C. Carvell

C. Carvell
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology | CEH · UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Wallingford

About

80
Publications
23,311
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4,514
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
During the main COVID-19 global pandemic lockdown period of 2020 an impromptu set of pollination ecologists came together via social media and personal contacts to carry out standardised surveys of the flower visits and plants in gardens. The surveys involved 67 rural, suburban and urban gardens, of various sizes, ranging from 61.18° North in Norwa...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in the geographic distributions of species. However, biases in these data present challenges for statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower‐visiting...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in species’ distributions. However, biases in these data present challenges for robust statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower-visiting taxa: be...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Contagem Cronometrada de Visitantes Florais (daqui em diante denominaremos de FIT Count) é um protocolo de ciência cidadã simples que tem como objetivo coletar dados sobre visitação de flores por toda a gama de grupos de polinizadores, incluindo mamangavas, abelhas sem ferrão, abelhas melíferas, moscas e beija‑flores. Cada FIT Count é padronizado...
Chapter
Full-text available
El Conteo Cronometrado de Visitantes Florales (de aquí en adelante denominado como FIT Count) es un sencillo protocolo de ciencia ciudadana que tiene como objetivo colectar datos sobre eventos de visita en flores por una amplia gama de polinizadores, incluyendo abejorros, abejas sin aguijón, abejas melíferas, moscas y picaflores. Cada FIT Count est...
Article
Full-text available
Species occurrence records from a variety of sources are increasingly aggregated into heterogeneous databases and made available to ecologists for immediate analytical use. However, these data are typically biased, i.e. they are not a probability sample of the target population of interest, meaning that the information they provide may not be an ac...
Article
Sown wildflower areas are increasingly recommended as an agri-environmental intervention measure, but evidence for their success is limited to particular insect groups or hampered by the challenges of establishing seed mixes and maintaining flower abundance over time. We conducted a replicated experiment to establish wildflower areas to support ins...
Data
A plain langauge 2 page overview of the paper "Opportunities to reduce pollination deficits and address production shortfalls in an important insect-pollinated crop" designed for non-acedemic audiences (or very busy acedemics). Please feel free to pass this along.
Article
Full-text available
Declines in invertebrate biodiversity¹,² pose a significant threat to key ecosystem services.3, 4, 5 Current analyses of biodiversity often focus on taxonomic diversity (e.g., species richness),⁶,⁷ which does not account for the functional role of a species. Functional diversity of species’ morphological or behavioral traits is likely more relevant...
Article
Full-text available
Pollinators face multiple pressures and there is evidence of populations in decline. As demand for insect‐pollinated crops increases, crop production is threatened by shortfalls in pollination services. Understanding the extent of current yield deficits due to pollination and identifying opportunities to protect or improve crop yield and quality th...
Article
Full-text available
Agri-environment schemes (AES) are key mechanisms to deliver conservation policy, and include management to provide resources for target taxa. Mobile species may move to areas where resources are increased, without this necessarily having an effect across the wider countryside or on populations over time. Most assessments of AES efficacy have been...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species occurrence records from a variety of sources are increasingly aggregated into heterogeneous databases and made available to ecologists for immediate analytical use. However, these data are typically biased, i.e. they are not a representative sample of the target population of interest, meaning that the information they provide may not be an...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic bottlenecks can limit the success of populations colonizing new ranges. However, successful colonizations can occur despite bottlenecks, a phenomenon known as the genetic paradox of invasion. Eusocial Hymenoptera such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) should be particularly vulnerable to genetic bottlenecks, since homozygosity at the sex-determin...
Data
This annex contains the information from stakeholder consultation we used to arrive at our final scheme designs in the main paper.
Data
This annex is simply a list of the experts that we surveyed for the costs saved portion of the paper. They have all been sent a copy of the published paper.
Data
This is a two page infographic version of the paper itself, designed for non-acedemic readers. Please feel free to distribute widely
Data
This annex covers the responses to the exert questionnaire (Annex 5) - note that we did not use all the information we provided in this study because not all of it was readilly quantifiable.
Data
This annex covers the methodology used in the power analysis to determine the size of the network we used in the main paper itself.
Data
This annex covers the overlaps between the respones that the experts (annex 4) gave to the questionnaire (annex 5 and 6) and the site networks we proposed.
Data
This annex is the survey sent to experts (annex 4) for the "costs saved" portion of the paper. Reminder that experts only saw 3 of the 8 reserach questions each to avoid overloading them. The survey was done in word or excel depending on respondent preferences but if you want to replicate it, it can be made in Bristol Online Survey, Survey Monkey o...
Data
This annex covers the value of pollination services at a 100% loss of pollinators as opposed to the 30% loss that we use in the main paper.
