Carl Beierkuhnlein

Carl Beierkuhnlein
University of Bayreuth · Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER)

Prof. Dr.

About

437
Publications
174,302
Reads
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16,889
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2015 - May 2020
Horizon2020 Project
Position
  • Co-Coordinator
Description
  • The ECOPOTENTIAL project focuses its activities and pilot actions on a targeted set of internationally recognised protected areas (PA) in Europe, European Territories and beyond, including mountain, arid and semi-arid, and coastal and marine ecosystems.
September 2001 - present
University of Bayreuth
Position
  • Head of Department
January 1999 - December 2002
University of Rostock

Publications

Publications (437)
Article
Full-text available
Background The recent rise in temperature and shifting precipitation regimes threaten ecosystems around the globe to different degrees. Treelines are expected to respond to climate warming by shifting to higher elevations, but it is unclear whether they can track temperature changes. Here, we integrated high-resolution aerial imagery with local cli...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally suitable habitats of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) in Europe are identified by several modeling studies. However, it is noticeable that even after decades of invasion process in Europe, the vector mosquito has not yet been established in all its environmentally suitable areas. Natural barriers and human-mediated transport play a...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic climate change is challenging biodiversity conservation worldwide. Climate change metrics derived from future climate predictions help to assess potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Here we calculated future climate change velocities across biogeographical regions of terrestrial Europe and the Natura 2000 protected are...
Article
Full-text available
Forests worldwide are increasingly exposed to extreme weather events. Drought deteriorates the health, structure, and functioning of forests, which can lead to reduced diversity, decreased productivity, and increased tree mortality. Therefore, it is an urgent need to assess the impact of drought on tree species. Due to differences in tree physiolog...
Article
Full-text available
Functional traits can help us to elucidate biogeographical and ecological processes driving assemblage structure. We analysed the functional diversity of plant species of different evolutionary origins across an island archipelago, along environmental gradients and across geological age, to assess functional aspects of island biogeographical theory...
Article
Full-text available
Oceanic islands are cradles of endemism, contributing substantially to global biodiversity. A similarity in magmatic origin translates into high global comparability of substrates of volcanic islands on the oceanic crust with, however, slightly chemically or physically differentiated petrography in some places. Phonolites are examples of rare local...
Article
Understanding the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem functioning and stability under increasing frequency and magnitude of climatic extremes has fascinated ecologists for decades. Although growing evidence suggests that biodiversity affects ecosystem productivity and buffers ecosystem against climatic extremes, it remains unclear whether...
Article
Full-text available
In autumn 2021, the largest volcanic eruption on the island of La Palma in historic records took place. The Canary Islands are of volcanic origin and eruptions have always constituted part of their natural disturbance regime. Until recently, their impacts could not be directly observed and studied. Influence of the emission of phytotoxic gases on b...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change impacts the structure, functioning, and distribution of species and ecosystems. It will shift ecosystem boundaries, potentially afecting vulnerable ecosystems, such as tropical Africa’s high mountain ecosystems, i.e., afroalpine ecosystems, and their highly susceptible uniquely adapted species. However, ecosystems along these mountai...
Article
Full-text available
Both species turnover and intraspecific trait variation can affect plant assemblage dynamics along environmental gradients. Here, we asked how community assemblage patterns in relation to species turnover and intraspecific variation differ between endemic and non‐endemic species. We hypothesized that endemic species show lower intraspecific variati...
Article
Various facets of global changes and related problems and challenges are asking for sound impact assessments and corresponding coping strategies. The human impact on nature is a major driver of biodiversity loss and restricted ecosystem functioning and services. Assessing such global changes is often done by using biomes as benchmarks. However, eve...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat richness, that is, the diversity of ecosystem types, is a complex, spatially explicit aspect of biodiversity, which is affected by bioclimatic, geographic, and anthropogenic variables. The distribution of habitat types is a key component for understanding broad‐scale biodiversity and for developing conservation strategies. We used data on t...
