Research Items (684)
Objective Accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) associates with insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation, and metabolic syndrome, whereas accumulation of subcutaneous WAT may be protective. We aimed to identify molecular mechanisms that might provide mechanistic insights underlying the phenotypic differences in these tissues. Membrane Metallo-Endopeptidase (MME/Neprislyin) is an extracellular, membrane-bound protease enriched in subcutaneous WAT that can target degradation of a variety of peptides, including insulin, IL6, and β-amyloids. We hypothesized that MME contributes to adipose depot-specific metabolic properties. Methods We performed RNA sequencing on human subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes and array gene expression profiling in murine subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes. We conducted several insulin signaling and inflammatory response experiments on different cellular states of MME expression. Results MME in white preadipocytes is expressed at a higher level in subcutaneous compared to visceral WAT and favors insulin signaling and a low inflammatory response. Thus, knockdown of MME in subcutaneous preadipocytes increased the inflammatory response to substance P and amyloid β aggregates. This associated with increased basal insulin signaling and decreased insulin-stimulated signaling. Moreover, MME differentially regulates the internalization and turnover of the α/β subunits of the insulin receptor. Conclusion MME is a novel regulator of the insulin receptor in adipose tissue. Given the clinical significance of both chronic inflammation and insulin sensitivity in metabolic disease, these results show a potentially new target to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammatory susceptibility.
A major target of insulin signaling is the FoxO family of Forkhead transcription factors, which translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following insulin-stimulated phosphorylation. Here we show that the Forkhead transcription factors FoxK1 and FoxK2 are also downstream targets of insulin action, but that following insulin stimulation, they translocate from the cytoplasm to nucleus, reciprocal to the translocation of FoxO1. FoxK1/FoxK2 translocation to the nucleus is dependent on the Akt-mTOR pathway, while its localization to the cytoplasm in the basal state is dependent on GSK3. Knockdown of FoxK1 and FoxK2 in liver cells results in upregulation of genes related to apoptosis and down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and lipid metabolism. This is associated with decreased cell proliferation and altered mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Thus, FoxK1/K2 are reciprocally regulated to FoxO1 following insulin stimulation and play a critical role in the control of apoptosis, metabolism and mitochondrial function.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is rich in mitochondria and plays important roles in energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and glucose homeostasis. We find that levels of mitochondrial protein succinylation and malonylation are high in BAT and subject to physiological and genetic regulation. BAT-specific deletion of Sirt5, a mitochondrial desuccinylase and demalonylase, results in dramatic increases in global protein succinylation and malonylation. Mass spectrometry-based quantification of succinylation reveals that Sirt5 regulates the key thermogenic protein in BAT, UCP1. Mutation of the two succinylated lysines in UCP1 to acyl-mimetic glutamine and glutamic acid significantly decreases its stability and activity. The reduced function of UCP1 and other proteins in Sirt5KO BAT results in impaired mitochondria respiration, defective mitophagy, and metabolic inflexibility. Thus, succinylation of UCP1 and other mitochondrial proteins plays an important role in BAT and in regulation of energy homeostasis.
Objective Insulin action in the brain controls metabolism and brain function, which is linked to proper mitochondrial function. Conversely, brain insulin resistance associates with mitochondrial stress and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the impact of hypothalamic insulin action on mitochondrial stress responses, function and metabolism. Methods To investigate the crosstalk of insulin action and mitochondrial stress responses (MSR), namely the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and integrated stress response (ISR), qPCR, western blotting, and mitochondrial activity assays were performed. These methods were used to analyze the hypothalamic cell line CLU183 treated with insulin in the presence or absence of the insulin receptor as well as in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for three days and STZ-treated mice without or with insulin therapy. Intranasal insulin treatment was used to investigate the effect of acute brain insulin action on metabolism and mitochondrial stress responses. Results Acute HFD feeding reduces hypothalamic mitochondrial stress responsive gene expression of Atf4, Chop, Hsp60, Hsp10, ClpP, and Lonp1 in C57BL/6N mice. We show that insulin via ERK activation increases the expression of MSR genes in vitro as well as in the hypothalamus of streptozotocin-treated mice. This regulation propagates mitochondrial function by controlling mitochondrial proteostasis and prevents excessive autophagy under serum deprivation. Finally, short-term intranasal insulin treatment activates MSR gene expression in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice and reduces food intake and body weight development. Conclusions We define hypothalamic insulin action as a novel master regulator of MSR, ensuring proper mitochondrial function by controlling mitochondrial proteostasis and regulating metabolism.
