Caleb T. Carr

Caleb T. Carr

Ph.D., Media and Information Studies

About

49
Publications
30,674
Reads
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2,444
Citations
Introduction
Caleb Carr is a Professor of Communication. His research primarily explores the use and role of technology on the convergence of organizational and interpersonal communication, decision making, and the development and presentation of identity.

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Existing theories within interpersonal (IPC) and intergroup communication (IGC) have not yet explained when online interactions are initially intergroup in nature, interpersonal, or both. We address this undertheorized conundrum—which is particularly challenging as more communication occurs on social media, in which a multitude of goals may converg...
Article
First articulated in 2008, the concept of identity shift refers to the process of self-transformation that is the result of intentional self-presentation in a mediated context. As research into identity shift has become increasingly prevalent, our understanding of the concept’s mechanisms and constraints has become more detailed and in depth. We no...
Article
Employees may engage in some misrepresentation on employer review websites (e.g., GlassDoor, Indeed), even when reviewing an employer anonymously. This research explores how linguistic features of employee-generated reviews (N = 204) might serve as a means of detecting misrepresentation, presentations of the organization that depart from one’s pers...
Article
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts via social media are increasingly common and are often key to achieving organizational CSR objectives. Concerns exist about potential damage caused by negative user comments and effects of user feedback to CSR efforts are mostly unknown. Exploring the effects of positive and negative comments to social...
Article
This article addresses the need for theoretical frameworks from which to advance the study of interpersonal relational maintenance in computer-mediated communication (CMC). We suggest one way to satisfy this need is to extend and adapt extant theories of offline relational maintenance to mediated interactions by addressing how CMC is likely integra...
Article
The structurational model of identification is applied to test structures that may lead to sharing organizational membership on social media and increased organizational identification. We propose and test how antecedents (e.g., social media use, organizational prestige) relate to acts of identification on social media and promote organizational id...
Article
"Do reviews on organizational review websites (e.g., Indeed.com, GlassDoor.com) speak to the employer or the employee? This study tests the structural relationship between cognitive and affective organizational attachments and three outcomes: willingness to disclose one’s workplace online, unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB), and workplace r...
Article
Brands have long been advised to not post or encourage negative messages about competing brands; but individual users independently posting “snark” or celebrating the travails of competing brands via social media is common. This study investigates how schadenfreude, pleasure derived from another’s misfortune, generated by negative social media post...
Article
Research has noted an individual’s deliberate mediated self-presentation can transform subsequent self-perceptions, a process known as identity shift. Guided by the masspersonal communication model as a framework, the present study extends extant identity shift research by considering how the personalization of that self-presentation influences sel...
Article
Full-text available
Local elections are no longer just influenced by, marketed toward, or relevant to only a small, geographically constrained electorate. Social media increasingly connect politics to publics that may extend beyond politicians’ or issues’ local constituencies. Every election—from Senator to alderperson—has been rendered accessible and relevant to broa...
Article
As the term “computer” and the processes and effects of technologies in human communication broaden, there is a need to have an accounting of the computer-mediated communication (CMC) subdiscipline. After identifying some of the changes that have occurred in both devices and our theories of CMC, suggestions are offered for how to uniquely situate C...
Article
The emergence of Facebook Reactions provides new opportunities to explore the nature of paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs; lightweight one-click social media response cues). Guided by adaptive structuration theory and the concept of cognitive automaticity, a survey of 255 individuals aged 18–24 assessed the cognitive processes and communicat...
Article
The present work advances warranting scholarship by considering the effect of online reviews (in response to organizational self-claims) on organizational attributions offline. An experiment exposed undergraduates (N = 148) to a company’s social media profile, in which a third-party had provided either a positive or negative review of the organizat...
Article
Purpose The current research was a pilot study of the #GoldenTweets social media training program. Specifically, the research sought to explore (a) how the program in general was perceived by 2 groups of participants, namely, normally aging adults and graduate clinicians, and (b) how both groups perceived the use of Twitter, the platform incorporat...
Article
Communicating with others is a key motivation for playing digital games, but associated gratifications often require the presence of and interaction with other agents that may be inherently demanding. This demand has been characterized as emerging from intersections of implicit or explicit awareness of and implicit or explicit response to the socia...
Article
Full-text available
This research explores the processes of perceived ostracism ensuing from a lack of feedback via paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs), the one-click tools (e.g., Likes and +1s) which are one of the most used features of social media, provided to an individual’s posted social media content. The positive and negative psychological outcomes of soc...
Article
As immersive digital environments increasingly facilitate social, professional, and playful human interactions, avatars are central to facilitating communication among players; concurrently, evidence points to avatars’ distinct agencies. Synthesizing these perspectives, this article proposes and tests a relational matrix model of interactions in ma...
Article
Individuals frequently engage in self-presentation via social media and can subsequently receive various simple communicative cues (paralinguistic digital affordances; PDAs) from which they may determine the success of their self-presentation, including Likes and Upvotes. Previous research has found these communicatively abstract one-click cues are...
Article
Extending prior research that has noted individuals’ self-presentation and subsequent feedback can affect self-perceptions, we report 2 studies assessing this identity shift with respect to brand identity and the effect of (dis)confiratory feedback. Synthesizing literature from media and consumer psychology, hypotheses are derived predicting both m...
Article
When evaluating an applicant online, individuals are often concurrently exposed to a diverse cross-section of self- and other-generated information with varying relevance to the candidate’s actual job skills. Moreover, these various data may not always be internally consistent. Utilizing profiles on the microtask site Fiverr, a fully-crossed 2 × 2...
Article
Full-text available
