Cain C. T. Clark

Cain C. T. Clark
Coventry University | CU · Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

PhD Statistics & Data Analytics
Statistics and data analytics; always seeking new collaborations; cain.clark@coventry.ac.uk // cainctclark@gmail.com

About

380
Publications
78,673
Reads
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2,083
Citations
Introduction
Assistant Professor (Research)/Senior Research Fellow: statistics, data analytics, data handing, data visualisation, meta-analytics, compositional modelling, isotemporal substitution, time-use epidemiology, profiling, accelerometry. TWITTER: @DrCainCTClark
Additional affiliations
June 2020 - present
University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust
Position
  • Senior Researcher
October 2019 - present
Coventry University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2018 - September 2019
Coventry University
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
January 2017 - December 2018
University of the West of England, Bristol
Field of study
  • PGCHE Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
September 2013 - October 2016
Swansea University
Field of study
  • Profiling movement and gait quality in children's physical activity
September 2012 - September 2013
University of Gloucestershire
Field of study
  • Exercise Physiology

Publications

Publications (380)
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT This systematic review was conducted to summarize and clarify the evidence on the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk and outcomes. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and Google Scholar were searched up to 26 November 2020. All retrospective and prospective...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 lockdown could engender disruption to lifestyle behaviors, thus impairing mental wellbeing in the general population. This study investigated whether sociodemographic variables, changes in physical activity, and sleep quality from pre- to during lockdown were predictors of change in mental wellbeing in quarantined older ad...
Article
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Background: Bullying victimization can impose long-lasting impacts on adolescent's current and subsequent well-being. Understanding the correlates of bullying victimization and how to prevent its occurrence is an urgent need. Food insecurity, an indicator of low socioeconomic status, may be related to bullying victimization. However, research on th...
Article
Background: Long COVID is a common occurrence following COVID-19 infection. The most common symptom reported is fatigue. Limited interventional treatment options exist. We report the first evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for long COVID treatment. Methods: A total of 10 consecutive patients received 10 sessions of HBOT to 2.4 atmos...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and motor competence in primary school children using traditional and compositional data analysis approaches over time (time 1 and time 2). Design: A longitudinal observational design was used to study 124 typically developed children (45.2% girls), 5-10 y...
Article
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Objective Musculoskeletal pain conditions (MPs) are a widespread public problem that can affect 13.5% to 47% of the total population. Dietary changes can have strong effects on person’s health; for instance, Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) can act as a precursor of neurotransmitters, antioxidative metabolic intermediates, such as glutathione, impact infl...
Article
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A prominent issue for patients with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is obesity. Some reports claim that obese patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have better outcomes. This inverse relationship has been termed the obesity paradox and is not yet understood in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19...
Article
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Background Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), alopecia, low quality of life, and acne are considered as complications of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that magnesium supplementation would yield beneficial effects on PCOS related complications. Objective To examine the effects of magnesium supplementation on AUB, alopecia, quality...
Article
Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease associated and oxidative stress. The critical role of a dietary antioxidant in increasing the antioxidant defense system is undeniable and makes the assessment of the potential link between dietary antioxidants and diseases informative. Given the limited available data on dietary antioxidants...
Article
Aims Direct and indirect evidence were combined in this systematic-review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to assess and compare the effect of nutritional supplements on glycemic control, and rank the supplements accordingly. Methods PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched up to April 2021. We included randomized controlled trials that inv...
Article
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Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory, and debilitating autoimmune illness. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between animal flesh foods consumption and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Meat consumption was assessed by using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (168 item...
Article
Purpose This study aims, a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the effects of folic acid (folate) on patients with depression. Design/methodology/approach Related articles were found by searching PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of science and Cochrane’s Library, from inception to January 2022. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were pooled using a r...
Article
Background Previous studies evaluating the effects of selenium supplementation on lipid profile and blood pressure (BP) offer contradictory findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of selenium supplementation on these lipid profile and BP. Methods In order to identify interrelated clinical trials, we performed a comp...
Article
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The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sitagliptin vs. placebo in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a triple-blind randomized clinical trial, we assigned 120 eligible subjects with NAFLD to receive daily dosing of 50 mg sitagliptin ( n = 60) or the placebo ( n = 60) for 56 weeks and lifestyle modification in both g...
Article
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Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and debilitating disorder that strongly affects people with AD and their families. The changes in signs of the disease and its treatment lead to many challenges in people with AD that affect the performance and the ability of caregivers, their social life, and physical, emotional, and psychologi...
Article
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Background Unhealthy dietary patterns are the most important modifiable risk factors for obesity and overweight. This study aimed to examine the relationship between Dietary Phytochemical Index (DPI) and resting metabolic rate (RMR), mediated by inflammatory factors, in overweight and obese women. Methods A total of 404 women, aged 18–48 years, we...
Article
Recent meta-analytic work indicated that guar gum supplementation might improve lipid profile markers in different populations. However, critical methodological limitations such as the use of some unreliable data and the lack of inclusion of several relevant studies, and the scarcity in assessments of regression and dose-specific effects make it di...