Regulation of gene expression is an important aspect of insulin action but in vivo is intertwined with changing levels of glucose and counter-regulatory hormones. Here we demonstrate that under euglycemic clamp conditions, physiological levels of insulin regulate interrelated networks of more than 1,000 transcripts in muscle and liver. These include expected pathways related to glucose and lipid utilization, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, as well as unexpected pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, and Notch signaling. These acutely regulated pathways extend beyond those dysregulated in mice with chronic insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and involve a broad network of transcription factors. More than 150 non-coding RNAs were regulated by insulin, many of which also responded to fasting and refeeding. Pathway analysis and RNAi knockdown revealed a role for lncRNA Gm15441 in regulating fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes. Altogether, these changes in coding and non-coding RNAs provide an integrated transcriptional network underlying the complexity of insulin action. : Batista et al. demonstrate potent transcriptional remodeling by physiological insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver, involving interrelated networks of protein-coding genes, transcription factors, and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). From an array of metabolically sensitive lncRNAs, Gm15441 is identified as a regulator of fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes. Keywords: insulin action, gene expression, skeletal muscle, mitochondria, liver, diabetes, non-coding RNAs, fatty acid oxidation
- Feb 2019
Previous studies have shown that insulin and IGF-1 signaling in the brain, especially the hypothalamus, is important for regulation of systemic metabolism. Here, we develop mice in which we have specifically inactivated both insulin receptors (IRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF1Rs) in the hippocampus (Hippo-DKO) or central amygdala (CeA-DKO) by stereotaxic delivery of AAV-Cre into IR lox/lox /IGF1R lox/lox mice. Consequently, both Hippo-DKO and CeA-DKO mice have decreased levels of the GluA1 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptor and display increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired cognition, and metabolic abnormalities, including glucose intolerance. Hippo-DKO mice also display abnormal spatial learning and memory whereas CeA-DKO mice have impaired cold-induced thermogenesis. Thus, insulin/IGF-1 signaling has common roles in the hippocampus and central amygdala, affecting synaptic function, systemic glucose homeostasis, behavior, and cognition. In addition, in the hippocampus, insulin/IGF-1 signaling is important for spatial learning and memory whereas insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the central amygdala controls thermogenesis via regulation of neural circuits innervating interscapular brown adipose tissue.
Exercise improves health and well-being across diverse organ systems, and elucidating mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise can lead to new therapies. Here, we show that transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is secreted from adipose tissue in response to exercise and improves glucose tolerance in mice. We identify TGF-β2 as an exercise-induced adipokine in a gene expression analysis of human subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies after exercise training. In mice, exercise training increases TGF-β2 in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) and serum, and its secretion from fat explants. Transplanting scWAT from exercise-trained wild-type mice, but not from adipose-tissue-specific Tgfb2−/− mice, into sedentary mice improves glucose tolerance. TGF-β2 treatment reverses the detrimental metabolic effects of high-fat feeding in mice. Lactate, a metabolite released from muscle during exercise, stimulates TGF-β2 expression in human adipocytes. Administration of the lactate-lowering agent dichloroacetate during exercise training in mice decreases circulating TGF-β2 levels and reduces exercise-stimulated improvements in glucose tolerance. Thus, exercise training improves systemic metabolism through inter-organ communication with fat via a lactate–TGF-β2 signaling cycle.
Supplementary Figure 6. Omapatrilat inhibits MME enzymatic activity. Immortalized human white preadipocytes were treated vehicle (DMSO) or Omapatrilat (1 μM) for 24 h before cell lysis. Cell lysis and MME activity measurements were performed with a MME activity assay kit. N = 3.
Dietary macronutrient composition alters metabolism through several mechanisms, including post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins. To connect diet and molecular changes, here we performed short- and long-term feeding of mice with standard chow diet (SCD) and high-fat diet (HFD), with or without glucose or fructose supplementation, and quantified liver metabolites, 861 proteins, and 1,815 protein level-corrected mitochondrial acetylation and succinylation sites. Nearly half the acylation sites were altered by at least one diet; nutrient-specific changes in protein acylation sometimes encompass entire pathways. Although acetyl-CoA is an intermediate in both sugar and fat metabolism, acetyl-CoA had a dichotomous fate depending on its source; chronic feeding of dietary sugars induced protein hyperacetylation, whereas the same duration of HFD did not. Instead, HFD resulted in citrate accumulation, anaplerotic metabolism of amino acids, and protein hypo-succinylation. Together, our results demonstrate novel connections between dietary macronutrients, protein post-translational modifications, and regulation of fuel selection in liver.
