Caitlin Clemmow

Caitlin Clemmow
University College London | UCL · Department of Security and Crime Science

PhD Security & Crime Science

About

27
Publications
8,261
Reads
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113
Citations

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
Objective: This study details the development and validation of the 12-item Exposure to Violent Extremism Scale (EXPO-12). We aimed to undertake a transparent and robust process of scale development to present a tool to facilitate research on the relationship between exposure and violent extremism. Method: First, we generated an initial item pool a...
Article
Full-text available
The history of policing is littered with reform programmes, which aim to improve effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy. Problem-oriented policing (POP) and evidence-based policing (EBP) are two popular and enduring reform efforts, both of which have generated significant researcher and practitioner attention. There are important similarities bet...
Article
Full-text available
A public health approach to countering the threat from extremism aims to manage vulnerability before behaviour escalates to require involvement from the criminal justice system. Fundamental to applying a public health approach is understanding how risk (and protective) factors can be modified, in other words, the functional roles of these factors....
Article
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Evidence shows that the application of problem-oriented policing can be effective in reducing a wide range of crime and public safety issues, but that the approach is challenging to implement and sustain. This article examines police perceptions and experiences regarding organisational barriers to and facilitators of the implementation and delivery...
Article
Zmigrod et al. (2019a, Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 989) demonstrated that lower levels of cognitive flexibility predict a higher willingness to fight and die for the national in‐group. We conducted a registered direct replication of their Study 1. Extending the original study, we examined whether the documented relationship held when a self‐report...
Preprint
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The growing evidence base of risk factors for violent extremism demonstrates overlaps with parallel problem areas like domestic violence, mass murder, and stalking. Yet, empirical research examining the overlap among these domains is limited. The present analysis aims to address the lack of empirical research on the relationship between misogyny, v...
Article
Within studies critically examining terrorist behaviour, the examination of mental health has largely focused on the relationship with the movement towards terrorist involvement. The impact of engagement in terrorism upon mental health has rarely been studied. However, recent research has shown that there is an association between terrorist engagem...
Article
Fixated individuals pose a significant threat to public figures. Previous research compares individuals labeled ‘approachers’ to those labeled ‘communicators.’ Typically, such studies compare a number of risk factors among the two groups to identify significant differences. This has impactful implications for the threat assessment and management of...
Article
A time sequence analysis is conducted on 125 lone-actor terrorists, most of whom mounted attacks in Europe and North America, utilizing the Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18), a structured professional judgment instrument with demonstrable interrater reliability and criterion, discriminant, and predictive validity. Both frequenc...
Chapter
The relationship between violent radicalization and poor mental health is complex and multilayered. We use the principles of equifinality and multifinality to demonstrate this complexity. In terms of equifinality, we draw upon the existing evidence base to demonstrate that the end outcome of violent radicalization has many paths into it. Some indiv...
Article
Many early published analyses of the terrorist placed psychopathy as the core explanatory variable for terrorist behaviour. This speculative opinion was derived mainly from popular culture, and the desire to attribute mental disorders to those committing such violent acts. Poor research designs and a lack of empiricism ultimately undermined these a...
Thesis
Research on terrorism is increasingly empirical and a number of significant advancements have been made. One such evolution is the emergent understanding of risk factors and indicators for engagement in violent extremism. Beyond contributing to academic knowledge, this has important real-world implications. Notably, the development of terrorism ris...
Article
Research assessing violent extremist risk factors thus far largely ignored the role of cognitive processes. Zmigrod and colleagues (2019a) addressed this gap and presented first systematic evidence that lower levels of cognitive flexibility predict a higher willingness to fight and, ultimately, die for a national ingroup. This finding has important...
Article
This systematic review assesses the impact of mental health problems upon attitudes, intentions and behaviours in the context of radicalisation and terrorism. We identified 25 studies that measured rates of mental health problems across 28 samples. The prevalence rates are heterogenous and range from 0% to 57%. If we pool the results of those sampl...
Article
Research suggests that lone-actor terrorists and mass murderers may be better conceptualized as lone-actor grievance-fueled violence (LAGFV) offenders, rather than as distinct types. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these offenders could (or could not) be disaggregated along dimensions relevant to the threat assessment of bot...
Article
Full-text available
Improvements have been made in identifying the prevalence of risk factors/indicators for violent extremism. A consistent problem is the lack of base rates. How to develop base rates is of equal concern. This study has two aims: (i) compare two methods for developing base rates; the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT) and direct questioning, (ii) genera...
Article
The lone‐actor terrorist population can be extremely heterogeneous and difficult to detect. Intelligence is vital to countering this threat. We devise a typology of person–exposure patterns (PEPs) that could serve as a framework for intelligence gathering and threat assessment. We use cluster analysis and a risk analysis framework (RAF) to identify...
Article
Comments on an article by T. W. Briggs and J. W. Pollard (see record 2020-26206-005). Briggs and Pollard make a convincing case for the advancement of computational modeling and simulation of mass violence for threat assessment and management. The purpose of this commentary is to look into the analogous study of terrorism to pinpoint recent areas o...
Article
Full-text available
Comments on the article The Dispensation of Dynamite (1883, March 16) (see record 2018-63621-005 ). The Dispensation of Dynamite (1883, March 16) is equal parts prescient, inconsistent, ignorant, and devoid of true context. The authors try to contextualize aspects of Dispensation’s reporting, add some correctives to erroneous aspects, and draw upon...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
GRIEVANCE seeks to make significant advances in increasing our understanding, and thereby reducing the risk, of extremist violence against non-combatants. GRIEVANCE characterises risk in terms of a process and dedicates a work package (WP) to each stage of the process from the risk of radicalisation (WP1), to the risk of recruitment (WP2), to the risk of violent action (WP3), to the spatial (WP4) and temporal (WP5) risk of offending behaviour followed by an assessment of the risk of adverse consequences from intervention (WP6). GRIEVANCE will both synthesise the existing knowledge within the literature and produce innovative new findings by utilising cutting edge inter-disciplinary research methods and unique datasets.