Article
Full-text available
Forest fires are drivers of spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of vegetation and biodiversity. On the Canary Islands, large areas of pine forest exist, dominated by the endemic Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis C. Sm. These mostly natural forests experience wildfires frequently. P. canariensis is well-adapted to such impacts and has the abi...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss from anthropogenic development has led to an unprecedented decline in global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) exist to counteract this degradation of ecosystems. In the European Union, the Natura 2000 (N2k) network is the basis for continent-wide conservation efforts. N2k is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas...
Article
Full-text available
The flora of the Canary Islands has been subject to botanical studies for more than 200 years. Several biodiversity databases are available for the archipelago. However, there are various drivers of change in real biodiversity and the knowledge about it constantly needs to be kept track of. Island floras are both: exposed to species loss and to spe...
Article
Full-text available
Positive plant–plant interactions are thought to drive vegetation patterns in harsh environments, such as semi-arid areas. According to the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH), the role of positive interactions between species (facilitation) is expected to increase with harshness, predicting associated variation in species composition along environmen...
Article
Natural hazards resulting from climate change are increasing in frequency and intensity. As this is not a linear trend but rather by singularities and anomalies including a broad spectrum of climatic and weather extremes with high temporal and spatial uncertainty, focused avoidance strategies are difficult to prepare. However, the effects of climat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims: Habitat richness, i.e. the diversity of ecosystem types, is a complex, spatially explicit aspect of biodiversity, which is affected by bioclimatic, geographic and anthropogenic variables. The distribution of habitat types is a key component for understanding broad-scale biodiversity and for developing conservation strategies. To test which fa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change impacts ecosystem structure, functioning, and spatial distribution. Among others, it will result in a shift in ecosystem boundaries, which will result in the contraction of some vulnerable ecosystems, such as the alpine zone of high mountains. The African tropical high mountain ecosystems, i.e., Afroalpine ecosystems, are spatially e...
Article
Full-text available
Geodiversity promotes biodiversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity. In times of a global biodiversity decline, data about diversity on such geological elements gains importance, also regarding conservation and restoration. In the Canary Islands, phonolitic rocks are geological elements of volcanic origin that represent additional habitat for sp...
Article
Oxygen is one of the most crucial elements on earth and equally affects life and inorganic redox processes. After its transition to water with moderate solubility and slow diffusion rates, most aquatic organisms depend on permanent renewal of dissolved oxygen (DO). Recharge of this pivotal aqueous gas may become hampered by anthropogenic and climat...
Article
Full-text available
Epiphytes are one of the most diversified plant life forms, whose species richness peaks in the tropics and subtropics. Here we examined vertical distribution metrics (i.e., number of epiphyte individuals and epiphyte species richness) of vascular epiphytes (i.e., orchids and ferns) on two dominant host trees (i.e., Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. an...
Article
Full-text available
Chikungunya virus disease (chikungunya) is a mosquito-borne infectious disease reported in at least 50 countries, mostly in the tropics. It has spread around the globe within the last two decades, with local outbreaks in Europe. The vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) has already widely established itself in southern Europe and is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Oceanic islands are cradles of endemism, contributing substantially to global biodiversity. A similarity in magmatic origin translates into high global comparability of substrates of volcanic islands on the oceanic crust. In some places, the petrography of magmatic rocks is differentiated chemically or physically. Phonolites are examples of rare lo...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Biological invasions are likely determined by species dispersal strategies as well as environmental characteristics of a recipient region, especially climate and human impact. However, the contribution of climatic factors, human impact, and dispersal strategies in driving invasion processes is still controversial and not well embedded in the ex...
Article
In the light of unprecedented change in global biodiversity, real-time and accurate ecosystem and biodiversity assessments are becoming increasingly essential. Nevertheless, estimation of biodiversity using ecological field data can be difficult for several reasons. For instance, for very large areas, it is challenging to collect data that provide...