Time- and diet-induced remodeling of liver (a) acyl-CoAs and (b) acyl-carnitines. Grey boxes were not significant, colored boxes were statistically significant after two-sided t-test with q-value correction (* q-value < 0.05, ** q-value < 0.01). (TIF)
Dietary relationships based on changes in protein acetylation and succinylation. a, Heatmap showing 861 modified lysine residues from 301 proteins showing at least one statistically significant change in any diet (FDR<0.01, fold change >2). b, PCA of diet groups based on changes in succinylation where green dots show the 10w cohorts and yellow dots show the 2 w cohorts. c,d, unsupervised hierarchical clustering of dietary conditions based on unfiltered changes in acetylation (b) and succinylation (c). (TIF)
Statistically-significant (q-value < 0.01, fold change greater or less than 2) changes in acetylation sites (aK) and succinylation sites (sK) observed for sites in proteins within the amino acid metabolism Wikipathway. (TIF)
Quantification of citrate synthase activity. a, Five replicate mitochondria samples from each 10-week diet were assayed for citrate synthase activity using the kit from Sigma Aldrich. Dichotomous protein acetylation from sugar and fat are not due to a difference in citrate synthase activity, which was higher in samples from all diets compared to the control chow. b, When citrate synthase activity (a) is normalized to the quantification from the proteomic data, the activity becomes more uniform. (TIF)
Recent studies suggest that, even within a single adipose depot, there may be distinct subpopulations of adipocytes. To investigate this cellular heterogeneity, we have developed multiple conditionally immortalized clonal preadipocyte lines from white adipose tissue of mice. Analysis of these clones reveals at least three white adipocyte subpopulations. These subpopulations have differences in metabolism and differentially respond to inflammatory cytokines, insulin, and growth hormones. These also have distinct gene expression profiles and can be tracked by differential expression of three marker genes: Wilms’ tumor 1, transgelin, and myxovirus 1. Lineage tracing analysis with dual-fluorescent reporter mice indicates that these adipocyte subpopulations have differences in gene expression and metabolism that mirror those observed in the clonal cell lines. Furthermore, preadipocytes and adipocytes from these subpopulations differ in their abundance in different fat depots. Thus, white adipose tissue, even in a single depot, is comprised of distinct subpopulations of white adipocytes with different physiological phenotypes. These differences in adipocyte composition may contribute to the differences in metabolic behavior and physiology of different fat depots.
Insulin deficiency and uncontrolled diabetes lead to a catabolic state with decreased muscle strength, contributing to disease-related morbidity. FoxO transcription factors are suppressed by insulin and thus are key mediators of insulin action. To study their role in diabetic muscle wasting, we created mice with muscle-specific triple knockout of FoxO1/3/4 and induced diabetes in these M-FoxO-TKO mice with streptozotocin (STZ). Muscle mass and myofiber area were decreased 20–30% in STZ-Diabetes mice due to increased ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and autophagy alterations, characterized by increased LC3-containing vesicles, and elevated levels of phosphorylated ULK1 and LC3-II. Both the muscle loss and markers of increased degradation/autophagy were completely prevented in STZ FoxO-TKO mice. Transcriptomic analyses revealed FoxO-dependent increases in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways in STZ-Diabetes, including regulation of Fbxo32 (Atrogin1), Trim63 (MuRF1), Bnip3L, and Gabarapl. These same genes were increased 1.4- to 3.3-fold in muscle from humans with type 1 diabetes after short-term insulin deprivation. Thus, FoxO-regulated genes play a rate-limiting role in increased protein degradation and muscle atrophy in insulin-deficient diabetes.
A finely tuned balance of self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation, and survival governs the pool size and regenerative capacity of blood-forming hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here, we report that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) is a critical regulator of adult HSPC number and function that couples the proliferative and metabolic activities of HSPCs. PKCδ-deficient mice showed a pronounced increase in HSPC numbers, increased competence in reconstituting lethally irradiated recipients, enhanced long-term competitive advantage in serial transplantation studies, and an augmented HSPC recovery during stress. PKCδ-deficient HSPCs also showed accelerated proliferation and reduced apoptosis, but did not exhaust in serial transplant assays or induce leukemia. Using inducible knockout and transplantation models, we further found that PKCδ acts in a hematopoietic cell-intrinsic manner to restrict HSPC number and bone marrow regenerative function. Mechanistically, PKCδ regulates HSPC energy metabolism and coordinately governs multiple regulators within signaling pathways implicated in HSPC homeostasis. Together, these data identify PKCδ as a critical regulator of HSPC signaling and metabolism that acts to limit HSPC expansion in response to physiological and regenerative demands. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license
There is emerging evidence to support an important role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) sensory innervation in glucose homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the glucoregulatory action of these afferent neurons is sex-biased and whether it is pancreatic β-cell-mediated. Objective We investigated in male and female mice whether denervation of whole-body or pancreas-projecting TRPV1 sensory neurons regulates adult functional β-cell mass and alters systemic glucose homeostasis. Methods We used a combination of pharmacological and surgical approaches to ablate whole-body or pancreatic TRPV1 sensory neurons and assessed islet β-cell function and mass, aspects of glucose and insulin homeostasis, and energy expenditure. Results Capsaicin-induced chemodenervation of whole-body TRPV1 sensory neurons improved glucose clearance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without alterations in β-cell proliferation and mass, systemic insulin sensitivity, body composition, and energy expenditure. Similarly, denervation of intrapancreatic TRPV1 afferents by pancreas intraductal injection of capsaicin or surgical removal of the dorsal root ganglia projecting into the pancreas lowered post-absorptive glucose levels and increased insulin release upon glucose stimulation. The beneficial effects of TRPV1 sensory denervation on glucose tolerance and β-cell function were observed in male but not female mice. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV1 neurons regulate glucose homeostasis, at least partly, through direct modulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion and that this regulation operates in a sex-dependent manner.
