanical properties is in part related to the deformation texture formed during thermo-mechanical processing. In this s...
Article
Fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of an integrally stiffened panel (ISP) of the 2099-T83 Al–Li alloy was investigated both at ambient (23 °C) and low (−30 °C) temperatures. FCG rates have been found to correlate with the local extrusion aspect ratio (AR), as a result of the combined effects of both the grain structure and the crystallographic tex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chipper-canters are designed to produce wood-chips and lumber in a single-pass operation with very low sawdust production. A wear study of chipper-canter knives used in the primary transformation of wood was done to determine the most important causes of tool damage. The mechanisms of knife wear were investigated in order to optimize the fabricatio...
Article
Sinter-hardenable steel powders eliminate the extra steps normally required for heat treating since they allow for direct quenching of components at the end of the sintering cycle with a forced convection cooling unit. The current article presents the results of the effect of the alloying method on the optimization of compressibility and sinter-har...
Conference Paper
PM nickel steels (FN series) are commonly used to produce high performance components. These alloys are typically obtained by admixing a nickel powder with an iron base powder and graphite. This approach leads to the formation of nickel rich areas (NRA) in the sintered microstructure since nickel has a low diffusivity in iron at the sintering tempe...
Article
Admixing pure elements to powder mixes can cause the formation of heterogeneous microstructures in sintered parts. For instance, nickel is renowned for forming nickel-rich areas (NRA) in powder metallurgy (PM) nickel steels due to its poor diffusivity in iron matrix (or lattice). The present work is aimed at characterizing the principal diffusion m...
Article
Addition of pure elements to powder mixes can cause the formation of heterogeneous microstructures in powder metallurgy (PM) parts upon sintering. For instance, it has been shown that additions of nickel particles to an iron powder form nickel rich areas (NRAs), since nickel has low diffusivity in iron at conventional sintering temperature [∼1121°C...
Article
Full-text available
A micromechanical model, based on the FEA (finite element analysis), was developed to estimate the influence of hydrogen pressure on short crack behaviour. Morphology of voids has important connotations in the development of the model. Stress intensity factor was calculated for different crack geometries under hydrogen pressure. The analysis indica...
Article
Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel steels are often selected because they have high strength, high impact resistance and good abrasion resistance. The microstructure of slowly cooled PM nickel steels typically contains pearlite, bainite, martensite and a fair volume fraction of retained austenite. Since volume diffusion is really low at conventional sin...
Article
Full-text available
Admixed chemical elements may lead to the formation of heterogeneous microstructures in sintered steels. This is due for the most part to low bulk diffusion coefficients at the sintering temperatures typically used. For PM steels, admixed nickel is well known to produce such heterogeneous microstructures where nickel is not distributed evenly up...
Article
A study was carried out to determine if green machining of powder metallurgy sinter-hardenable steel components had detrimental effect on their tensile properties as well as their fatigue resistance. Results show that tensile properties and axial fatigue resistance of green machined specimens and specimens machined after sintering are statistically...
Article
Constant demand to optimize production of plastic components puts pressure on mold steels manufacturers to supply pre-hardened blocks with larger cross-sections. As the size of mold blocks increases, it becomes more difficult to maintain the same microstructure throughout their volume. Thus, the size of mold steel blocks is limited by the cooling r...
Article
The automotive industry applies pressure on the PM industry to produce components with superior mechanical properties at minimum cost. In this regard, sinter-hardenable powders are particularly well suited since they allow direct quenching of components at the end of the sintering cycle, thus eliminating the extra steps required for heat treating....
Chapter
The use of aluminum-lithium alloys in aerospace applications requires a thorough knowledge of how processing and product geometry impact their microstructure, texture and mechanical properties. As with other aluminum alloys, anisotropy of mechanical properties has been related to the formation of deformation textures during thermo-mechanical proces...
Chapter
Aluminum-lithium alloy 2099-T83 is an advanced material with superior mechanical properties, as compared to traditional alloys used in structural applications, and has been selected for use in the latest generation of airplanes. While this alloy exhibits improved fatigue crack growth (FCG) performance over non-Li alloys, it is of interest to simula...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of aluminium-lithium alloys in aerospace applications requires an understanding of how processing and product geometry impact their microstructure, crystallographic texture and mechanical properties. In this paper, the effect of various microstructural features as well as deformation textures on the static mechanical properties of Al-Li...
Article
An integrally stiffened panel (ISP) made from extruded 2099-T83 Al-Li alloy was subjected to fatigue loadings to investigate the influence of both the local texture and grain structure on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behavior. The microstructure was mainly unrecrystallized. Grains were mostly layered in the web and fibrous in the other locations...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the different roles played by synthetic atmospheres during the various stages of the sintering process. It begins with a brief description of the most common industrial sintering atmospheres, followed by a generic thermochemical treatment of gas-solid interactions prevailing during sintering. The latter theoretical aspects ar...
Conference Paper
The automotive sector is constantly pressuring the powder metallurgy (PM) industry to produce components with superior mechanical properties at minimum cost. Sinter-hardenable powders are therefore particularly relevant, as they enable the direct quenching of components at the end of the sintering cycle, thus eliminating the extra normally required...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing demand for sinter hardened powder metallurgy components, there is a growing need to solve the poor machining behaviour that characterises them. Approaches based on green machining appear promising to extend tool life and reduce machining costs. The present study deals with the sintered properties of cylindrical tensile specimens...
Article
For the past several years, authors are involved in failure analysis of components and structures from various sectors. Background of the problems encountered and the experimental approaches used are described. Mechanical properties have been determined and assessed against those required by relevant standards. Fractographic and microstructural ana...
Conference Paper
Although PM is a near net shape process, machining is often required to produce features that are perpendicular to the pressing axis. Moreover, due to the presence of porosity, the machining of PM components is characterized by lower thermal conductivity and interrupted cutting making it significantly more difficult than the machining of wrought ma...
Article
Blends were prepared using base powders with different prealloyed MnS contents (up to 1.0 w/o) and pressed-and-sintered to two densities. Machinability was characterized in drilling and turning and some mechanical properties were evaluated. Results show that the machinability of samples with 1.0 w/o MnS were superior to those of the other samples,...
Article
The machining of green powder metallurgy (PM) components is an attractive approach to reduce manufacturing costs and to compete with other shaping processes. During the last decade, different strategies have been developed to increase the strength of green PM components, thereby making It possible to consider green machining. However, before utiliz...
Article
The extensive knowledge on Powder metallurgy (PM) machining issue are presented, with a focus on the advances in machinability of unalloyed and sinter-hardenable ferrous components, green machining, and mechanisms. Certain articles presented the knowledge of significant advancements in understanding the phenomena that govern tool wear while machini...
Article
The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Comb...
Article
Full-text available
The green machining process is an interesting approach for solving the mediocre machining behavior of high-performance powder metallurgy (PM) steels. This process appears as a promising method for extending tool life and reducing machining costs. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high green strength systems that enabl...
Article
With the increasing demand for sinter-hardened PM components, there is a growing need to solve the poor machining behaviour that characterizes them. Approaches based on green machining appear promising to reduce machining costs and compete favourably with other shaping processes. Advancements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to the develop...
Article
With increasing demands to improve the performance of the powder metallurgy (PM) process, green machining appears as an interesting method to solve the problems related to the poor machinabuity of PM components. The chips formed during green machining of PM components are similar in size to the base powder, which allows for direct recycling. Reclam...
Article
Development of high performance components using powder metallurgy requires excellent geometrical conformance as well as hard microstructures. Thus, machining operations are used regularly to meet the required tolerances. This situation raises two proble