Article
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There is no available comprehensive review of whether the exact links between motor constructs and EFs also exist in the preschool period, even though preschool age is the critical period for developing EFs. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association between FMS, MC, PA, PF, and EFs. We concluded that selec...
Article
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Background and aims The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is a valuable technique to estimate the synergistic effects of overall beverage consumption. Several studies have evaluated the associations between HBI and beneficial changes in the health status. however, there is no study on the association between patterns of beverage consumption and mental h...
Article
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For an optimal performance, soccer players and referees need to consume a high-quality diet. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a tool that can estimate diet quality and has been shown to be associated with body composition. The aims of the present study were first to determine the HEI-2015 score of the diets consumed by athletes and second its asso...
Article
Although previous studies have suggested that dietary acid load may be associated with mental health, the relationship between food-induced acid production and odds of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder remains (ADHD) unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary renal acid load and odds of ADHD among...
Article
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The study aimed to investigate the association of adults adhering to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diet (MeD) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using structural equation modeling (SEM) in Iran. In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3,220 adults (44.65% female) aged ≥18 years were selected fro...
Article
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Objective: Myocardial infarction is the irreversible cell death of cardiac muscle that takes place after the blood flow is cut off to a specific region of the heart muscle. The molecular angiogenesis process that may follow after the incidence, due to any activity or its intensity, is unknown. The purpose of this research was to examine some of th...
Article
A prominent issue for patients with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is obesity. Some reports claim that obese patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have better outcomes. This inverse relationship has been termed the obesity paradox and is not yet understood in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19...
Article
Full-text available
Background Women with GDM have a higher risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meanwhile, synbiotics have been demonstrated to have favorable impacts on atherogenic indices, and inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators, all of which are known to be CVD-predictive factors. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the ef...
Article
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness that causes memory loss and cognitive impairment. For neurodegenerative illnesses, the therapeutic properties and healthy advantages of brewed coffee (BC) intake have been widely explored. Objectives: This research aimed to look into the findings of sub-chronic BC administration on...
Article
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Anthropometric variables (AV) are shown to be essential in assessing health status and to serve as markers for evaluating health-related risks in different populations. Studying the impact of physical activity (PA) on AV and its relationship with smoking is a non-trivial task from a public health perspective. In this study, a total of 107 healthy m...
Article
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Background The impact of carotenoid intake on the risk of mental disorders and poor sleep quality is unclear. Thus, we sought to examine the association between carotenoid intake, mental health, and sleep quality among university students.MethodsA total of 368 healthy university students (181 men, 49%), aged 18 to 43 years, volunteered for this stu...
Article
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Objective Previous studies have shown an association between diet quality and sleep quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between modified Nordic diet with sleep quality and circadian rhythm in overweight and obese woman. Methods We enrolled 399 overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI): 25–40 kg/m²), aged...
Article
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A series of recent studies have indicated that the Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene variant may be associated with metabolic and inflammatory markers and anthropometric measures. Furthermore, it has been shown that a plant-based dietary index (PDI) can elicit a positive impact on these metabolic markers. Therefore, we sought to examine whether PDI intakes m...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of protein and/or amino acid supplementation on muscle mass and strength in a healthy population. A structured literature search was conducted from database inception up to October 23, 2019, using PubMed and Scopus. Data were collected from randomized controlled trials and weighted mean diff...
Article
This study aimed to examine the impact of 40-min and 90-min naps on performance in the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT) and on various physiological and perceptual measures. Sixteen male athletes (20 ± 3 years, 173 ± 7 cm, 67 ± 7 kg) performed the 5mSRT after a 40-min nap (N40), after a 90-min nap (N90), and in a no-nap, control condition (N0). The 5mS...
Article
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Background. Obesity is considered a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Different components of the diet, like antioxidants, can have anti-inflammatory effects or cause chronic inflammation. This study investigated the dietary TAC and inflammatory markers and body composition in obese and overweight women. Methods. This cross-sectional study w...
Article
There is an urgent need for greater provision of mental health services to people living with HIV. HIV testing and counselling (HTC) sessions diagnose HIV and offer appropriate psychosocial support and behavioural messages to support people to link into HIV care. It is not known to what extent HTC currently addresses mental health. We examined tran...
Article
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Background The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between minutes played (MP) with maturity status, fitness, and hormonal levels, and to quantify their influence on minutes played. Methods Twenty-four elite youth soccer players under-16 years participated in this study, over a full-season period. Anthropometric measure...
Article
Objective To investigate the effects of whole body vibration on chronic ankle instability-associated sensorimotor deficits in balance, strength, joint position sense and muscle activity. Data sources Electronic databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang were sear...
Article
To quantify the effects of curcumin supplementation on exercise‐induced muscle damage, muscle soreness, inflammatory biomarkers, muscle strength, and joint flexibility via assessment of creatine kinase (CK), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and range of motion (ROM), respectively. Online databases, including P...
Article
