Camilla Wikenros

Camilla Wikenros
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Ecology

PhD

About

84
Publications
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1,148
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Publications

Publications (84)
Technical Report
Järven har under senare tid etablerat sig i Inre Skandinaviens skogsområden vilket även är vargens huvudsakliga utbredningsområde i Skandinavien. Det finns lite kunskap om järvens matvanor i detta område då mycket av den befintliga kunskapen om järven kommer från studier i fjälltrakterna. Järvar som lever i vargrevir har tillgång till föda från var...
Article
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Humans pose a major mortality risk to wolves. Hence, similar to how prey respond to predators, wolves can be expected to show anti-predator responses to humans. When exposed to a threat, animals may show a fight, flight, freeze or hide response. The type of response and the circumstances (e.g., distance and speed) at which the animal flees are usef...
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As wolves recolonize areas of Europe ranging from moderate to high anthropogenic impact, fear of wolves is a recurring source of conflict. Shared tools for evaluating wolf responses to humans, and comparing such responses across their range, can be valuable. Experiments in which humans approach wild wolves can increase our understanding of how wolv...
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The ongoing recolonisations of human-transformed environments in Europe by large carnivores like the wolf Canis lupus means that conservation conflicts could re-surface, among other reasons, due to predation on ungulate game species. We estimated the effect of wolves on ungulate species using data on wolf prey selection, kill rates and territory si...
Article
Genetic drift can dramatically change allele frequencies in small populations and lead to reduced levels of genetic diversity, including loss of segregating variants. However, there is a shortage of quantitative studies of how genetic diversity changes over time in natural populations, especially on genome-wide scales. Here, we analyzed whole-genom...
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Species assemblages often have a non‐random nested organization, which in vertebrate scavenger (carrion‐consuming) assemblages is thought to be driven by facilitation in competitive environments. However, not all scavenger species play the same role in maintaining assemblage structure, as some species are obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures) and ot...
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Competition between apex predators can alter the strength of top‐down forcing, yet we know little about the behavioral mechanisms that drive competition in multipredator ecosystems. Interactions between predators can be synergistic (facilitative) or antagonistic (inhibitive), both of which are widespread in nature, vary in strength between species...
Poster
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Poster on wolf feeding trials conducted at Järvzoo for the validation of DNA-based method developed to detect prey from scats.
Article
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Landscape of fear refers to the spatial variation in prey perception of predation risk, that under certain conditions, may lead to changes in their behavior. Behavioral responses of prey in relation to large carnivore predation risk have mainly been conducted in areas with low anthropogenic impact. We used long-term data on the distribution of moos...
Article
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Large carnivore feeding ecology plays a crucial role for management and conservation for predators and their prey. One of the keys to this kind of research is to identify the species composition in the predator diet, for example, prey determination from scat content. DNA-based methods applied to detect prey in predators’ scats are viable alternativ...
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1. Estimating the contribution of demographic parameters to changes in population growth is essential for understanding why populations fluctuate. Integrated Population Models (IPMs) offer a possibility to estimate contributions of additional demographic parameters, for which no data have been explicitly collected: typically immigration. Such param...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Age at first reproduction constitutes a key life-history trait in animals and is evolutionarily shaped by fitness benefits and costs of delayed versus early reproduction. The understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic changes affects age at first reproduction is crucial for conservation and management of threatened species because of its demograp...
Article
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Large carnivores play a key ecological role in nature, yet quantifying the effects of predation at large spatiotemporal scales remains challenging. Wolves and brown bears have recovered in Sweden, where they share the same staple prey, moose. This ecosystem is representative of the Eurasian boreal realm, and makes an interesting case study for expl...
Article
Improved knowledge about reproductive patterns and potential in male wolves (i.e., testicular development and size relative to age, pubertal age, and seasonal effects) is needed for evaluation and monitoring of reproductive outcomes in populations. Reproductive organs from 215 male wolves, culled as a result of licensed hunting, protective culling...
Article
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In recent years, large predators have made a comeback across large parts of Europe. However, little is known about the impact that recolonizing predators may have on ecosystems with high degrees of anthropogenic influence. In Scandinavia, wolves (Canis lupus) now inhabit areas affected by intense forestry practices and their main prey, moose (Alces...
Article
