Awards & Achievements (3)
Award · Feb 2016
Korea Association for Laboratory Animal Science (KALAS) International Award for Young Scientists
Grant · Jul 2015
Development of neurodevelopmental toxicity test using Zebrafish
Award · Jun 2014
China Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS) International Award for Young Scientists
To provide an option,or at least a backup plan to the Head Anastomosis venture i.e. To make the exogenous supply to head possible when the supply from body ceases.That also opens gateway to make humans live until every cells/neurons fadeoff of ageing,pathway to the forthcoming superhuman!
Research Item (36)
Neonatal asphyxia is an important contributor to cerebral palsy (CP), for which there is no effective treatment to date. The administration of human cord blood cells (hUCBCs) is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. However, there are few studies on the application of hUCBCs to the treatment of neonatal ischemia as a model of CP. Experiments and behavioral tests (mainly motor tests) performed on neonatal hypoxia/ischemia have been limited to short-term effects of hUCBCs, but mechanisms of action have not been investigated. We performed a study on the use of hUCBCs in a rat model of neonatal hypoxiaischemia and investigated the underlying mechanism for therapeutic benefits of hUCBCs treatment. hUCBCs were intravenously transplanted into a rat model of neonatal hypoxia ischemia. hUCBCs increased microglia temporarily in the periventricular striatum in the early phase of disease, protected mature neurons in the neocortex from injury, paved the way for the near-normalization of brain damage in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and in consequence, significantly improved performance in a battery of behavioral tests compared to the vehicle-treated group. Although the transplanted cells were rarely observed in brain 3 weeks after transplantation, the effects of the improved behavioral functions persisted. Our preclinical findings suggest that the long-lasting positive influence of hUCBCs is derived from paracrine effects of hUCBCs that stimulate recovery in the injured brain and protect against further brain damage.
- Apr 2013
Amyloid beta (Aβ) plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and neuroinflammatory processes mediated by Aβ plaque-induced microglial cells and astrocytes contribute to AD pathogenesis. The present study examined human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), which have potent immunomodulatory and paracrine effects in a Tg2576 (APPswe) transgenic mouse model of AD. AMSCs secreted high levels of transforming growth factor-β under in vitro inflammatory environment conditions. Six weeks after the intravenous injection of AMSCs, APPswe mice showed evidence of improved spatial learning, which significantly correlated with the observation of fewer Aβ plaques in brain. The number of ED1-positive phagocytic microglial cells associated with Aβ plaques was higher in AMSC-injected mice than in phosphate-buffered saline-injected mice, and the level of Aβ-degrading enzymes (matrix metallopeptidase-9 and insulin-degrading enzyme) was also significantly higher. Furthermore, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, was lower and that of anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, was higher in AMSC-injected mice than phosphate-buffered saline-injected mice. These effects lasted until 12 weeks after AMSC injection. Taken together, these results collectively suggest that injection of AMSCs might show significant long-lasting improvement in AD pathology and memory function via immunomodulatory and paracrine mechanisms.
Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a neurotoxicant widely present in the aquatic environment, primarily from effluents of the plastic industry. It is known to cause acute neuronal death in the limbic-cerebellar system, particularly in the hippocampus. However, relatively few studies have estimated the effects of TMT toxicity on neurodevelopment. In this study, we confirmed the dose-dependent effects of TMT on neurodevelopmental stages through analysis of morphological changes and fluorescence assays using HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos. In addition, we analyzed the expression of genes and proteins related to neurodevelopment. Exposure of embryos to TMT for 4days post fertilization (dpf) elicited a concentration-related decrease in body length and increase in axial malformation. TMT affected the fluorescent CNS structure by decreasing pattern of HuC-GFP and olig2-dsRed transgenic zebrafish. In addition, it significantly modulated the expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog a (Shha), Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), Embryonic lethal abnormal vision like protein 3 (Elavl3), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap). The overexpression of Shha and Ngn1, and downregulation of Elavl3 and Gfap, indicate repression of proneural cell differentiation. Our study demonstrates that TMT inhibits specific neurodevelopmental stages in zebrafish embryos and suggests a possible mechanism for the toxicity of TMT in vertebrate neurodevelopment.
