Callie J. Schweitzer

Callie J. Schweitzer
US Forest Service | FS · Southern Research Station

PhD

About

85
Publications
15,474
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1,393
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (85)
Chapter
The role of fire in the eastern broadleaf and Appalachian forest regions, until recently, was poorly understood or minimally examined, as this region was long overlooked as a flammable landscape and fire was seen primarily as a threat to the timber resource and wildlife. In the past few decades, a significant body of research has enhanced our under...
Article
Full-text available
We detected Heartland virus (HRTV) in lone star nymphs collected in 2018 in northern Alabama, USA. Real-time reverse transcription PCR selective for the small segment of the HRTV genome and confirmatory sequencing of positive samples showed high identity with HRTV strains sequenced from Tennessee and Missouri.
Article
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Drag sampling and flagging are two of the most effective and widely applied techniques to monitor tick populations. Despite the importance of this sampling strategy, there is a lack of standardized protocols for the construction of an inexpensive tick drag/flag. To this end, we provide a step-by-step protocol that details the construction of a tick...
Article
Full-text available
Strong white oak sawtimber markets, partially attributed to the stave and cooperage industries, are encouraging forest managers to re-examine silvicultural practices for white oak (Quercus alba). We examined recruitment and retention of white oak in mixed oak–pine stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in northcentral Alabama. Stands wer...
Conference Paper
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The 2017 Oak Symposium was convened in Knoxville, TN, to share knowledge on state-of-the-art management and research to improve sustainability of the upland oak resource in the Eastern United States. The symposium featured 33 invited speakers, an audience discussion period, a field trip, and 21 offered posters. Speakers addressed topics including t...
Article
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For millennia, natural disturbance regimes, including anthropogenic fire and hunting practices, have led to forest regeneration patterns that created a diversity of forest lands across the USA. But dramatic changes in climates, invasive species, and human population, and land use have created novel disturbance regimes that are causing challenges to...
Article
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Background The early stage of forest succession following disturbance is characterized by a shift in songbird composition as well as increased avian richness due to increased herbaceous growth in the forest understory. However, regeneration of woody species eventually outcompetes the herbaceous understory, subsequently shifting vegetation communiti...
Article
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The ground flora stratum affects stand structure, resource acquisition, nutrient cycling, and taxonomic richness in forest ecosystems. Disturbances such as thinning and prescribed fire alter forest understory growing conditions that generally increase ground flora cover and richness. We studied annual changes in ground flora assemblages over three...
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The long history of fire in North America spans millennia and is recognized as an important driver in the widespread and long-term dominance of oak species and oak natural communities. Frequent wildfires from about 1850 to 1950 resulted in much forest damage, and gained fire a negative reputation. The lack of fire for the past nearly 100 years due...
Article
Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand struc...
Article
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There has been an increased interest in tree breeding for resistance to exotic pests and pathogens, however relatively little research has focused on the reintroduction of these tree species. Understanding the durability of resistance in field settings and the field performance of improved trees is critical for successful species reintroduction. To...
Article
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Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak natural communities that were dominant across the region. In the past century, savannas and woodlands have become scarce because of conversion to agriculture or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. Their restoration is a primary goal for pub...
Article
Woodland restoration has been conducted in many countries, primarily in Mediterranean regions, but has only recently been attempted on publically and privately owned lands in the eastern United States. We reconstructed historical stand dynamics and tested the immediate effects of an oak (Quercus) woodland restoration treatment on forest health, inf...
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This special issue of Fire Ecology is fo-cused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands , and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tus-caloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest...
Article
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Restoration of hardwood-pine (Pinus L.) mixedwoods is an important management goal in many pine plantations in the southern Cumberland Plateau in north-central Alabama, USA. Pine plantations have been relatively unmanaged since initiation, and thus include a diversity of hardwoods developing in the understory. These unmanaged pine plantations have...
Article
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Regeneration failure of Quercus in mature Quercus-dominated forests has been reported throughout the temperate zone. Quercus seedlings are often abundant in these forests, yet frequently fail to recruit to larger size classes despite canopy disturbances. To examine intra-stand patterns of advanced reproduction, competition, and irradiance in an upl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oak (Quercus) is difficult to naturally regenerate in many mature oak stands on productive sites in the southeastern United States, and artificial regeneration alternatives should be considered. Artificial regeneration can potentially restore or enrich the oak component at the stand level. We examined genetic and silvicultural effects on artificial...
Article
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Artificial regeneration of oak has been generally unsuccessful in maintaining the oak component in productive upland forests of eastern North America. We tested visual grading effects on quality-grown northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings planted in two submesic stands on the Cumberland Plateau escarpment of Tennessee, USA. Seedlings were grow...