Responding to recent calls to transcend social media platforms when examining media effects, and using the social information processing model to predict and explain results, this multi-method study first uses a US national survey (N = 325) to examine perceived effectiveness of social support and relational closeness via paralinguistic digital affo...
Article
Full-text available
This research expands on prior research into the effects of religious disclosures on interpersonal attraction by drawing from social identification theory to explain attributions stemming from religious disclosures in professionals' e-mail signature blocks. Participants (N = 268) were randomly exposed to one of three experimental conditions (a Chri...
Article
Many social media facilitate paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs): one-click tools for phatic communication to which senders and receivers alike ascribe meaning. This research explores the nature of social support perceived from the receipt of PDAs within social media, seeking to understand how individuals ascribe supportive meaning to PDAs ba...
Article
Full-text available
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit m...
Chapter
Increasingly social media are being used to learn about job applicants. Supplementing and sometimes replacing traditional materials (e.g., applications, cover letters, resumes), social media offer information of a unique nature to employers that can affect perceptions and attributions of applicants. This chapter approaches information seeking in em...
Article
In this study we conceptualize cues in social media that require a single click (e.g., Likes, Favorites) as paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs). Why do people use PDAs and how do they interpret them when they are the recipient? Through focus groups (N = 25) and interviews (N = 26) we address these research questions within a uses and gratific...
Article
Identity shift occurs when an individual's self-perception changes as a result of feedback to her or his self-presentation. This research, the third in a series, further explores the influences of identity shift, specifically exploring the effects of the publicness of feedback to an individual and the relational closeness between the individual and...
Article
Public relations practitioners are actively building relationships with bloggers to obtain high-credibility brand mentions and reviews. Practitioners may request bloggers limit comments to maintain control over messages and constrain dissonant perspectives; however, the impact of limiting social features of blogs is unknown. Utilizing source credib...
Article
This study explores Facebook users’ management behaviors related to their—and their friends'—political communication via social media, utilizing the concepts of context collapse and self-presentation. A new two-factor measure of Facebook management was developed, pilot tested (N = 139) and implemented in a survey utilizing a national sample (N = 35...
Article
Bullying, often considered an interpersonal or intergroup behaviour, has not been explored as an unintended artefact of organisational structure. Institutional review boards (IRBs), the ‘human research ethics committees’ at US universities, help oversee the protection of human research subjects, particularly in the social sciences within higher edu...
Article
What is a social medium, and how may one moderate, isolate, and influence communicative processes within? Although scholars assume an inherent understanding of social media based on extant technology, there is no commonly accepted definition of what social media are, both functionally and theoretically, within communication studies. Given this lack...
Article
Network autocorrelation occurs when individuals receive assistance from others which regulates their own behavior, and it can be used to explain how group members may improve their task performance. This study explored how network autocorrelation, via informal communication within a virtual group, affected an individual's task achievement in the on...
Article
This research explores communicative influences on cognitive learning and educational affect in online and offline courses. A survey was conducted of students (N = 147) enrolled in online and offline courses within a single department during Summer 2013. Respondents were asked about their perceptions of classroom communication. Responses were subje...
Article
Utilizing the two-step flow model, the study sought to understand the effects of perceived third-party influence in social media. Blogger relations is a common strategy in public relations, and frequently results in compensation for coverage. Disclosure of these relationships can vary in explicitness, though the impact of disclosure is unknown. A n...
Article
This study presents a novel examination of changes in attributions about individuals via information obtained from online sources within the context of hiring decisions. An experiment had 127 participants examine dossiers collected about a job applicant, in some conditions containing either positively or negatively valenced information about the ap...
Article
Full-text available
The social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) predicts individuals in depersonalized settings associate with those with whom they share a salient social identity and disassociate from others. We challenge the strict ingroup/outgroup bifurcation used in prior research and posit that ingroup perceptions differ across distinct (i.e., mod...
Article
To explore the integration of education processes into social media, we tested an initial model of student learning via interactive web tools and theorized three sources of influence: interpersonal, intrapersonal, and masspersonal. Three-hundred thirty-seven students observed an online lecture and then completed a series of scales. Structural equat...
Article
The growing ubiquity of mobile telephony able to send e-mail raises new questions, and renews old issues, about the effect of the medium on a message. This article reports experimental results testing effects of user- and medium-generated cues on perceptions of message senders. Grounded in warranting theory, we assess the interaction of low- and hi...
Article
This research examines the use of speech acts in computer-mediated communication, specifically in the status messages of the social network site Facebook, to communicate in both a mass and an interpersonal medium. A total of 204 status messages created by 46 participants were captured 3 times daily over 14 consecutive days. Content analysis of thes...
Article
The hyperpersonal model of computer-mediated communication (CMC) suggests manners by which online communication transforms relational communication and self-perception. Criticism of the model includes concerns over the linkage among its four theoretical components. Recent research on identity shift in CMC suggests that senders' online selective sel...
Article
Full-text available
In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to...
Article
Contemporary web-based communication technologies often present a juxtaposition of multiple sources. In January of 2009, for instance, CNN.com and Facebook.com partnered so that internet users could see and hear President Barack Obama's inauguration in one window, and read and write comments about it with myriad other viewers in another window. You...
Article
Full-text available
This research explores a sequence of effects pertaining to the influence of relational goals on online information seeking, the use of information and arguments as relational management strategies in computer-mediated chat, and the intrapersonal attitude change resulting from these processes. Affinity versus disaffinity goals affected participants'...

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