Data
This annex covers a few additional assumptions that were made duirng the economic valuation of polination services. These were not practical to overcome at the time but we hope can be relaxed in the future should better data become available
Data
This annex covers the full costs of monitoring across all sites and years, buidling on the cost data from Annex 3 and the ower analysis in Annex 2 as well as the information in the main methods of the paper.
Data
This is a complete review of all the literature concerning pollinator dependence in UK crops. If you are looking to do any sort of study on these crops, please feel free to use this as a starting point/reference list. New work is badly needed on runner beans and linseed in particular. There is also information on the price data transformations and...
Data
This annex breaks down all the cost data we used in estimating the costs of the scheme (and the costs saved from having such a scheme). They are based on our typical suppliers in the UK so if you are based elsewhere, bear in mind that the UK is likely to be more expensive than many other countries so please either flag this up if you convert the fi...
Data
This annex covers the full mathematical proof of the consumer surplus model we used in the paper. Please note that it is different from the one used in Gallai et al., 2009.
Data
This annex covers the full cst benefit ratios of each monitoring scheme relative to the value of pollination services and the costs of reserach saved from having the scheme.
Article
Full-text available
1. Resilient pollination services depend on sufficient abundance of pollinating insects over time. Currently, however, most knowledge about the status and trends of pollinators is based on changes in pollinator species richness and distribution only. 2. Systematic, long-term monitoring of pollinators is urgently needed to provide baseline informati...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the proposal for an EU Pollinator Monitoring Scheme (EU-PoMS), based on the findings of an expert group of 21 people from 12 European countries. The EU-PoMS delivers of a cost-effective Core Scheme, which includes the most relevant taxa, is able to detect changes in the status of pollinators, has EU-wide coverage, and uses stan...
Chapter
The dramatic declines in pollinator (social and solitary bees, wasps, flies, beetles, butterflies, and moths) abundance and diversity observed in Europe and globally in recent decades have generated widespread scientific and societal concern. It is particularly important to conserve healthy populations of pollinators in arable landscapes because of...
Article
1.The status of pollinating insects is of international concern, but knowledge of the magnitude and extent of declines is limited by a lack of systematic monitoring. Standardised protocols are urgently needed, alongside a better understanding of how different methods and recorders (data collectors) influence estimates of pollinator abundance and di...
Article
Full-text available
Insects pollinate many globally important crops and therefore rapid and effective means to measure crop pollinators and pollination are required to support national monitoring schemes and allow localised measurements of pollinator supply and demand to crops. We tested user-friendly protocols for assessing pollinators and pollination in crops to bet...
Article
Full-text available
Improved taxonomic methods are needed to quantify declining populations of insect pollinators. This study devises a high‐throughput DNA barcoding protocol for a regional fauna (United Kingdom) of bees (Apiformes), consisting of reference library construction, a proof‐of‐concept monitoring scheme, and the deep barcoding of individuals to assess pote...
Article
Full-text available
Pollination is a critical ecosystem service underpinning the productivity of agricultural systems across the world. Wild insect populations provide a substantial contribution to the productivity of many crops and seed set of wild flowers. However, large-scale evidence on species-specific trends among wild pollinators are lacking. Here we show subst...
Preprint
Improved taxonomic methods are needed to quantify declining populations of insect pollinators. This study devises a high-throughput DNA barcoding protocol for a regional fauna (United Kingdom) of bees (Apiformes), consisting of reference library construction, a proof-of-concept monitoring scheme, and the deep barcoding of individuals to assess pote...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular methods have greatly increased our understanding of the previously cryptic spatial ecology of bumble bees (Bombus spp.), with knowledge of the spatial ecology of these bees being central to conserving their essential pollination services. Bombus hypnorum, the Tree Bumble Bee, is unusual in that it has recently rapidly expanded its range,...
Article
Insect pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in global decline. A major cause of this decline is habitat loss due to agricultural intensification. A range of global and national initiatives aimed at restoring pollinator habitats and populations have been developed. However, the success of these initiatives depends critically upon underst...
Article
Full-text available
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of va...
Article
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of va...
Article
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wild flowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures it is important to understand the effects of var...
Article
Full-text available
In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a ‘policy window’, a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating a...
Article
Agri-environment schemes (AES) have been implemented across Europe, aiming to mitigate effects of habitat loss in agro-ecosystems for a range of declining species. These include pollinating insects such as bumblebees, for which positive effects of AES on abundance and species richness have been shown. However, there is a lack of evidence for effect...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use changes have threatened populations of many insect pollinators, including bumble bees. Patterns of dispersal and gene flow are key determinants of species' ability to respond to land-use change, but have been little investigated at a fine scale (<10 km) in bumble bees. Using microsatellite markers, we determined the fine-scale spatial gene...