Conference Paper
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Post-logging sites were historically assumed to provide unfavorable habitat for songbirds. Timber harvests have always been important for species that require disturbances, but while most studies focus on clearcuts, few examine the harvesting methods ranging between clearcutting and undisturbed forests; such as those created with shelterwood prescr...
Article
Natural disturbances play important roles in shaping the structure and composition of all forest ecosystems and can be used to inform silvicultural practices. Canopy disturbances are often classified along a gradient ranging from highly localized, gap-scale events to stand-replacing events. Wind storms such as downbursts, derechos, and low intensit...
Conference Paper
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To compare methods for bottomland hardwood reforestation on marginal farmlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, four afforestation treatments (natural colonization, sown oak acorns, planted oak seedlings, cottonwood–oak interplant) were established in 1995 on former soybean cropland. Natural, sown, and planted-oak plots were not managed after es...
Article
In the eastern United States, the practice of salvage logging is common to reclaim economic losses and/or reduce fuel loading following a natural disturbance. A current hypothesis states that two disturbances in rapid succession (i.e., compounded disturbance) have a cumulative severity of impact and may displace the successional trajectory further...
Article
Forest disturbances are discrete events in space and time that disrupt the biophysical environment and impart lasting legacies on forest composition and structure. Disturbances are often classified along a gradient of spatial extent and magnitude that ranges from catastrophic events where most of the overstory is removed to gap-scale events that mo...
Article
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Determining targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that can be facilitated by cooperative partnerships. Too often restoration plans are implemented after adverse events that cause widespread tree mortality, such as drought or insect outbreaks, have occurred. Reactive management precludes the use of preemptive management techniques that...
Article
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Setting endpoints and targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that is best accomplished in cooperative partnerships that account for the ecology of the system, production of desired ecosystem goods and services, economics and well-being of society, and future environments. Clearly described and quantitative endpoints and intermediary ta...
Article
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Understanding the impacts of disturbances in forest ecosystems is essential for long-term biodiversity conservation. Many studies have evaluated wildlife responses to various disturbances but most generally do not use changes in microclimate features or microhabitat structure to explain these responses. We examined lizard responses to two common fo...
Article
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Putatively blight-resistant advanced backcross chestnut seedlings will soon be available for outplanting on a regional scale. Few studies have examined the importance of silvicultural treatment or seedling quality to chestnut reintroduction in the U.S. This paper examines results from a silvicultural study of high-quality chestnut seedlings on the...
Conference Paper
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http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/46841 American chestnut [Castanea dentata Marsh. (Borkh.)] is an iconic species with important ecological and utilitarian values, but was decimated by the mid-20th century by exotic fungal species from Asia. Successful restoration will require sustainable silvicultural methods to maximize survival and afford ch...
Article
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Throughout the world, the invasion of nonnative plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and disturbance. Surface mines are a major land transformation, and thus may promote the establishment and persistence of invasive plant communi...
Article
We examined the short term response of herpetofauna to two treatments designed to regenerate oak in upland hardwood forest: (1) shelterwood (30–40% BA retention), and (2) oak-shelterwood (midstory removal by use of herbicide), along with controls. Research was conducted 1 and 2 years post treatment within an oak-hickory forest within the mid-Cumber...
Article
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Ground disturbance caused by forest harvest operations can negatively impact oak regeneration. On the Cumberland Plateau, for successful regeneration, managers often must rely on very small (less than a ft in height) oak advance reproduction that is susceptible to disturbance by harvesting equipment. Furthermore, sites on the Plateau top are often...
Article
Manipulation of the light regime is a primary goal of many silvicultural treatments, but the specific light conditions created remain poorly documented for many forest types and geographic locations. To help quantify effects of silvicultural treatments on light conditions, measurements of basal area, canopy cover, and photosynthetically active radi...
Article
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Oaks (Quercus spp.) are one of the most important tree taxa in the northern hemisphere. Although they are dominant in mixed species forests and widely distributed, there are frequent reports of regeneration failures. An adequate population of large oak advance reproduction is a critical prerequisite to successful oak regeneration, and hence sustain...
Article
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Prescribed fires are increasingly implemented throughout eastern deciduous forests to accomplish various management objectives, including maintenance of oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests. Despite a regional research-based understanding of prehistoric and historic fire regimes, a parallel understanding of contemporary fire use to preserve oak for...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The forests of the Eastern United States are diverse and provide many products and amenities for people living in the area and beyond. Eastern temperate forests play an important role in determining water yield and quality. They have the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon and influence air quality, and thus climate. Our standard of l...
Article
Upland hardwood stands on mesic, escarpment-oriented sites on the Cumberland Plateau region of northeastern Alabama provide a myriad management opportunities. Stands are primarily managed for Quercus, but the high species diversity allows for management that targets multiple species. Stand composition is unique in that dominant species include shad...