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Predation from large carnivores and human harvest are the two main mortality factors affecting the dynamics of many ungulate populations. We examined long-term moose (Alces alces) harvest data from two countries that share cross-border populations of wolves (Canis lupus) and their main prey moose. We tested how a spatial gradient of increasing wolf...
Technical Report
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In Recommendation 257 L (2016-2017), the Norwegian parliament asked the government to undertake an assessment of the Norwegian subpopulation of wolves on the grounds that an independent assessment of what can be defined as a viable population of wolves in Norway has never previously been conducted. The Ministry of Climate and Environment gave the N...
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Ungulates frequently cause damage to human livelihoods, such as agriculture, livestock or forestry. In Sweden, forestry is the dominating land use and is a very important source of income. Moose (Alces alces) browsing commonly causes damage to young forest stands, mainly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Factors known to affect the level of moose brow...
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Several large carnivore populations are recovering former ranges, and it is important to understand interspecific interactions between overlapping species. In Scandinavia, recent research has reported that brown bear presence influences gray wolf habitat selection and kill rates. Here, we characterized the temporal use of a common prey resource by...
Article
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The organization of ecological assemblages has important implications for ecosystem functioning, but little is known about how scavenger communities organize at the global scale. Here, we test four hypotheses on the factors affecting the network structure of terrestrial vertebrate scavenger assemblages and its implications on ecosystem functioning....
Article
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Habitat selection of animals depends on factors such as food availability, landscape features, and intra- and interspecific interactions. Individuals can show several behavioral responses to reduce competition for habitat, yet the mechanisms that drive them are poorly understood. This is particularly true for large carnivores, whose fine-scale moni...
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The recovery of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes comes with challenges. In general, large carnivores avoid humans and their activities, and human avoidance favors coexistence, but individual variation in large carnivore behavior may occur. The detection of individuals close to human settlements or roads can trigger fear in local commu...
Article
Poaching is an important limiting factor for many large carnivore populations worldwide and the effect that legal culling has on poaching rate on wolf (Canis lupus) is debated. We used data linked to population monitoring and research to analyze rate and risk of disappearance without known cause for territorial pair-living wolves (n = 444) in Swede...
Article
PDF of submitted version available for free at: http://publish.illinois.edu/maxallen/files/2019/06/Sebastian-Gonzalez-et-al.-MS.pdf Understanding the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth is one of the most challenging questions in biology. Much research has been directed at explaining the species latitudinal pattern showing that communi...
Technical Report
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The wolf population in Scandinavia is regulated by hunting. Therefore, wolf effects on prey populations are limited compared to unregulated predator populations, and confined to the area of stationary, territorial packs and pairs. One way of estimating the effect of wolf predation on moose compared to moose harvest, is to study moose dynamics in wo...
Technical Report
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The wolf is a social carnivore, with 80-90% of all individuals in the population living in packs or pairs within territories that are actively defended against conspecifics. The remaining individuals are solitary wolves. Solitary wolves can be categorized into 1) stationary animals within an established territory, and 2) non-stationary solitary ani...
Technical Report
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Predation and human harvest are the two most important factors affecting the dynamics of many ungulate populations worldwide. The re-establishment of the wolf population in Scandinavia has been heavily opposed from several societal groups. One of the main arguments against wolves is that their predation will result in a significant reduction in the...
Technical Report
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Along with the recent re-colonization of carnivores, a number of studies have shed new light on the potential importance of top predators for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Large carnivores may affect plant growth and biodiversity in forest systems through their effect on herbivores, i.e. the tri-trophic cascade hypothesis. In this study,...
Article
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Natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) occurs when characteristics of the natal habitat influence the future habitat selection of an animal. However, the influence of NHPI after the dispersal phase has received remarkably little attention. We tested whether exposure to humans in the natal habitat helps understand why some adult wolves Canis lupu...
Article
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Natal dispersal is an important mechanism for the viability of populations. The influence of local conditions or experience gained in the natal habitat could improve fitness if dispersing individuals settle in an area with similar habitat characteristics. This process, defined as ‘natal habitat-biased dispersal’ (NHBD), has been used to explain dis...
Technical Report