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) have been studied as desirable cell sources for regenerative medicine and therapeutic application. However, it has still remained a challenge to obtain enough adequate and healthy cells in large quantities. To overcome this limitation, various biomaterials have been used to promote expansion of MSCs in vitro. Recently, hexanoyl glycol chitosan (HGC) was introduced as a new biomaterial for various biomedical applications, in particular 3D cell culture, because of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and other promising biofunctional properties. In this study, the effect of HGC on the proliferation of AD-MSCs was examined in vitro, and its synergistic effect with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which has been widely used to promote proliferation of cells, was evaluated. We found that the presence of HGC increased the proliferative capacity of AD-MSCs during long-term culture, even at low concentrations of bFGF. Furthermore, it suppressed the expression of senescence-related genes and improved the mitochondrial functionality. Taken all together, these findings suggest that the HGC demonstrate a potential for sustained growth of AD-MSCs in vitro.
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are attracting attention as the ideal cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, advanced reprogramming and differentiation techniques have made it possible to generate therapeutic cells for treating SCI. In the present study, we used directly-induced neural stem cells (DNSCs) from fibroblasts to establish OPCs (DN-OPCs) capable of proliferation and confirmed their OPC-specific characteristics. Also, we evaluated the effect of transplanted DN-OPCs on SCI in rats. The DN-OPCs exhibited an OPC-specific phenotype and electrophysiological function and could be differentiated into oligodendrocytes. In the SCI model, transplanted DN-OPCs improved behavior recovery, and showed engraftment into the host spinal cord with expression of myelin basic protein. These results suggest that DN-OPCs could be a new source of potentially useful cells for treating SCI.
- May 2018
We describe the first case of biliary cirrhosis in Japanese macaque. Clinical signs had not been detected. The liver was nodular. Histopathologically, portal‐to‐portal pattern of fibrosis might have indicated chronic cholestasis. Fibrotic septa were infiltrated with inflammatory cells. Therefore, this case could be diagnosed as active incomplete biliary cirrhosis.
- Feb 2018
Triclosan (TCS) is an organic compound with a wide range of antibiotic activity and has been widely used in items ranging from hygiene products to cosmetics; however, recent studies suggest that it has several adverse effects. In particular, TCS can be passed to both fetus and infants, and while some evidence suggests in vitro neurotoxicity, there are currently few studies concerning the mechanisms of TCS-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the effect of TCS on neural development using zebrafish models, by analyzing the morphological changes, the alterations observed in fluorescence using HuC-GFP and Olig2-dsRED transgenic zebrafish models, and neurodevelopmental gene expression. TCS exposure decreased the body length, head size, and eye size in a concentration-dependent manner in zebrafish embryos. It increased apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) and particularly affected the structure of the CNS, resulting in decreased synaptic density and shortened axon length. In addition, it significantly up-regulated the expression of genes related to axon extension and synapse formation such as α1-Tubulin and Gap43, while decreasing Gfap and Mbp related to axon guidance, myelination and maintenance. Collectively, these changes indicate that exposure to TCS during neurodevelopment, especially during axonogenesis, is toxic. This is the first study to demonstrate the toxicity of TCS during neurogenesis, and suggests a possible mechanism underlying the neurotoxic effects of TCS in developing vertebrates.
- Nov 2017
Francisella tularensis (FT), a highly infectious pathogen, is considered to be a potential biological weapon owing to the current lack of a human vaccine against it. Tul4 and FopA, both outer membrane proteins of FT, play an important role in the bacterium's immunogenicity. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of mice-humanized with human CD34+ cells (hu-mice)-to a cocktail of recombinant Tul4 and FopA (rTul4 and rFopA), which were codon-optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Not only did the cocktail-immunized hu-mice produce a significant human immunoglobulin response, they also exhibited prolonged survival against an attenuated live vaccine strain as well as human T cell in the spleen. These results suggest that the cocktail of rTul4 and rFopA had successfully induced an immune response in the hu-mice, demonstrating the potential of this mouse model for use in the evaluation of FT vaccine candidates.