Chapter
Early successional habitats can be created with a broad array of silvicultural techniques that remove all or most canopy trees in one to several cuttings and small to large patch sizes. Composition and early structural development of the resulting vegetation can be variable. Arborescent species composition is a function of regeneration sources alre...
Article
Full-text available
American chestnut [Castanea dentate (Marshall) Borkhausen, Fagales: Fagaceae] was a dominant forest tree in the eastern forests of the U.S. until it was eliminated as a canopy tree species by 2 exotic pathogens. Ink disease, a root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (Pythiales: Pythiaceae), began to destroy chestnut populations on bottomlan...
Article
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Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea) have experienced one of the highest population declines of any neotropical-Nearctic migratory species in North America. We performed point counts and habitat assessments in areas used and unused by Cerulean Warblers in northern Alabama during the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons to examine their avian association...
Article
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Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF) in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 indiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A large-scale silvicultural assessment designed to examine the effectiveness of five treatments in reducing the potential impacts of gypsy moth infestation and oak decline was implemented on upland hardwood forests in the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. The study was authorized via the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003....
Conference Paper
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We used a large-scale silvicultural assessment designed to examine the efficacy of five stand-level prescriptions in reducing the potential impacts of gypsy moth infestations and oak decline on upland hardwood forests in Kentucky’s Daniel Boone National Forest. Prescriptions involved a mix of intermediate stand treatments aimed at increasing residu...
Article
Although effects of forest management on amphibians are relatively well studied, few studies have examined how these practices affect egg deposition by adults, which can impact population recruitment. We quantified the effects of 4 canopy tree-retention treatments on amphibian oviposition patterns in clusters of 60-L aquatic mesocosms located in ea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analysis of pretreatment data is essential to determine long-term effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles. We present pre-treatment amphibian and reptile capture data from April 2005 to May 2006 for a long-term study on herpetofaunal response to prescribed burning and tree thinning in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL, Uni...
Article
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Conserving biodiversity in the southeastern United States begins with documenting the distribution and natural history of all taxa. Using pitfall traps between March 2005 and January 2006, we collected the first Sorex fumeus (Smoky Shrew) specimens (44) from Alabama on the Cumberland Plateau in the northeastern portion of the state. Body size of sp...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Prescribed burning and thinning cause changes in the cover and richness of ground layer vegetation by altering light levels and forest floor properties. The ground layer is especially important for its high levels of biodiversity, importance to wildlife, and interaction with tree regeneration. We examined the response o...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Ground layer vegetation (<1.4 m height) in temperate forest ecosystems is high in vascular plant diversity, especially herbaceous species. Silvicultural treatments influence patterns of cover and richness in the ground layer by altering seed-bed properties and light availability. We examined the ground layer community on...
Article
Large-scale restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (USA) under federal incentive programs, begun in the 1990s, initially achieved mixed results. We report here on a comparison of four restoration techniques in terms of survival, accretion of vertical structure, and woody species diversity. The range of t...
Article
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We examined nursery seedling quality and 1-yr field performance of American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.] seedlings planted in Alabama (AL study) and Tennessee (TN study). Root-collar diameter (RCD) had the highest correlations to nursery seedling quality and first-year field performance for both studies. Survival was low in the Ala...
Article
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Between 2002 and 2005, we used drift fences and artificial pools to sample juvenile eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in northeastern Alabama in forest stands experimentally treated to retain various amounts of overstory trees-clear-cuts and those with 25%-50% and 75%-100% of trees retained. We captured juvenile turtles only in clear-cut and...
Article
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Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers working out of the Southern and Northern Research Stations have partnered with two National Forests to conduct two large-scale studies designed to assess the effectiveness of silvicultural techniques used to restore and maintain upland oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated ecosystems in the Cumberland Plateau Region of the southeastern United St...
Article
We simulated a shelterwood forest regeneration treatment by reducing basal area, and monitored the response of an avian community in oak-hickory forest on the southern Cumberland Plateau, northern Alabama, USA. We used five treatments: control (no removal), clear-cut (100% removal), and 25, 50, and 75% removal of basal area. Territory mapping was u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The primary objective of this study was to determine if greenhouse light environment would affect outplanting success for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in clearcuts and shelterwoods. In 2002, northern red oak seedlings were grown from acorns under full-ambient (sun) and half-ambient (shade) light conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings grown un...
Article
Bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States have declined in extent since European settlement. Forest restoration activities over the past decade, however, have driven recent changes in land use through an intensified afforestation effort on former agricultural land. This intense afforestation effort, particularly in the Lower Mis...
Article
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In the last decade, about 370,000 acres (150,000 ha) of economically marginal farmland in the Lower Mississippi Allu-vial Valley (LMAV) have been restored to bottomland hardwood forests (Stanturf and others 1998, King and Keeland 1999, Schoenholtz and others 2001). Planting of this considerable acreage is due to sev-eral federal programs, such as t...