Candice Howarth

Candice Howarth
The London School of Economics and Political Science | LSE · Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment (GRI)

PhD, MSc, BSc

About

62
Publications
11,932
Reads
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869
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on science communication, the science-policy interface, co-production and nexus-related decision making I have extensive expertise in designing and implementing innovative methods for collecting and analysing qualitative and quantitative data. My PhD explored the role of climate messaging in overcoming perceived barriers to behaviour change and I have led a number of projects on science communication, co-production, practitioner evidence and the IPCC process, and nexus shocks
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Fellow
May 2017 - August 2019
University of Surrey
Position
  • Lecturer
May 2016 - May 2017
University of Surrey
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Climate scientists can do a better job of communicating their work to local communities and reignite interest in the issue. Local media outlets provide a unique opportunity to build a platform for scientists to tell their stories and engage in a dialogue with people currently outside the 'climate bubble'.
Article
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports provide the most reliable and robust assessment of understanding of the climate system. However, they do not include practitioner-based evidence, which is fundamental to make the reports a relevant source of information for decision-making.
Article
Full-text available
The nexus represents a multi-dimensional means of scientific enquiry which seeks to describe the complex and non-linear interactions between water, energy, food, with the climate, and further understand wider implications for society. These resources are fundamental for human life but are negatively affected by shocks such as climate change and cha...
Article
Full-text available
Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) review of how to make its Assessment Reports (ARs) more accessible in the future, the research reported here assesses the extent to which the ARs are a useful tool through which scientific advice informs local decision-making on climate change in the United Kingdom. Results from int...
Article
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This Perspective critically assesses how the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) could facilitate a closer alignment of its activities and include lessons drawn from the policy and decision-making communities working on the ground at the regional/local levels. By means of a series of workshops with academics, policy officials and decis...
Article
Full-text available
The delivery of effective climate adaptation on the ground requires that the (climate adaptation) practitioner community be better incorporated into the process of producing, gathering and synthesizing evidence on adaptation as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process. This is not a recent issue and the co-production of...
Preprint
Climate emergency declarations made by local governments often include targets to reach net zero emissions, but it is unclear how these targets contribute to national commitments to reduce emissions or whether these targets are achievable. At the national level, the UK has set the ambitious target to reduce emissions by 78% by 2035, however, the UK...
Chapter
Full-text available
Highlights There is a reduction in adaptation action despite science continuing to produce actionable material. Climate change adaptation advice and support must be salient, credible and legitimate among other things.
Article
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Effective action taken against climate change must find ways to unite scientific and practice-based knowledges associated with the various stakeholders who see themselves as invested in the global delivery of climate governance. Political decision-makers, climate scientists and practitioners approach this challenge from what are often radically dif...
Book
This open access book brings together a collection of cutting-edge insights into how action can and is already being taken against climate change at multiple levels of our societies, amidst growing calls for transformative and inclusive climate action. In an era of increasing recognition regarding climate and ecological breakdown, this book offers...
Article
Full-text available
A key aim of much climate activism is to enhance climate ambition and hold local and national governments, as well as global governance forums like the United Nations (UN), to account for the ways in which they implement and monitor climate policy across society to reverse long-term climate change. In recent years new local forms of climate activis...
Article
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In light of increasing pressure to deliver climate action targets and the growing role of citizens in raising the importance of the issue, deliberative democratic processes (e.g. citizen juries and citizen assemblies) on climate change are increasingly being used to provide a voice to citizens in climate change decision-making. Through a comparativ...
Article
Full-text available
The UK, like other countries, has seen a proliferation of declarations of local climate emergencies. While these declarations have been interpreted as a demonstration of ambition, little is known about how and why they actually came about when they did and the implications this will have for what happens next. Focusing on London, UK, we present evi...
Preprint
Full-text available
In light of increasing pressure to deliver climate action targets, and the growing role of citizens in raising the importance of the issue, deliberative democratic processes (e.g. Citizen Juries and Citizen Assemblies) on climate change are increasingly being used to provide a voice to citizens in climate change decision-making. Through a comparati...
Article
Full-text available
Against the backdrop of increasingly fragmented and poly-centric urban climate governance, this article examines the establishment of city climate ‘commissions’ as an experimental means of addressing the challenge of climate change at the city-scale. In doing so it addresses the question: What constitutes diversity in voices and perspectives when t...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptions of climate change and associated risks are complex and require greater consideration of the context in which behaviours are formed and changed. People tend to create their own stories of climate change providing an opportunity to capture personal experiences and frame solutions accordingly through narratives. Engagement with the issue c...
Article
Full-text available