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Treatment with oral metronidazole or vancomycin decreases inflammation, improves insulin signaling in the brain and reduces signs of anxiety and depression. These effects are associated with changes in the levels of tryptophan, GABA, BDNF, amino acids, and multiple acylcarnitines, and are transferable to germ-free mice by fecal transplant. Thus, changes in gut microbiota can control brain insulin signaling and metabolite levels, and this leads to altered neurobehaviors.
Transport of biologically active molecules across tight epithelial barriers is a major challenge preventing therapeutic peptides from oral drug delivery. Here, we identify a set of synthetic glycosphingolipids that harness the endogenous process of intracellular lipid-sorting to enable mucosal absorption of the incretin hormone GLP-1. Peptide cargoes covalently fused to glycosphingolipids with ceramide domains containing C6:0 or smaller fatty acids were transported with 20-100-fold greater efficiency across epithelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. This was explained by structure-function of the ceramide domain in intracellular sorting and by the affinity of the glycosphingolipid species for insertion into and retention in cell membranes. In mice, GLP-1 fused to short-chain glycosphingolipids was rapidly and systemically absorbed after gastric gavage to affect glucose tolerance with serum bioavailability comparable to intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1 alone. This is unprecedented for mucosal absorption of therapeutic peptides, and defines a technology with many other clinical applications.
Source Data for Figure 5D. Columns represent treatment groups. Groupings of rows represent data collected on the same day (independent experiments, exp 1–10). Every number is the total area under glucose tolerance curves per individual mice calculated using GraphPad PRISM 7.0 software. This AUC data (not corrected) was used to produce Figure 5D.
Summary Data for Figure 4A. Columns represent treatment groups. Groupings of rows represent data collected on the same day (independent experiments). Every number is fmols per 100uls blood calculated from standard curves per individual mouse (each measured is an average of two technical replicates). Raw data and data corrected for vehicle (background) are provided.
Summary Data for Figure 4E. Columns represent treatment groups. Groupings of rows represent data collected on the same day (independent experiments). Every number is fmols per 100uls blood calculated from standard curves per individual mouse (each measure is an average of two technical replicates). Raw data and data corrected for vehicle (background) are provided.
Source Data for Figure 5E. Columns represent treatment groups. Groupings of rows represent data collected on the same day (independent experiments). Every number is fmols per 100uls blood calculated from GLP-1 or C6:0-GM1-GLP-1 bioactivity/luciferase curves for each individual mouse.
Source Data for Figure 5F. Columns represent treatment groups. Groupings of rows represent data collected on the same day (independent experiments). Every number is fmols per 100uls blood calculated from standard curves per individual mouse (each measured is an average of two technical replicates (with variance well less than 10%).
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, cell growth, cell development, and apoptosis. A heterozygous missense mutation (R649W) in the p85α regulatory subunit gene of PI3K (PIK3R1) has been identified in patients with SHORT (Short stature, Hyperextensibility/Hernia, Ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and Teething delay) syndrome, a disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, insulin resistance, and partial lipodystrophy. Knock-in mice with the same heterozygous mutation mirror the human phenotype. In this study, we show that Pik3r1 R649W knock-in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have reduced weight gain and adipose accumulation. This is accompanied by reduced expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism. Interestingly, despite the lower level of adiposity, the HFD knock-in mice are more hyperglycemic and more insulin-resistant than HFD-fed control mice. Likewise, when crossed with genetically obese ob/ob mice, the ob/ob mice carrying the heterozygous R649W mutation were protected from obesity and hepatic steatosis but developed a severe diabetic state. Together, our data demonstrate a central role of PI3K in development of obesity and fatty liver disease, separating these effects from the role of PI3K in insulin resistance and the resultant hyperglycemia.
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout body, including central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor in brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities, however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well-studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice. This can be reproduced in part by deletion of IR on astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens. At a molecular level, loss of insulin signaling in astrocytes impaired tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c. This led to decreased exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes, resulting in decreased purinergic signaling on dopaminergic neurons. These reductions contributed to decreased dopamine release from brain slices. Central administration of ATP analogues could reverse depressive-like behaviors in mice with astrocyte IR knockout. Thus, astrocytic insulin signaling plays an important role in dopaminergic signaling, providing a potential mechanism by which astrocytic insulin action may contribute to increased rates of depression in people with diabetes, obesity and other insulin resistant states.
- Apr 2018
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout body, including central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor in brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities, however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well-studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice. This can be reproduced in part by deletion of IR on astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens. At a molecular level, loss of insulin signaling in astrocytes impaired tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c. This led to decreased exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes, resulting in decreased purinergic signaling on dopaminergic neurons. These reductions contributed to decreased dopamine release from brain slices. Central administration of ATP analogues could reverse depressive-like behaviors in mice with astrocyte IR knockout. Thus, astrocytic insulin signaling plays an important role in dopaminergic signaling, providing a potential mechanism by which astrocytic insulin action may contribute to increased rates of depression in people with diabetes, obesity and other insulin resistant states.