An evaluation of intestinal toxicity is important because the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract is the first barrier for oral xenobiotics. Until now, a rat model has been recommended as the standard intestinal toxicity model and the Caco-2 cell line, originated from a human colon adenocarcinoma, has been used as an alternative to this model, but there are limitations regarding cost-effectiveness and the need for mimicry of the human system. In this study, we investigated whether zebrafish could be a valid alternative to rats and Caco-2 cells as an intestinal toxicity model. We focused on intestinal gene expression of cytochrome P450 3A65, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and intestinal function. Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted using three models: zebrafish, Sprague–Dawley rats and Caco-2 cells, and the transcript levels and patterns of indicator genes were analyzed in conjunction with histopathological changes. Our results suggested that representative intestinal toxicants, indomethacin, diclofenac and methotrexate, induced significant transcript level changes in marker genes such as CYP3A, inducible nitric oxide synthase, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, BCL2 associated X, B-cell lymphoma 2, caspase 9, tumor protein p53, nuclear factor-κB, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alphaα and toll-like receptor 2 in the zebrafish model as in the rat and Caco-2 cells models. These results suggest that zebrafish model is sufficiently worth developing as an intestinal toxicity model that can replace or compensate the rat model or Caco-2 cell model.
- Jul 2017
Switchable phototheranostic nanomaterials are of particular interest for specific biosensing, high-quality imaging, and targeted therapy in the field of precision nanomedicine. Here, we develop a “one-for-all” nanomaterial that self-assembles from flexible and versatile phthalocyanine building blocks. The nanostructured phthalocyanine assemblies (NanoPcTBs) display intrinsically unique photothermal and photoacoustic properties. Fluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation can be triggered depending on a targeted, protein-induced, partial disassembly mechanism, which creates opportunities for low-background fluorescence imaging and activatable photodynamic therapy (PDT). In vitro evaluations indicate that NanoPcTB has a high selectivity for biotin receptor-positive cancer cells (e.g., A549) compared to biotin receptor-negative cells (e.g., WI38-VA13) and permits a combined photodynamic and photothermal therapeutic effect. Following systemic administration, the NanoPcTBs accumulate in A549 tumors of xenograft-bearing mice, and laser irradiation clearly induces the inhibition of tumor growth.
- Jan 2017
Background: Risk of teratoma formation during human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based cell therapy is one of the technical hurdles that must be resolved before their wider clinical application. To this end, selective ablation of undifferentiated hPSCs has been achieved using small molecules whose application should be safe for differentiated cells derived from the hPSCs. Objective: However, the functional safety of such small molecules in the cells differentiated from hPSCs has not yet been extensively validated. Method: We used the survivin inhibitor YM155, which induced highly selective cell death of hPSCs for ablating undifferentiated hESCs after differentiation to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and examined whether hMSCs remained fully functional after being exposed by YM155. Results: We demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) remained fully functional in vitro and in vivo, while hESCs were selectively ablated. Conclusion: These results suggest that a single treatment with YM155 after differentiation of hMSCs would be a valid approach for teratoma-free cell therapy.
- Sep 2016
Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord.
Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, we report the preliminary data on the use of a fusogen [polyethylene glycol (PEG)] after full cervical cord transection in mice to facilitate the fusion of both ends of a sharply transected spinal cord. Methods: Cervical laminectomy and a complete, visually confirmed cervical cord (C 5) transection was performed on female albino mice (n = 16). In Group 1 (n = 8), a fusogen, (PEG) was used to bridge the gap between the cut ends of the spinal cord. Group 2 received the same spinal cord transection but was treated with saline. Outcome was assessed daily using a standard scale (modified 22-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and filmed on camera. Results: The PEG group (group 1) showed partial restoration of motor function after 4 weeks of observation; group 2 (placebo) did not recover any useful motor activity. Conclusion: In this preliminary experiment, PEG, but not saline, promoted partial motor recovery in mice submitted to full cervical transection.
