Caleb J Kelly

Caleb J Kelly
Yale University | YU · Section of Digestive Diseases

MD, PhD

About

52
Publications
7,771
Reads
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3,324
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
Yale University
Position
  • Fellow
June 2016 - present
Yale Physician Scientist Research Pathway
Position
  • PGY1
June 2008 - May 2016
University of Colorado
Position
  • MSTP Student

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between the gut microbiota and the host are important for health, where dysbiosis has emerged as a likely component of mucosal disease. The specific constituents of the microbiota that contribute to mucosal disease are not well defined. We sought to define microbial components that regulate homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa. Usi...
Article
Commensal interactions between the enteric microbiota and distal intestine play important roles in regulating human health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced through anaerobic microbial metabolism represent a major energy source for the host colonic epithelium and enhance epithelial barrier function through unclear mechani...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has revealed a central role for neddylation (the conjugation of a Nedd8-moiety to Cullin proteins) in the fine tuning of the NF-κB response (via Cullin-1). In the present study, we investigated the contribution of Cullin-1 neddylation and NF-κB signaling to mucosal inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Initial in vitro studies us...
Article
Salmonella employs a variety of strategies to survive and colonize the colon. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Rivera-Chávez et al. (2016) identify a new mechanism whereby antibiotic-mediated depletion of anaerobes (e.g., Clostridia) and associated decreases in butyrate result in increased tissue oxygen and increased aerobic expansion of Salmo...
Article
In recent years, the intestinal mucosa has proven to be an intriguing organ to study tissue oxygenation. The highly vascularized lamina propria juxtaposed to an anaerobic lumen containing trillions of metabolically active microbes results in one of the most austere tissue microenvironments in the body. Studies to date have determined that a healthy...
Article
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to profound fluctuations in oxygen tension and have evolved adaptive transcriptional responses to a low-oxygen environment. These adaptations are mediated primarily through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex. Given the central role of the IEC in barrier function, we sought to determine whether...
Article
The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of t...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are fundamental determinants of human health. Such interactions are concentrated at the colonic mucosa and provide energy for the host epithelium through the production of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. We sought to determine the role of epithelial butyrate metabolism in establishing the aust...
Article
There is interest in understanding post-translational modifications of proteins in inflammatory disease. Neddylation is the conjugation of the molecule neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) to promote protein stabilization. Cullins are a family of NEDD8 targets important in the stabilization and degradation of pr...
Article
Full-text available
Acute intestinal inflammation involves early accumulation of neutrophils (PMNs) followed by either resolution or progression to chronic inflammation. Based on recent evidence that mucosal metabolism influences disease outcomes, we hypothesized that transmigrating PMNs influence the transcriptional profile of the surrounding mucosa. Microarray studi...
Article
Full-text available
Cytokines secreted at sites of inflammation impact the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. In this article, we investigated potential proresolving mechanisms of IFN-γ in models of inflammatory bowel disease. Guided by initial microarray analysis, in vitro studies revealed that IFN-γ selectively induced the expression of IL-10R1 on i...
Article
BACKGROUND: Mucosal infiltration of neutrophils (PMN) and formation of crypt abscesses is a pathological hallmark of ulcerative colitis. We hypothesized that activated neutrophils influence the transcriptional profile of adjacent intestinal epithelia.METHODS: Wild type (C57/B6), HIF reporter mice (ODD-Luciferase) and mice deficient in the NAPDH oxi...
Article
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) that line the GI tract are central to maintenance of mucosal homeostasis, actively participating as innate immune sensors of microbial pathogens and commensal microflora. This epithelial barrier is subject to profound metabolic fluctuations, particularly in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A role for h...
Article
BACKGROUND: Ongoing work from our group has demonstrated that neutrophil (PMN) recruitment during colitis induces mucosal hypoxia. Subsequently we demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase burst was primarily responsible for eliciting tissue hypoxia. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients exhibit mutations in neutrophil NADPH oxidase, resulting in...
Article
Full-text available