Objective: Glucose is the major energy substrate of the brain and crucial for normal brain function. In diabetes, the brain is subject to episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia resulting in acute outcomes ranging from confusion to seizures, while chronic metabolic dysregulation puts patients at increased risk for depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine how glucose is metabolized in different regions of the brain using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Methods: To examine the relative abundance of glucose and other metabolites in the brain, mouse brain sections were subjected to imaging mass spectrometry at a resolution of 100 μm. This was correlated with immunohistochemistry, qPCR, western blotting and enzyme assays of dissected brain regions to determine the relative contributions of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways to regional glucose metabolism. Results: In brain, there are significant regional differences in glucose metabolism, with low levels of hexose bisphosphate (a glycolytic intermediate) and high levels of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and PPP metabolite hexose phosphate in thalamus compared to cortex. The ratio of ATP to ADP is significantly higher in white matter tracts, such as corpus callosum, compared to less myelinated areas. While the brain is able to maintain normal ratios of hexose phosphate, hexose bisphosphate, ATP, and ADP during fasting, fasting causes a large increase in cortical and hippocampal lactate. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the importance of direct measurement of metabolic intermediates to determine regional differences in brain glucose metabolism and illustrate the strength of imaging mass spectrometry for investigating the impact of changing metabolic states on brain function at a regional level with high resolution.
Diet, genetics, and the gut microbiome are determinants of metabolic status, in part through production of metabolites by the gut microbiota. To understand the mechanisms linking these factors, we performed LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of cecal contents and plasma from C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac mice on chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD-treated with vancomycin or metronidazole. Prediction of the functional metagenome of gut bacteria by PICRUSt analysis of 16S sequences revealed dramatic differences in microbial metabolism. Cecal and plasma metabolites showed multifold differences reflecting the combined and integrated effects of diet, antibiotics, host background, and the gut microbiome. Eighteen plasma metabolites correlated positively or negatively with host insulin resistance across strains and diets. Over 1,000 still-unidentified metabolite peaks were also highly regulated by diet, antibiotics, and genetic background. Thus, diet, host genetics, and the gut microbiota interact to create distinct responses in plasma metabolites, which can contribute to regulation of metabolism and insulin resistance.
Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1-/-and IRS-2-/-mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins.
- Feb 2018
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities and carry a wide variety of genetic material, including the ability to encode host-like proteins. Here we show that viruses carry sequences with significant homology to several human peptide hormones including insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1 and -2, FGF-19 and -21, endothelin-1, inhibin, adiponectin, and resistin. Among the strongest homologies were those for four viral insulin/IGF-1-like peptides (VILPs), each encoded by a different member of the familyIridoviridaeVILPs show up to 50% homology to human insulin/IGF-1, contain all critical cysteine residues, and are predicted to form similar 3D structures. Chemically synthesized VILPs can bind to human and murine IGF-1/insulin receptors and stimulate receptor autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. VILPs can also increase glucose uptake in adipocytes and stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts, and injection of VILPs into mice significantly lowers blood glucose. Transfection of mouse hepatocytes with DNA encoding a VILP also stimulates insulin/IGF-1 signaling and DNA synthesis. Human microbiome studies reveal the presence of theseIridoviridaein blood and fecal samples. Thus, VILPs are members of the insulin/IGF superfamily with the ability to be active on human and rodent cells, raising the possibility for a potential role of VILPs in human disease. Furthermore, since only 2% of viruses have been sequenced, this study raises the potential for discovery of other viral hormones which, along with known virally encoded growth factors, may modify human health and disease.
Mice subjected to cold or caloric deprivation can reduce body temperature and metabolic rate and enter a state of torpor. Here we show that administration of pyruvate, an energy-rich metabolic intermediate, can induce torpor in mice with diet-induced or genetic obesity. This is associated with marked hypothermia, decreased activity, and decreased metabolic rate. The drop in body temperature correlates with the degree of obesity and is blunted by housing mice at thermoneutrality. Induction of torpor by pyruvate in obese mice relies on adenosine signaling and is accompanied by changes in brain levels of hexose bisphosphate and GABA as detected by mass spectroscopy-based imaging. Pyruvate does not induce torpor in lean mice but results in the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with an increase in the level of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). Denervation of BAT in lean mice blocks this increase in UCP1 and allows the pyruvate-induced torpor phenotype. Thus, pyruvate administration induces torpor in obese mice by pathways involving adenosine and GABA signaling and a failure of normal activation of BAT.