Article
Full-text available
Our planet is facing significant changes of biodiversity across spatial scales. Although the negative effects of local biodiversity (α diversity) loss on ecosystem stability are well documented, the consequences of biodiversity changes at larger spatial scales, in particular biotic homogenization, i.e. reduced species turnover across space (β diver...
Article
Full-text available
Epiphytes are one of the most diversified plant life forms, whose species richness peaks in the tropics and subtropics. Here we examined the vertical distribution metrics (i.e., number of epiphyte individuals and epiphyte species richness) of vascular epiphytes (orchids and ferns) on two dominant host trees (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. and Quercu...
Chapter
This synthesis report is a meta-analysis of perspectives for biodiversity and ecosystems, with a strong focus on human impacts on the environment, and a work order to enable and manage the protection, survival and evolution of all species on Earth. The goal is to protect nature without any further species loss (Zero Extinction). With this report, w...
Chapter
Realms of species, assemblages, and whole ecosystems are threatened by human activities such as damage, resource use, pollution, introduction of neobiota, and also by natural processes and disasters. We present an assessment of distribution patterns and numbers of endemic and threatened species with respect to their habitat affinity and threats at...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to discriminate four semi-arid grassland habitats in a Mediterranean Natura 2000 site, Southern Italy, involving 6210/E1.263, 62A0/E1.55, 6220/E1.434 and X/E1.61-E1.C2-E1.C4 (according to Annex I of the European Habitat Directive/EUropean Nature Information System (EUNIS) taxonomies). For this purpose, an intra-annual time-se...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Ecological niche models (ENMs) typically require point locations of species’ occurrence as input data. Where exact locations are not available, geographical centroids of the respective administrational spatial units (ASUs) are often used as a substitute. We investigated how the use of ASU centroids in ENMs affects model performance, what role t...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss from unrelenting human pressure is causing an unprecedented decline in global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) are meant to counteract loss and fragmentation of ecosystems and today PAs form the backbone of conservation strategies worldwide. However, anthropogenic climate change can severely reduce the effectiveness of PAs. Conserva...
Article
Chikungunya virus disease (chikungunya) is a mosquito-borne infectious disease reported in at least 50 countries, mostly in the tropics. It has spread around the globe within the last two decades, with local outbreaks in Europe. The vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) has already widely established itself in southern Europe and is...
Article
Geodiversity promotes biodiversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity. In times of a global biodiversity decline, data about diversity on such geological elements gains importance, also regarding conservation and restoration. In the Canary Islands, phonolitic rocks are geological elements of volcanic origin that represent additional habitat for sp...
Article
Habitat loss from anthropogenic development has led to an unprecedented decline in global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) exist to counteract this degradation of ecosystems. In the European Union, the Natura 2000 (N2k) network is the basis for continent-wide conservation efforts. N2k is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas...
Article
Forest fires are drivers of spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of vegetation and biodiversity. On the Canary Islands, large areas of pine forest exist, dominated by the endemic Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis C. Sm. These mostly natural forests experience wildfires frequently. P. canariensis is well-adapted to such impacts and has the abi...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are a major global threat to biodiversity and often affect ecosystem services negatively. They are particularly problematic on oceanic islands where there are many narrow-ranged endemic species, and the biota may be very susceptible to invasion. Quantifying and mapping invasion processes are important steps for management and c...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss from unrelenting human pressure is causing an unprecedented decline in global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) are meant to counteract loss and fragmentation of ecosystems and today PAs form the backbone of conservation strategies worldwide. However, anthropogenic climate change can severely reduce the effectiveness of PAs. Conserva...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the light of unprecedented change in global biodiversity, real-time and accurate ecosystem and biodiversity assessments are becoming increasingly essential. Nevertheless, estimation of biodiversity using ecological field data can be difficult for several reasons. For instance, for very large areas, it is challenging to collect data that provide...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Protected areas are essential to conserve biodiversity and ecosystem benefits to society under increasing human pressures of the Anthropocene. Anthropogenic climate change, however, threatens the enduring effectiveness of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services, because it modifies and redistributes biodivers...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological models (EMs) are widely used to predict the temporal outbreak risk of vector-borne diseases (VBDs). EMs typically use the basic reproduction number (R0), a threshold quantity, to indicate risk. To provide an overall view of the risk, these model outputs can be transformed into spatial risk maps, using various aggregation methods (e....