Mucosal surfaces of the lower gastrointestinal tract are subject to frequent, pronounced fluctuations in oxygen tension, particularly during inflammation. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are orchestrated largely by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). As HIF-1α and HIF-2α are coexpressed in mucosal epithelia that constitute the barrier...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial peptides are secreted by the intestinal epithelium to defend from microbial threats. The role of human β defensin-1 (hBD-1) is notable because its gene (beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1)) is constitutively expressed and its antimicrobial activity is potentiated in the low-oxygen environment that characterizes the intestinal mucosa. Hypoxia-indu...
Article
A deeper understanding of the mechanisms that control responses to inflammation is critical to the development of effective therapies. We sought to define the most proximal regulators of the Cullin (Cul)-RING ligases, which play a central role in the stabilization of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). In these studies, we identify the human...
Article
A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplishe...
Article
Objective Eosinophil predominant inflammation characterises histological features of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Endoscopy with biopsy is currently the only method to assess oesophageal mucosal inflammation in EoE. We hypothesised that measurements of luminal eosinophil-derived proteins would correlate with oesophageal mucosal inflammation in...
Article
Full-text available
Within the intestinal mucosa, epithelial cells serve multiple functions to partition the lumen from the lamina propria. As part of their natural function, intestinal epithelial cells actively transport electrolytes with passive water movement as a mechanism for mucosal hydration. Here, we hypothesized that electrogenic Cl(-) secretion, and associat...
Article
The human intestinal tract comprises a rich and complex microbial ecosystem. This intestinal microbota provides a large reservoir of potentially toxic molecules, including bacterial endotoxin (ie, lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). This potent inflammatory molecule is detectable in the circulation of healthy individuals, and levels transiently increase fol...
Article
Full-text available
Sites of inflammation are associated with profound changes in tissue metabolism. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an adaptive pathway for the resolution of inflammation associated with various murine disease models. The resolution of disease occurs, at least in part, through...
Article
Within the intestinal mucosa, epithelial cells serve multiple functions to partition the lumen from the lamina propria. As part of their natural function, intestinal epithelial cells actively transport electrolytes with passive water movement as a mechanism for mucosal hydration. Here, we hypothesized that electrogenic Cl- secretion, and associated...
Article
Full-text available
Food allergies are potentially fatal immune-mediated disorders that are growing globally. The relationship between sex and food allergy remains incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that, should sex influence the clinical response to food allergens, this would be reflected by a sex disparity in published studies of food allergy. We...
Article
To the Editor: In their cohort study assessing the relationship between sleep duration and incident coronary artery calcification, Mr King and colleagues1 reported an association between longer sleep duration and reduced incidence of coronary artery calcification. The proportion of individuals who developed coronary calcification was markedly great...
Article
Reactivity of lamina propria (LP) T cells to commensal bacteria has been demonstrated in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in humans with IBD, but few studies have evaluated the function of such cells in normal individuals. LP mononuclear cells (LPMC) were disaggregated from healthy human intestinal tissue and cultured with heat...
Article
Tree nut allergy, a major group of food allergy, is often linked to fatal or near-fatal systemic anaphylaxis. Currently, an adjuvant-free mouse model to study tree nut hypersensitivity is unavailable. Here we tested the hypothesis that transdermal exposure to hazelnut, a model tree nut, without the use of an adjuvant is sufficient to sensitize mice...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, there is neither a published ELISA method nor it is clear whether chemiluminescence substrates would provide better sensitivity vs. colorimetric substrates for measuring human IL-23-a recently described Type-1 immunity associated cytokine. Initially, we optimized a colorimetric ELISA using p-nitro-phenyl phosphate substrate. Subsequently...
Article
Allergy to sesame seeds is an emerging food allergy of a serious nature due to a high risk of systemic anaphylaxis. Although a mouse model to study sesame anaphylaxis is desirable, currently it is not available. Here, using a transdermal exposure model system, we tested the hypothesis that sesame seed elicits IL-4-associated IgE antibody response w...
Article
Hazelnut is one of the major tree nuts that causes potentially fatal food allergy, with underlying mechanisms that are unclear at present. One suggestion is that hazelnut allergy results from immune crossreactivity of IgE antibodies produced against certain aeroallergens. We tested the hypothesis that hazelnut is intrinsically capable of eliciting...
Article
To present an up-to-date synopsis on the global prevalence, natural history, nature of allergens, and immune mechanisms of sesame allergy. We performed a literature search using the PubMed database. We obtained information on regulatory issues from the Web pages of respective agencies. The PubMed search was performed using the algorithm sesame AND...

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