International assessments of evidence on climate change (e.g. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) or national climate change risk assessments (e.g. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, CCRA) do not offer a sufficiently granular perspective on climate impacts to adequately inform governance of resilience to climate risks at the local leve...
Article
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The COVID-19 imposed lockdown has led to a number of temporary environmental side effects (reduced global emissions, cleaner air, less noise), that the climate community has aspired to achieve over a number of decades. However, these benefits have been achieved at a massive cost to welfare and the economy. This commentary draws lessons from the COV...
Article
Full-text available
Approaches to communicating climate science beyond academia are necessary for enhancing salience, understanding, and engagement and accelerating action. This Primer discusses the heterogeneous manner in which climate change messaging is received by different audiences, how social scientific approaches could help to better tailor climate change mess...
Article
This paper adds new insights to the relationship between city-regionalism, the territorial logics of the competition state and how climate adaptation is located in state spaces. Whilst climate adaptation governance is positioned within national economic sectors, it highlights an emerging city-regional policy dimension to such governance. The spatia...
Article
Full-text available
The media play a vital role in framing the narrative on climate change, however little work exists to assess the extent to which local media outlets increase public engagement on climate change through interaction and engagement with local academics. As temperatures rise and concerns mount that we have passed the tipping point, local media play a p...
Article
Full-text available
Climate services entail providing timely and tailored climate information to end-users in order to facilitate and improve decision-making processes. Climate services are instrumental in socio-economic development and benefit substantially from interdisciplinary collaborations, particularly when including Early Career Researchers (ECRs). This commen...
Article
Full-text available
At present, there is little guidance on how to communicate the dangers relating to hot weather events and on how to better prepare for them. Social responses to hot weather risks need to be a priority as populations around the world become more exposed to these under a changing climate. In this commentary, we argue that policy interventions focused...
Chapter
This chapter introduces ‘nexus shocks’. It explores who and what they impact and how, why they are important, and why the lens of nexus shocks provides a useful approach to practically explore and inform decision-making about climate shocks to food-energy-water-environment (FEWE) resources. Characteristics of nexus shocks are presented and discusse...
Chapter
Nexus shocks are non-linear, spanning multiple sectors and geographies, with decisions often made with a sectoral focus. This can lead to failures to consider the impacts on and interactions of other sectors and stakeholders. A number of challenges and opportunities emerge when examining the impacts of climate shocks to the food, energy, water, env...
Chapter
Building resilient responses to nexus shocks requires effective communication and collaboration across sectors and stakeholders, yet this is not always achieved. The Nexus Shocks project examined how communication and collaboration could be enhanced, adopting a co-production methodology with policy, practitioner and scientific communities. This cha...
Chapter
This chapter explores how responses to nexus shocks can help reduce impacts or make them worst. It draws on findings from five co-production workshops with the UK Met Office, Atkins, Chatham House, Lloyds of London and Willis Re, Cambridge Cleantech and LDA Design, to assess the factors that exacerbate and mitigate climate shocks to the food, energ...
Chapter
The frequency and intensity of climate shocks are expected to increase under a changing climate with severe implications for sectors and those working across the food, energy, water, environment nexus. Impacts of these shocks will exacerbate the vulnerability of those sectors affecting resource availability, system pressures and decision-making pro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the use and perceived usefulness of the 2012 and 2017 United Kingdom Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) reports to identify potential areas of improvement for UK adaptation policy. We conducted interviews with key stakeholders and analysed each CCRA in the context of objective, audience, budget, frame, key findings, dissemina...
Book
‘The challenge of coping with uncertain climate risks and potential disruption across a range of sectors is a topic that is increasingly coming to the fore… Dr. Howarth and colleagues skilfully set out the nature of the problem, the barriers to responding effectively, and some innovative thinking about the importance of collaboration and communicat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Climate change risk assessments act as a bridge between climate science research and climate policy. The UCL Policy Commission for Communicating Climate Science brought together 30 policy makers, climate scientists and research funders in a workshop to explore how climate change risk assessments can be made more effective drivers of climate change...
Article
Full-text available
Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of total energy use in the United Kingdom (UK), with space and water heating accounting for almost 80% of this consumption. Energy efficiency is often the simplest andmost cost-effectiveway of reducing energy use, and improving domestic energy efficiency can contribute significantly to reducing t...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. Current methods of analysis were not built to represent such a complex system and are insufficiently equipped to capture and understand positive and n...
Article
Full-text available
Narratives can help increase experiential engagement with climate change and build support for transitions to a low carbon future. The UK’s 2050 climate targets provide indicatives frames through which emissions reductions could be translated to different contexts. The scenarios outlined in the UK’s fifth carbon budget will require lifestyle change...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a policy shift towards localism in the UK driving responses and decision-making processes to respond to the impacts of climate change. This shift capitalizes on local expertise and knowledge, empowering communities to take ownership of response strategies, with an increased focus on building resilience to nexus shocks. This comes at...
