Carissa Baker-Smith

Carissa Baker-Smith
Nemours Children’s Health System · Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children

Doctor of Medicine

About

46
Publications
6,900
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2,470
Citations
Introduction
My clinical research interests include pediatric hypertension, pediatric dyslipidemia (including familial hypercholesterolemia), and cardiovascular manifestations of sleep disordered breathing.

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for the performance of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography are based on history, physical examination and electrocardiograms. Telehealth provides access to clinical care in the absence of a physical examination. We assessed application of AUC for performance of echocardiography following a telehealth visit. In t...
Article
A heart-healthy lifestyle, beginning at an early age and sustained throughout life, may reduce risk for cardiovascular disease in youth. Among youth with moderate to severe dyslipidemia and/or those with familial hypercholesterolemia, lipid-lowering medications are often needed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, lifestyle in...
Article
Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents has markedly increased since publication of the last American Heart Association scientific statement on pediatric ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 2014. In addition, there has also been significant expansion of the evidence base for use of ambulatory blood pressure monit...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the overall improvement in life expectancy of patients living with congenital heart disease (congenital HD), disparities in morbidity and mortality remain throughout the lifespan. Longstanding systemic inequities, disparities in the social determinants of health, and the inability to obtain quality lifelong care contribute to poorer outcome...
Article
Full-text available
Background Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is the most common form of primordial dwarfism, caused by bialleic mutations in the pericentrin gene ( PCNT ). Aside from its classic features, there are multiple associated medical complications, including a well-documented risk of neurovascular disease. Over the past se...
Article
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The congenital heart care community faces a myriad of public health issues that act as barriers toward optimum patient outcomes. In this article, we attempt to define advocacy and policy initiatives meant to spotlight and potentially address these challenges. Issues are organized into the following 3 key facets of our community: patient population,...
Article
In 1997, Soergel et al ¹ published the first set of normative values for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in children. Since then, the clinical utility of ABPM has increased dramatically, and now, ABPM is accepted as the standard method to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension in children. Despite significant progress in the field of ped...
Article
Full-text available
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults. It is associated with incident systemic hypertension, arrhythmia, stroke, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. OSA is common in children and adolescents, but there has been less focus on OSA as a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease in childr...
Article
Objective(s) To determine if telehealth acceptance by parents of children with heart disease is predicted by sociodemographic and/or by parental digital literacy; and to assess parental perceptions of TH usability and reliability. Study design We conducted a single center study comparing TH acceptance versus visit cancellation/rescheduling for ped...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primar...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can begin in youth. Prevention is essential to reducing the burden of CVD-related risk factors in childhood and disease development in adulthood. This review addresses the clinical scope of CVD prevention, including a review of conditions encountered, proposed diagnostic criteria, and management stra...
Article
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) refers to the capacity of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscle mitochondria for energy production needed during physical activity. CRF is an important marker of physical and mental health and academic achievement in youth. However, only 40% of US youth are currently believed to...
Article
Echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the pre-operative assessment, post-operative management and long-term follow-up of pediatric heart failure and heart transplant patients. Echocardiography may be a particularly useful modality for evaluating ventricular function and for providing noninvasive rejection surveillance. Mechanical circulatory sup...
Chapter
This new compendium contains AAP clinical practice guidelines, policy statements, and clinical reports of interest to physicians who care for adolescents. https://shop.aap.org/adolescent-health-a-compendium-of-aap-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-policies-paperback/
Article
Introduction Infants undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome may have post-operative feeding difficulties. Although the cause of feeding difficulties in these patients is multi-factorial, residual arch obstruction may affect gut perfusion, contributing to feeding intolerance. We hypothesised that undergoing arch reinterven...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) in the food supply has increased over time. Not only are more children and adolescents consuming NNSs, but they are also consuming a larger quantity of NNSs in the absence of strong scientific evidence to refute or support the safety of these agents. This policy statement from the American Academy of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To enhance the understanding of cardiovascular care delivery in childhood cancer patients and survivors. Study design: A 20-question survey was created by the Pediatric Cardio-oncology Work Group of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Cardio-oncology Section to assess the care, management, and surveillance tools utilized to manag...
Article