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The wolf is a habitat generalist with reproducing populations in a variety of habitats from arctic areas, vast boreal forests, open agricultural areas to densely populated areas in the subtropics. An important factor for wolf habitat selection is the availability of prey, and several studies have shown that wolves utilize the dark hours for hunting...
Technical Report
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The basic social unit in wolves consists of the territory-marking pair, and together with their offspring from the contemporary and/or previous litters they form a family group, commonly referred to as the wolf pack. The family group's grouping behavior and movement pattern depends on the wolves' year cycle. Observations in Scandinavia from long-te...
Technical Report
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We investigated whether the degree of natal exposure to anthropogenic influences could explain some of the variation in the selection of habitat with regard to anthropogenic factors in Scandinavian wolves. In the first part of the study we tested whether anthropogenic influences in the natal habitat might affect the choice of a breeding territory....
Technical Report
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We present the first telemetry study of the habitat use of dispersing wolves in Scandinavia. During dispersal, young wolves enter unfamiliar areas, and their travel routes often follow natural as well as anthropogenic landscape corridors such as valleys and roads. With average dispersal distances of 225 km (males) and 154 km (females), dispersing w...
Technical Report
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People living inside wolf territories may observe wolves or wolf tracks near their homes, and debates often arise about wolves’ proximity to human settlements and whether the observed behaviors are normal for wild wolves. This has been the case in the so-called Slettås wolf territory in Eastern Hedmark where wolves first established a territory dur...
Technical Report
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The territory establishment of the Slettås wolves in an area that for truly more than a hundred years had been free of reproducing wolves initiated a still ongoing conflict regarding the wolves’ behavior towards human settlement. Local inhabitants perceived the Slettås wolves as bold, and therefore the management marked the breeder pair and four pu...
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Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower tro...
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Human-driven wildlife mortality is caused by both indirect causes and direct persecution due to conflicts ofinterests. The wolf, a predator frequently at risk from human-wildlife conflict, is returning to areas where it washistorically extirpated in Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway). The wolf is expanding via a management strategythat allows wolves to...
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This dataset article describes the data and sources used to model risks for the recolonizing wolf (Canis lupus) in Sweden and Norway in the article "Integrated spatially-explicit models predict pervasive risks to recolonizing wolves in Scandinavia from human-driven mortality" (Recio et al., 2018). Presences on wolf territories were used to model th...
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Inbreeding (mating between relatives) is a major concern for conservation as it decreases individual fitness and can increase the risk of population extinction. We used whole-genome resequencing of 97 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf population to identify 'identical-by-descent' (IBD) chromosome segments as runs of...
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Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as lan...
Technical Report
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Wolves in the Slettås wolf territory have for several years been described by local inhabitants and media as moving close to settlements. Five individuals of the pack have therefore been radiomarked with GPS-collars in January 2017, together with nine wolves of the neighbouring Osdalen pack. The Scandinavian Wolf Research Project SKANDULV followed...
Technical Report
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Since the reestablishment of the wolf population in Scandinavia during the 1980s, there have been conflicts related to the coexistence of wolves and people, mostly regarding loss of livestock and dogs, people’s fear, and competition for moose. To reduce conflicts, knowledge about wolf dispersal patterns is essential for management policies, but has...
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Background Predation risk is a primary motivator for prey to congregate in larger groups. A large group can be beneficial to detect predators, share predation risk among individuals and cause confusion for an attacking predator. However, forming large groups also has disadvantages like higher detection and attack rates of predators or interspecific...
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Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was aff...
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Olfactory signals constitute an important mechanism in interspecific interactions, but little is known regarding their role in communication between predator species. We analyzed the behavioral responses of a mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), to an olfactory cue (scat) of an apex predator, the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Białowieża Primeval Forest...
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Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter-and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills...
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In a predator–prey system, prey species may adapt to the presence of predators with behavioral changes such as increased vigilance, shifting habitats, or changes in their mobility. In North America, moose (Alces alces) have shown behavioral adaptations to presence of predators, but such antipredator behavioral responses have not yet been found in S...