White adipocytes are specialized for energy storage, whereas brown adipocytes are specialized for energy expenditure. Explicating this difference can help identify therapeutic targets for obesity. A common tool to assess metabolic differences between such cells is the Seahorse Extracellular Flux (XF) Analyzer, which measures oxygen consumption and media acidification in the presence of different substrates and perturbagens. Here, we integrate the Analyzer's metabolic profile from human white and brown adipocytes with a genome-scale metabolic model to predict flux differences across the metabolic map. Predictions matched experimental data for the metabolite 4-aminobutyrate, the protein ABAT, and the fluxes for glucose, glutamine, and palmitate. We also uncovered a difference in how adipocytes dispose of nitrogenous waste, with brown adipocytes secreting less ammonia and more urea than white adipocytes. Thus, the method and software we developed allow for broader metabolic phenotyping and provide a distinct approach to uncovering metabolic differences.
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and triglyceride synthesis but was associated with improved hepatic insulin signaling. Metabolomic and RNA sequence analysis confirmed dichotomous effects of fructose and glucose supplementation on liver metabolism in spite of inducing similar hepatic lipid accumulation. Ketohexokinase, the first enzyme of fructose metabolism, was increased in fructose-fed mice and in obese humans with steatohepatitis. Knockdown of ketohexokinase in liver improved hepatic steatosis and glucose tolerance in fructose-supplemented mice. Thus, fructose is a component of dietary sugar that is distinctively associated with poor metabolic outcomes, whereas increased glucose intake may be protective.
Insulin receptors (IRs) on endothelial cells may have a role in the regulation of transport of circulating insulin to its target tissues; however, how this impacts on insulin action in vivo is unclear. Using mice with endothelial-specific inactivation of the IR gene (EndoIRKO), we find that in response to systemic insulin stimulation, loss of endothelial IRs caused delayed onset of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, brown fat, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex but not in liver or olfactory bulb. At the level of the brain, the delay of insulin signaling was associated with decreased levels of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin, leading to increased food intake and obesity accompanied with hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. The loss of endothelial IRs also resulted in a delay in the acute hypoglycemic effect of systemic insulin administration and impaired glucose tolerance. In high-fat diet-treated mice, knockout of the endothelial IRs accelerated development of systemic insulin resistance but not food intake and obesity. Thus, IRs on endothelial cells have an important role in transendothelial insulin delivery in vivo which differentially regulates the kinetics of insulin signaling and insulin action in peripheral target tissues and different brain regions. Loss of this function predisposes animals to systemic insulin resistance, overeating, and obesity.
Tbx15 is a member of the T-box gene family of mesodermal developmental genes. We have recently shown that Tbx15 plays a critical role in the formation and metabolic programming of glycolytic myofibers in skeletal muscle. Tbx15 is also differentially expressed between white adipose tissue (WAT) in different body depots. In the present study, using three independent methods, we show that even within a single WAT depot, high Tbx15 expression is restricted to a subset of preadipocytes and mature white adipocytes. Gene expression and metabolic profiling demonstrate that the Tbx15(Hi) preadipocytes and adipocytes subpopulation of cells are highly glycolytic, whereas Tbx15(Low) preadipocytes and adipocytes in the same depot are more oxidative and less glycolytic. Likewise, in humans, expression of Tbx15 in subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue is positively correlated markers of glycolytic metabolism and inversely correlated with obesity. Furthermore, over-expression of Tbx15 is sufficient to reduce oxidative and increase glycolytic metabolism in cultured adipocytes. Thus, Tbx15 differentially regulates oxidative and glycolytic metabolism within subpopulations of white adipocytes and preadipocytes. This leads to a functional heterogeneity of cellular metabolism within white adipose tissue has potential impact in the understanding of human metabolic diseases.
Fig. S1 Insulin receptor (IR) expression is reduced in peripheral tissue from PerIRKO−/− and PerIRKO−/+ mice. Fig. S2 The effect of complete peripheral tissue IR disruption on body composition and blood glucose regulation in adult mice. Fig. S3 Partial peripheral tissue IR disruption does not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion of adult mice. Fig. S4 The effect of partial peripheral tissue IR disruption on insulin sensitivity of adult mice.
Purpose To determine the ocular consequences of a dominant-negative mutation in the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1) using a knock-in mouse model of SHORT syndrome, a syndrome associated with short stature, lipodystrophy, diabetes, and Rieger anomaly in humans. Methods We investigated knock-in mice heterozygous for the SHORT syndrome mutation changing arginine 649 to tryptophan in p85α (PIK3R1) using physical examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), tonometry, and histopathologic sections from paraffin-embedded eyes, and compared the findings to similar investigations in two human subjects with SHORT syndrome heterozygous for the same mutation. Results While overall eye development was normal with clear cornea and lens, normal anterior chamber volume, normal intraocular pressure, and no changes in the retinal structure, OCT images of the knock-in mouse eyes revealed a significant decrease in thickness and width of the iris resulting in increased pupil area and irregularity of shape. Both human subjects had Rieger anomaly with similar defects including thin irides and irregular pupils, as well as a prominent ring of Schwalbe, goniosynechiae, early cataract formation, and glaucoma. Although the two subjects had had diabetes for more than 30 years, there were no signs of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions A dominant-negative mutation in the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K affects development of the iris, and contributes to changes consistent with anterior segment dysgenesis in both humans and mice.