Physical activity is an important component of ideal cardiovascular health. Current guidelines recommend that youth with hypertension participate in competitive sports once hypertensive target organ effects and risks have been assessed and that children with hypertension receive treatment to lower BP below stage 2 thresholds (e.g., < 140/90 mmHg or...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension affects >40% of the US population and is a major contributor to cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although less common among children and adolescents, hypertension affects 1% to 5% of all youth. The 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents provide...
Article
Full-text available
Systemic hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adulthood. High blood pressure (HBP) and repeated measures of HBP, hypertension (HTN), begin in youth. Knowledge of how best to diagnose, manage, and treat systemic HTN in children and adolescents is important for primary and subspecialty care providers. Objectives: To provide a...
Chapter
Exercise testing is routinely performed to assess functional capacity, identify changes in cardiopulmonary physiology, evaluate symptoms and signs induced by exercise, and to determine the appropriateness of physical activity in children (and adults) with acquired and congenital heart disease. In this chapter, we summarize the basics of exercise te...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To develop quality metrics (QMs) for the ambulatory care of patients with transposition of the great arteries following arterial switch operation (TGA/ASO). Design: Under the auspices of the American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Steering committee, the TGA/ASO team generated candidate QMs rela...
Article
Full-text available
These pediatric hypertension guidelines are an update to the 2004 "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents." Significant changes in these guidelines include (1) the replacement of the term "prehypertension" with the term "elevated blood pressure," (2) new normative pediatric blood...
Article
Full-text available
The American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Section had attempted to create quality metrics (QM) for ambulatory pediatric practice, but limited evidence made the process difficult. The ACPC sought to develop QMs for ambulatory pediatric cardiology practice. Five areas of interest were identified, and QMs were...
Chapter
Exercise testing is routinely performed to assess functional capacity, identify changes in cardiopulmonary physiology, evaluate symptoms and signs induced by exercise, and to determine the appropriateness of physical activity in children (and adults) with acquired and congenital heart disease. In this chapter, we summarize the basics of exercise te...
Article
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an uncommon, idiopathic complication of pregnancy associated with significant (10-30%) mortality. The disease occurs late in pregnancy or in the months following delivery, resulting in reduced systolic function and heart failure (HF) symptoms. Limited direction is provided for the management of PPCM, and the safe...
Article
Full-text available
Prescription of multiple antihypertensive medications for the treatment of essential hypertension (HTN) has been well described in adults but not in children and adolescents. The authors describe the frequency with which children with essential HTN are prescribed a single vs two or more concomitantly administered antihypertensive medications. They...
Article
The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) for single ventricle patients following stage 2 palliation (S2P), excluding patients who underwent a hybrid procedure. We explore the impact of demographic features, stage 1 palliation (S1P), interstage I (IS1) management, S2P, and post-surgical care on...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) for single ventricle patients following Stage I palliation. We hypothesize that peri-operative factors contribute to prolonged ICU stay among children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and its variants. In 2008, as a part of t...
Chapter
Currently, one-third of all children in the United States aged 2-19 years are overweight, of which 16.9% are obese [1]. The onset of obesity in childhood confers a higher risk of adult cardiometabolic mortality due to diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke [2]. Several longitudinal studies have linked early childhood weight gain...
Article
Background and methods: The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative (NPC-QIC) has established a national data registry for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants undergoing staged palliation. The goal of this collaborative is to better understand current care practices and to improve outcomes in chil...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of cough in children receiving antihypertension therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is unknown. We analyzed patient-level data from eight randomized trials for the treatment of pediatric hypertension, six of them involving ACEis and two involving ARBs. The incidence of...
Article
Aortic valve atresia with interruption of the aortic arch is an extremely rare anomaly; only eleven cases of this anomaly have been reported to date. In the absence of additional sources of blood flow to the ascending aorta, aortic valve atresia with interruption of the aortic arch is fatal. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case...
Article
Congress has authorized the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to provide industry sponsors with a 6-month extension of drug marketing rights under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision if FDA-requested pediatric drug trials are conducted. The cost and economic return of pediatric exclusivity to industry sponsors has been shown to be hi...
Article
Full-text available
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are frequently used to treat hypertension in children.(1) ACE inhibitors alter the balance between the vasoconstrictive, salt-retentive, and cardiac hypertrophic properties of angiotensin II and the vasodilatory and natriuretic properties of bradykinin; they also alter the metabolism of other vasoactiv...
Article
Historically, drugs prescribed for children have not been studied in pediatric populations. Since 1997, however, a 6-month extension of marketing rights is granted if manufacturers conduct Food and Drug Administration-defined pediatric trials. In nearly half of the drugs studied, there were unexpected results in dosing, safety, or efficacy compared...

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