Article
Full-text available
Aim Plant life‐forms characterize key morphological strategies that enable large‐scale comparisons of plant communities. This study applies Raunkiær's plant life‐form concept that was developed for temperate climate to a subtropical island flora, in parts, dominated by summer aridity. We quantify how plant life‐form patterns as well as patterns of...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Mountains and islands are both well known for their high endemism. To explain this similarity, parallels have been drawn between the insularity of “true islands” (land surrounded by water) and the isolation of habitats within mountains (so‐called “mountain islands”). However, parallels rarely go much beyond the observation that mountaintops are...
Article
Full-text available
Current landscapes have been intensively modified by humans and forest fragmentation has created substantial increases of forest edges. So far, scale-dependence between observable ecological patterns and the underlying processes affected by forest fragmentation have been widely ignored. To overcome the widespread ambiguity in selecting relevant spa...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeographical units are widely adopted in ecological research and nature conservation management, even though biogeographical regionalisation is still under scientific debate. The European Environment Agency provided an official map of the European Biogeographical Regions (EBRs), which contains the official boundaries used in the Habitats and Bir...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a key issue in evolutionary biology, ecology, and biogeography. Evolutionary rates are the net result of interacting processes summarized under concepts such as adaptive radiation and evolutionary stasis. Here, we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification...
Data
Supplementary Materials 1. Climatic variables and vitality of tree saplings per species. 2. Vitality of the tree saplings corresponding to the soil type. 3: Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for the study area.
Article
Full-text available
Drought episodes are predicted to increase their intensity and frequency globally, which will have a particular impact on forest vitality, productivity, and species distribution. However, the impact of tree species interaction on forest vulnerability to drought is not yet clear. This study aims to assess how deciduous saplings react to drought and...
Article
Full-text available
Drought episodes are predicted to increase their intensity and frequency globally, which will have a particular impact on forest vitality, productivity, and species distribution. However, the impact of tree species interaction on forest vulnerability to drought is not yet clear. This study aims to assess how deciduous saplings react to drought and...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, Central Europe experienced one of the most severe and long-lasting summer drought and heat wave ever recorded. Before 2018, the 2003 millennial drought was often invoked as the example of a “hotter drought”, and was classified as the most severe event in Europe for the last 500 years. First insights now confirm that the 2018 drought event...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG In jüngster Zeit wurden verschiedene stechmückenübertragene Krankheiten erstmalig in Europa autochthon übertragen. Eine Kombination von Veränderungen greift hier ineinander. Zunächst wurden nicht heimische und sich invasiv ausbreitende kompetente Stechmücken (Insekten) nach Europa eingeschleppt. Außerdem nimmt die Reisetätigkeit kon...
Article
Full-text available
Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim to determine whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native‐ and alien‐rich communities. Alien species might aggregate in their non‐native range owing to shared habitat pre...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research sp...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a key issue in evolutionary biology, ecology, and biogeography. Evolutionary rates are the net result of interacting processes summarized under concepts such as adaptive radiation and evolutionary stasis. Here, we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification...
Article
Biological invasions are a major global threat to biodiversity and often affect ecosystem services negatively. They are particularly problematic on oceanic islands where there are many narrow-ranged endemic species, and the biota may be very susceptible to invasion. Quantifying and mapping invasion processes are important steps for management and c...
Article
Full-text available
In the original publication of this article (Nila & Hossain, 2019), co-authors ‘Carl Beierkuhnlein, Anja Jaeschke and Samuel Hoffmann’ need to be added to the author list.