Background: A case report on observing the recovery of sensory-motor function after cervical spinal cord transection. Case Description: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on a male beagle weighing 3.5 kg. After applying polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the severed part, reconstruction of cervical spinal cord was confirmed by the restoration of sensorimotor function. Tetraplegia was observed immediately after operation, however, the dog showed stable respiration and survival without any complication. The dog showed fast recovery after 1 week, and recovered approximately 90% of normal sensorimotor function 3 weeks after the operation, although urinary disorder was still present. All recovery stages were recorded by video camera twice a week for behavioral analysis. Conclusion: While current belief holds that functional recovery is impossible after a section greater than 50% at C5-6 in the canine model, this case study shows the possibility of cervical spinal cord reconstruction after near-total transection. Furthermore, this case study also confirms that PEG can truly expedite the recovery of sensorimotor function after cervical spinal cord sections in dogs.
- Jul 2016
- 2th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics. The Allied Genetics Conference, 13-17 July, Orlando. Florida. USA
- May 2016
Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) is a highly virulent pathogen for humans and other mammals. Moreover, F. tularensis has been designated a category A biothreat agent and there is a growing interest in the development of a protective vaccine. In the present study, we determine in vitro and in vivo immune response of subunit vaccine comprised with recombinant peptides Tul4 and FopA from epitopes of the F. tularensis outer membrane proteins. The dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated by recombinant peptides with adjuvant CpG induced robust immunophenotypic change of DCs maturation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12). In addition, the matured DCs enabled ex vivo proliferation of naive splenocytes in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Lastly, we have performed in vivo immune response by assessment of antibodies production in C57BL/6 mice. The levels of total IgG were produced after immunization and peaked in 6 weeks, moreover, Tul4 specific IgG was confirmed in the mice receiving peptides with or without CpG. Based on these results, we suppose that the recombinant peptides Tul4 and FopA have an immunogenicity and could be a safe subunit vaccine candidate approaching against F. tularensis.
Spinal Cord is the official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society. It provides complete coverage of all aspects of spinal injury and disease.
Cephalosomatic anastomosis has been carried out in both monkeys and mice with preservation of brain function. Nonetheless the spinal cord was not reconstructed, leaving the animals unable to move voluntarily. Here we review the details of the GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol, which aims at restoring electrophysiologic conduction across an acutely transected spinal cord. The existence of the cortico-truncoreticulo-propriospinal pathway, a little-known anatomic entity, is described, and its importance concerning spinal cord fusion emphasized. The use of fusogens and electrical stimulation as adjuvants for nerve fusion is addressed. The possibility of achieving cephalosomatic anastomosis in humans has become reality in principle.
The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol exploits the ability of so-called fusogens, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), to achieve rapid neural restoration of electrical continuity across the ends of a transected spinal cord. Experimental evidence suggests that motor recovery can occur after complete transection of the cervical and dorsal spinal cord in mice and rats following application of PEG. This allows for the possibility of spinal cord "reconstruction" in humans and even the possibility of head transplantation in the future.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that has spread throughout Europe and the United States. Recently, WNV spread to East and Southeast Asia, and great efforts have been made in South Korea to prevent the spread of WNV from neighboring countries. In this study, we diagnosed the first case of WNV in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) residing in cities using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed it with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and sequencing. This is the first report and convincing evidence that WNV is present within South Korea.
Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a neurotoxicant widely present in the aquatic environment. Chronic exposure of embryos to TMT for 4 days post-fertilization (dpf) elicited a concentration-related decrease in head & eye size and increase in axial malformation. In addition, Rohon-Beard sensory neurons and motor neurons showed decreased patterns of protein expression. These data coincide with previous research about the neurotoxicity of TMT on mRNA expression (Kim et al., 2016 ). These data demonstrates that TMT inhibits specific neurodevelopmental stages in zebrafish embryos and suggests a possible mechanism for the toxicity of TMT in vertebrate neurodevelopment. This paper contains data related to research concurrently published in Kim et al. (2016) .
In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans.