Impaired insulin/IGF1 signalling has been shown to extend lifespan in model organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Here we sought to determine the effect of targeted disruption of the insulin receptor (IR) in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice on the lifespan. We induced hemizygous (PerIRKO(+/-) ) or homozygous (PerIRKO(-/-) ) disruption of the IR in peripheral tissue of 15-weeks-old mice using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mouse with only peripheral tissue expression, and subsequently monitored glucose metabolism, insulin signalling and spontaneous death rates over 4 years. Complete peripheral IR disruption resulted in a diabetic phenotype with increased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in young mice. Although blood glucose levels returned to normal, and fat mass was reduced in aged PerIRKO(-/-) mice, their lifespan was reduced. By contrast, heterozygous disruption had no effect on lifespan. This was despite young male PerIRKO(+/-) mice showing reduced fat mass and mild increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity. In conflict with findings in metazoans like Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, our results suggest that heterozygous impairment of the insulin signalling limited to peripheral tissues of adult mice fails to extend lifespan despite increased systemic insulin sensitivity, while homozygous impairment shortens lifespan.
A hallmark of cancer cells is the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis, a phenomenon referred to as the ‘Warburg effect’, which is also observed in primed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, we report that downregulation of SIRT2 and upregulation of SIRT1 is a molecular signature of primed hPSCs and that SIRT2 critically regulates metabolic reprogramming during induced pluripotency by targeting glycolytic enzymes including aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and enolase. Remarkably, knockdown of SIRT2 in human fibroblasts resulted in significantly decreased OXPHOS and increased glycolysis. In addition, we found that miR-200c-5p specifically targets SIRT2, downregulating its expression. Furthermore, SIRT2 overexpression in hPSCs significantly affected energy metabolism, altering stem cell functions such as pluripotent differentiation properties. Taken together, our results identify the miR-200c–SIRT2 axis as a key regulator of metabolic reprogramming (Warburg-like effect), via regulation of glycolytic enzymes, during human induced pluripotency and pluripotent stem cell function.
- Apr 2017
- Adipose Tissue Biology
White adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the most abundant tissues in mammals, exhibiting numerous complex functions. The primary purpose of WAT is to store excess energy in the form of fat for future use by other cells of the organism during periods of energy deprivation. In order to do this, white adipocytes acquire the expression of specific enzymes during their differentiation, which enable both the accumulation and mobilization of fat. Fat accumulation is achieved by de novo synthesis of fatty acids (lipogenesis) as well as fatty acid uptake, while fat mobilization is accomplished during lipolysis. Both processes are regulated by various hormones including insulin and catecholamines. In addition, WAT secretes various factors, known as adipokines, which can act locally or distally on other tissues. These adipokines, which include leptin, adiponectin, RBP4, and others, are involved in the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis. In mammals, WAT is distributed throughout the body in two main depots, located subcutaneously and intra-abdominally. In obesity, intra-abdominal fat accumulation is strongly associated with the development of related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, while accumulation of subcutaneous fat exhibits no correlation. This phenomenon is the result of differences in anatomical location and developmental intrinsic properties of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose depots. In this chapter, we discuss how the developmental origins of fat may play a role in the heterogeneity of WAT distribution and function and the impact of fat distribution on obesity-related diseases.
Despite a high degree of homology, insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) mediate distinct cellular and physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate how domain differences between IR and IGF1R contribute to the distinct functions of these receptors using chimeric and site-mutated receptors. Receptors with the intracellular domain of IGF1R show increased activation of Shc and Gab-1 and more potent regulation of genes involved in proliferation, corresponding to their higher mitogenic activity. Conversely, receptors with the intracellular domain of IR display higher IRS-1 phosphorylation, stronger regulation of genes in metabolic pathways and more dramatic glycolytic responses to hormonal stimulation. Strikingly, replacement of leucine973 in the juxtamembrane region of IR to phenylalanine, which is present in IGF1R, mimics many of these signalling and gene expression responses. Overall, we show that the distinct activities of the closely related IR and IGF1R are mediated by their intracellular juxtamembrane region and substrate binding to this region.
Adipose tissue is a major site of energy storage and has a role in the regulation of metabolism through the release of adipokines. Here we show that mice with an adipose-tissue-specific knockout of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer (ADicerKO), as well as humans with lipodystrophy, exhibit a substantial decrease in levels of circulating exosomal miRNAs. Transplantation of both white and brown adipose tissue-brown especially-into ADicerKO mice restores the level of numerous circulating miRNAs that are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and a reduction in hepatic Fgf21 mRNA and circulating FGF21. This gene regulation can be mimicked by the administration of normal, but not ADicerKO, serum exosomes. Expression of a human-specific miRNA in the brown adipose tissue of one mouse in vivo can also regulate its 3' UTR reporter in the liver of another mouse through serum exosomal transfer. Thus, adipose tissue constitutes an important source of circulating exosomal miRNAs, which can regulate gene expression in distant tissues and thereby serve as a previously undescribed form of adipokine.