Chapter
Full-text available
and Keywords Labels play an important role in opinion formation, helping to actively construct perceptions and reality, and to place individuals into context with others. As a highly complex issue, climate change invites a range of different opinions and dialogues about its causes, impacts, and action required. Much work has been published in the a...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists are under increasing pressure to communicate their findings effectively to decision-makers and undertake public engagement activities. Research councils require researchers to demonstrate the Pathways to Impact of their funding and within the Research Excellence Framework to demonstrate an "effect on, change or benefit to the economy, so...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Conference Paper
This paper responds to an increasing interest in how data-driven interactive artworks can support a greater understanding of the relationship between humans and data. This paper extends this work by focusing on the The Prediction Machine, an interactive and data-driven artwork that arose from collaborations between an artist, climate scientists, HC...
Article
Public perceptions of the climate debate predominantly frame the key actors as climate scientists versus sceptical voices; however, it is unclear why climate scientists and sceptical voices choose to participate in this antagonistic and polarised public battle. A narrative interview approach is used to better understand the underlying rationales be...
Book
New ‘digital-born players’ such as Huffington Post, BuzzFeed and Vice are challenging traditional media in their provision of news in general, and about the environment in particular. They have invested heavily in a wide range of countries and languages in an attempt to reach young audiences, who increasingly use social media as their source of new...
Article
Labels play an important role in opinion formation, helping to actively construct perceptions and reality, and place individuals into context with others. As a highly complex issue, climate change invites a range of different opinions and dialogs about its causes, impacts, and action required. However, the polarized labels used in the climate chang...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper considers the increasing utilisation of games design as an approach to encouraging behavioural change through design. In particular it considers how to address issues that cannot be reduced to easily actionable personal goals such as climate change and are often termed 'wicked problems' by designers due to their innate complexity. This p...
Book
Full-text available
Climate scientists are finding themselves ill-prepared to engage with the often emotionally, politically and ideologically charged public discourse on the evaluation and use of their science. This is proving unhelpful to evidence-based policy formulation, and is damaging their public standing. As a result, there is a pressing need to re-examine and...
Article
Full-text available
The UCL Policy Commission on the Communication of Climate Science, chaired by Professor Chris Rapley comprises a cross-disciplinary project group of researchers from psychology, neuroscience, science and technology studies, earth sciences and energy research. The Commission examined the challenges faced in communicating climate science effectively...
Article
Full-text available
Statistics show that unsustainable travel behaviour and global greenhouse gas emissions are growing and due to the perceived indispensable nature of personal travel, shifts to more sustainable modes remain a challenge. Automobility supports sustained local economic growth but also raises issues around safety, health, road fatalities, traffic and co...
Article
Purpose – To provide a behavioural perspective on the relationship between transport and climate change. Methodology/approach – The factors influencing travel behaviour and the elements critical to behaviour formation are reviewed. The importance of behaviour change measures to reduce the impact of transport on climate change, and the application o...
Conference Paper
Climate awareness programmes aim to inform the public of simple steps that can be made to reduce the environmental impacts of personal travel. However they fail to acknowledge that travel decisions are made at the individual level and that tailored strategies would be more effective at targeting distinct behavioural patterns. Statistics show that u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper therefore examines the role of climate change information in achieving significant reductions in unsustainable travel behaviour. By drawing on findings from a wide-scale survey of travellers in Hampshire, UK, the issues underlying the continued seemingly unsustainable travel behaviour of EU citizens are explored alongside the likely succ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the extent to which information on climate change can influence travel behaviour. Travel behaviour on the aggregate level is unsustainable; in light of increasing awareness on climate change, the need to substantially reduce emissions from the transport sector is growing. The status of travel behaviour has grown both in term...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Climate change is the most serious threat facing mankind in the 21st century; it has been linked to human activities and the impacts of global climate change will persevere for years to come. The transport sector is responsible for a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions linked to climate change and it is the only sector with rising emissions....

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
The proposed research will examine whether, and in what form, a new ‘civil politics’ of climate change is emerging from recent populist climate events in the UK and around the world. These events include school climate strikes and declarations of a climate emergency, which in the context of uncertainty surrounding Brexit have generated new social, political and economic pressures within the UK state, yet have arguably created the societal conditions needed to catalyse increased action on climate change. But still governments remain criticised for climate policy apathy, rooted in an over-reliance on fossil fuels to maintain global economic competitiveness. Using focus groups and interviews with key public, private and third sector UK stakeholders, the aim of the study is to identify, and account for, some key elements of a ‘new civil politics’ of climate change emerging at local and national scales across the UK.
Project
Increasing sustainable travel behaviour in urban environments: Proactive and reactive responses to environmental images in a digital setting