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Objective Low resting metabolic rate (RMR), as a risk factor for weight gain and obesity, can be influenced by many factors. Empirical research has confirmed the role of appetite and related hormones in obesity and energy intake. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between appetite and related hormones in overweight or obese Iranian wo...
Poster
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease where symptoms include breathlessness and coughing. Previous research has focussed on monitoring physical activity, so research is needed to understand the experiences of using monitoring technology in everyday life. This study explored the experiences of people with COPD using activity...
Article
Musculoskeletal pains (MPs), defined as persistent or recurrent pain, is a complex health problem. High overall calorie and fat intake have been related to obesity and MPs. Dietary energy density (DED), defined as energy content of food and beverages (in kcal) per unit total weight, has been associated with chronic muscle, cartilage, bone damage an...
Article
Numerous clinical trials have examined the beneficial effects of Juglans regia leaf extract (JRLE) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of JRLE on glycemic control and lipid profile in T...
Article
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Objective Obesity is a highly prevalent, non-communicable, disease associated with numerous comorbid complications, such as cardiovascular disease. Following a healthy diet is known to help reduce the risk of both obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the association of recommended food score (RFS) and none recomm...
Article
Background. It has been posited that both metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) could be emergent from diet and inflammatory markers. *us, we sought to investigate the influence of plant-based diet on MHO and MUHO phenotypes mediated by inflammatory markers in overweight and obese women. Methods. *is cross-s...
Article
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Background: It has been posited that both metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) could be emergent from diet and inflammatory markers. Thus, we sought to investigate the influence of plant-based diet on MHO and MUHO phenotypes mediated by inflammatory markers in overweight and obese women. Methods: This cr...
Article
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Pain is a globally prevalent problem, and a comprehension of its pathophysiology is important with respect to patient's health. Musculoskeletal pain conditions (MPs) may be associated with physical, lifestyle, and nutrition status, while dietary acid load (DAL) may be inversely associated with musculoskeletal health in adults. This cross‐sectional...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminative validity of a new taekwondo-specific change-of-direction (COD) speed test with striking techniques (TST) in elite taekwondo athletes. Twenty (10 males and 10 females) elite (athletes who compete at national level) and top-elite (athletes who comp...
Article
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Previous studies have not considered the potential influence of maturity status on the relationship between mental imagery and change of direction (CoD) speed in youth soccer. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study examined the association between mental imagery and CoD performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Forty...
Article
Purpose: To determine the relationship between gastrointestinal hormones (leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1), ghrelin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, morphological characteristics, and physical performances in elite soccer players. Methods: Q2 Twenty-two elite male soccer players (age = 23.1 [2.7] y, height = 177.0 [0.1] cm, weight = 70.2 [2.9] kg,...
Article
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Background: The standard method to treat physically active patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is ligament reconstruction surgery. The rehabilitation training program is very important to improve functional performance in recreational athletes following ACL reconstruction. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the ef...
Article
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Research within sport science disciplines seeks to enhance performance via the combination of factors that influences the team's periodization. The current study aimed to investigate the variations in training load (TL), and the consequential changes in fitness variables, based on the use of match difficulty prediction model (MDP), level of opposit...
Article
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Background: High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve the performance which has been denoted as postactivation performance enhancement. Objectives: This study determined the acute effects of different stretch-shortening (fast vs. low) and strength (dynamic vs. isometric) exercises executed during one training session o...
Article
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PurposeDietary factors may modulate inflammation status which contributed to the various chronic diseases like sarcopenia. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII) and muscle strength (MS), muscle endurance (ME), and body composition.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 270 adults living in T...
Article
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Dietary modifications remain the mainstay in managing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Published data on the effect of overall dietary patterns on NAFLD is scarce. The present study aims to extract the dietary patterns and investigate their association to NAFLD by gender, using structural equation modeling, among adult participants in Amol...
Article
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Background: Change-of-direction (CoD) is a necessary physical ability of a field sport and may vary in youth players according to their maturation status. Objectives: The aim of this study is: to compare the effectiveness of a 6-week CoD training intervention on dynamic balance (CS-YBT), horizontal jump (5JT), speed (10 and 30-m linear sprint times...
Article
Objective: Glucomannan is a dietary fiber that slows the absorption of carbohydrates and suppresses appetite, thereby reducing blood glucose. This meta-analysis sought to examine the effect of glucomannan supplementation on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) and Postprandial Glucose (PPG) in adults. Method: We searched PubMed, and SCOPUS databases, and...
Article
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This study sought to analyze the relationship between in-season training workload with changes in aerobic power (VO2max), maximum and resting heart rate (HRmax and HRrest), linear sprint medium (LSM), and short test (LSS), in soccer players younger than 16 years (under-16 soccer players). We additionally aimed to explain changes in fitness levels d...
Article
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The co-existence of overweight or obesity with concurrent deficiency of one or more nutrients is referred to as double burden of malnutrition (DBM), and numerous mental health impairments have been associated with a variety of nutrient deficiencies. Although DBM is relevant for several health outcomes, the ubiquitous involvement of vitamin D across...
Article
Background: Despite global efforts to treat and alleviate the outcomes of COVID-19, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal approach. Some nutrients have been known to be vital for the integrity of the immune system. Although limited interventional studies support this idea, the findings of some cross-sectional and case studies have bee...