Cholesterol is important for normal brain function. The brain synthesizes its own cholesterol, presumably in astrocytes. We have previously shown that diabetes results in decreased brain cholesterol synthesis by a reduction in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-regulated transcription. Here we show that coculture of control astrocytes with neurons enhances neurite outgrowth, and this is reduced with SREBP2 knockdown astrocytes. In vivo, mice with knockout of SREBP2 in astrocytes have impaired brain development and behavioral and motor defects. These mice also have altered energy balance, altered body composition, and a shift in metabolism toward carbohydrate oxidation driven by increased glucose oxidation by the brain. Thus, SREBP2-mediated cholesterol synthesis in astrocytes plays an important role in brain and neuronal development and function, and altered brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute to the interaction between metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and altered brain function.
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake. As a result, mice lacking the IR in intestinal epithelium retain normal glucose tolerance during aging as compared to controls, which show an age-dependent decline in glucose tolerance. Loss of the insulin receptor also results in a reduction of GIP expression from K-cells and decreased GIP release in vivo following glucose ingestion, but has no effect on GLP-1 expression or secretion. Thus, the IR in the intestinal epithelium plays important roles in intestinal gene expression, glucose uptake and GIP production, which may contribute to pathophysiological changes in diabetes, metabolic syndrome and other insulin resistant states.
Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing. This cycle can be repeated with a second round of receptor inactivation. Leptin administration prior to tamoxifen treatment blocks development of the metabolic syndrome without affecting adipocyte loss or regeneration. Thus, IR is critical in adipocyte maintenance, and this loss of adipose tissue stimulates regeneration of brown/white fat and reversal of metabolic syndrome associated with fat loss.
- Oct 2016
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Many of these changes were reproduced by the transfer of gut microbiota from antibiotic-treated donors to germ-free or germ-depleted mice. These physiological changes closely correlated with changes in serum bile acids and levels of the antiinflammatory bile acid receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and were partially recapitulated by treatment with a TGR5 agonist. In contrast, antibiotic treatment of HFD-fed, obesity-resistant 129S1 and obesity-prone 129S6 mice did not improve metabolism, despite changes in microbiota and bile acids. These mice also failed to show a reduction in inflammatory gene expression in response to the TGR5 agonist. Thus, changes in bile acid and inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism driven by an HFD can be modified by antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota; however, these effects depend on important interactions with the host's genetic background and inflammatory potential.
Diabetes strongly impacts protein metabolism, particularly in skeletal muscle. Insulin and IGF-1 enhance muscle protein synthesis through their receptors, but the relative roles of each in muscle proteostasis have not been fully elucidated. Using mice with muscle-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (M-IR-/- mice), the IGF-1 receptor (M-IGF1R-/- mice), or both (MIGIRKO mice), we assessed the relative contributions of IR and IGF1R signaling to muscle proteostasis. In differentiated muscle, IR expression predominated over IGF1R expression, and correspondingly, M-IR-/- mice displayed a moderate reduction in muscle mass whereas M-IGF1R-/- mice did not. However, these receptors serve complementary roles, such that double-knockout MIGIRKO mice displayed a marked reduction in muscle mass that was linked to increases in proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation, accompanied by a high-protein-turnover state. Combined muscle-specific deletion of FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4 in MIGIRKO mice reversed increased autophagy and completely rescued muscle mass without changing proteasomal activity. These data indicate that signaling via IR is more important than IGF1R in controlling proteostasis in differentiated muscle. Nonetheless, the overlap of IR and IGF1R signaling is critical to the regulation of muscle protein turnover, and this regulation depends on suppression of FoxO-regulated, autophagy-mediated protein degradation.
Disturbed Wnt signaling has been implicated in numerous diseases, including type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we have investigated crosstalk between insulin and Wnt signaling pathways using preadipocytes with and without knockdown of the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6, and with and without knockout of insulin and IGF-1 receptors. We find that Wnt stimulation leads to phosphorylation of insulin signaling key mediators, including Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2, although with a lower fold stimulation and slower time course than observed for insulin. These Wnt effects are insulin/IGF-1 receptor dependent and are lost in insulin/IGF-1 receptor double knockout cells. Conversely, in LRP5 knockdown preadipocytes, insulin induced phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, GSK3β, and ERK1/2 is highly reduced. This effect is specific to insulin, as compared to IGF-1, stimulation and appears to be due to an inducible interaction between LRP5 and the insulin receptor as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These data demonstrate that Wnt and insulin signaling pathways exhibit crosstalk at multiple levels. Wnt induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK3β, and this is dependent on insulin/IGF-1 receptors. Insulin signaling also involves the Wnt co-receptor LRP5, which has a positive effect on insulin signaling. Thus, altered Wnt and LRP5 activity can serve as modifiers of insulin action and insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.