- Jun 2015
Abnormal angiogenesis is a primary cause of many eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinopathy of prematurity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently being investigated as a treatment for several such retinal diseases based on their neuroprotective and angiogenic potentials. In this study, we evaluated the role of systemically injected human placental amniotic membrane-derived MSCs (AMSCs) on pathological neovascularization of proliferative retinopathy. We determined that AMSCs secrete higher levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) than other MSCs and the secreted TGF-β1 directly suppresses the proliferation of endothelial cells under pathological conditions in vitro. Moreover, in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, intraperitoneally injected AMSCs migrated into the retina and suppressed excessive neovascularization of the vasculature via expression of TGF-β1, and the anti-neovascular effect of AMSCs was blocked by treatment with TGF-β1 siRNA. These findings are the first to demonstrate that TGF-β1 secreted from AMSCs is one of the key factors to suppress retinal neovascularization in proliferative retinopathy and further elucidate the therapeutic function of AMSCs for the treatment of retinal neovascular diseases.
Corynebacterium (C.) bovis infection in nude mice causes hyperkeratosis and weight loss and has been reported worldwide but not in Korea. In 2011, nude mice from an animal facility in Korea were found to have white flakes on their dorsal skin. Histopathological testing revealed that the mice had hyperkeratosis and Gram-positive bacteria were found in the skin. We identified isolated bacteria from the skin lesions as C. bovis using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. bovis infection in nude mice from Korea.
This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted.
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress.METHODS We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks.RESULTSThe histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2 ± 0.2 and 6.2 ± 0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2O2 levels.CONCLUSIONS Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress. METHODS: We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks. RESULTS: The histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2±0.2 and 6.2±0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3±0.3 and 5.2±0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2 O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2 O2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells.
Increased fat intake is known to be a major cause of prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary high fat on prostate intraepithelial neoplasia using transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male TRAMP mice were fed AIN93G (control group, 4.0 kcal/kg, n=6) and AIN93G-HFD (experimental group, 4.8 kcal/kg, n=7) for 10 weeks. Prostate histopathology, urogenital tract (UGT) weight, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts, and serum leptin levels were examined. AIN93G-HFD fed group showed progressed neoplastic lesions in the prostate (P<0.05) compared to AIN93G fed group. AIN93G-HFD intake resulted in a increase in the weight of UGT (P<0.05) and epididymal white adipose tissue. The number of Ag-NOR positive dots significantly increased in each prostate lobe and final serum leptin levels in AIN93G-HFD fed group were about twice those of AIN93G fed group (P<0.05). Dietary high fat was related to the prostate cancer progression in the early stage of TRAMP mice and increased serum leptin levels, suggesting that the regulation of dietary components could delay the progression of prostate cancer.
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the critical signaling cascades playing important roles in the chemoresistance of human cancer cells, including ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated the potential of targeting the PI3K p110β-isoform as a novel approach to overcome the chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. The effects on apoptosis, cell viability, proliferation and migration in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell were determined following targeted p110β inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Seven paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant sublines (SKpacs and A2780pac) were produced from SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. We, first, evaluated the expression of PI3K p110 isoforms in chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines and patient specimens, and found that p110β-isoform was significantly overexpressed both in a panel of ovarian cancer samples, and in PTX-resistant sublines compared with their parent cell lines. RNA interference-mediated p110β silencing augmented PTX-mediated apoptosis (31.15 ± 13.88 %) and reduced cell viability (67 %) in PTX-resistant cells, whereas targeting p110α did not show a significant change in cell viability and apoptosis. In addition, p110β silencing impaired cell proliferation (60 %) in PTX-resistant SKpac cells. We also found the combined treatment group with p110β siRNA and PTX showed a significant inhibition of tumor growth of SKpac cells compared to the PTX-only treated group in a xenograft nude mouse model. Thus, the siRNA-mediated silencing of PI3K p110β resensitizes PTX-resistant ovarian cancer cells, and may be a useful therapeutic strategy for PTX-resistant ovarian cancers. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10495-013-0807-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.