Article
Full-text available
Insect pollinators of crops and wild plants are under threat globally and their decline or loss could have profound economic and environmental consequences. Here, we argue that multiple anthropogenic pressures – including land-use intensification, climate change, and the spread of alien species and diseases – are primarily responsible for insect-po...
Article
Full-text available
1. In response to evidence of insect pollinator declines, organisations in many sectors, including the food and farming industry, are investing in pollinator conservation. They are keen to ensure that their efforts use the best available science. 2. We convened a group of 32 ‘conservation practitioners’ with an active interest in pollinators and 16...
Article
There have been serious global declines in diversity of bumblebees, butterflies and other pollinating insects. The most effective means of increasing abundance and diversity of bumblebees on farmland is to sow simple, low cost mixtures of dicotyledons rich in pollen and nectar, as prescribed under the UK agri-environment schemes. The potential bene...
Article
Foraging distance is a key determinant of colony survival and pollination potential in bumblebees Bombus spp. However this aspect of bumblebee ecology is poorly understood because of the difficulty in locating colonies of these central place foragers. Here, we used a combination of molecular microsatellite analyses, remote sensing and spatial analy...
Article
Full-text available
The global decline of insect pollinators, especially bees, is cause for concern, and there is an urgent need for cost-effective conservation measures in agricultural landscapes. While landscape context and habitat quality are known to influence species richness and abundance of bees, there is a lack of evidence from manipulative field experiments o...
Article
Full-text available
This study contrasted the effects of the most widely implemented, low cost restoration prescriptions promoted by the English AES with more demanding and costly options on plant and invertebrate community composition, and their functional traits. In all cases these prescriptions were compared to intensive crop management. The plant community regener...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is expected to drive species extinct by reducing their survival, reproduction and habitat. Less well appreciated is the possibility that climate change could cause extinction by changing the ecological interactions between species. If ecologists, land managers and policy makers are to manage farmland biodiversity sustainably under gl...
Article
Invasion by undesirable plants, such as Cirsium arvense, can constrain attempts to conserve and restore biodiversity in extensively managed temperate grasslands, but control with herbicides can cause environmental harm. We contrasted herbicides with more environmentally sustainable weed control strategies. Six-year, large-scale randomized block exp...
Article
Abstract 1. The survival, growth and fecundity of bumblebee colonies are affected by the availability of food resources and presence of natural enemies. Social parasites (cuckoo bumblebees and other bumblebees) can invade colonies and reduce or halt successful reproduction; however, little is known about the frequency of invasion or what environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Bumble-bee declines across Europe have been linked to loss of habitat and forage availability due to agricultural intensification. These declines may have severe ecological and commercial consequences since bumble-bees pollinate a range of wildflowers and crops. In England, attempts are being made to reintroduce forage resources through agri-enviro...
Chapter
6.1 SUMMARY Three grass seed mixtures comprising a grass mix (CS, typical of countryside stewardship), a mixture of tussock grasses and flow ers (TG, to increase ground-dwelling invertebrates), and a mixture of fine-leafed grasses and flow ers (FG, to increase insect diversity, including pollen and nectar feeders), were sown as 5 m wide margins, at...
Article
The ‘pollen and nectar flower mixture’, containing at least three legume species (at 20% of the mix) and non-aggressive grasses (at 80%), can be sown on arable field margins or set-aside land under both ELS and HLS schemes (Defra 2005a). This option may be of high conservation value for some of Britain's rarer bumble bees, as the legume component a...
Article
We assessed national scale changes in the forage plants of bumblebees in Britain, as a means of providing quantitative evidence for the likely principal cause of declines in bumblebee species. We quantified the relative value of native and long-established plant species as forage (nectar and pollen) resources for bumblebees by collating visitation...
Article
Distinguishing between cryptic species is a perennial problem for biologists. Bombus ruderatus and Bombus hortorum are two species of bumblebee, which can be indistinguishable from their morphology. The former species is in decline, whereas the latter is ubiquitous. In the UK, isolated records of B. ruderatus occur amongst many for B. hortorum. For...
Article
Full-text available
The value of introduced seed mixtures in providing forage for bumblebees on farmland was assessed by direct observation of individuals and analysis of pollen loads. Two mixtures of perennial grasses and wildflowers were compared with an annual mix of mostly seed-bearing crops over three years. Foraging bees showed contrasting patterns of visitation...
Thesis
p>The response of foraging bumblebees to various restoration and management options for arable field margins is studied across a series of single and multi-site experiments. Bumblebee abundance is closely linked to flower abundance of suitable forage species, and to successional changes in availability of these both during the season and between ye...
Article
The provision of overwintering refuges has important implications for both conservation of invertebrate biodiversity on farmland and biological control of crop pests. In this study we carried out a systematic investigation of the effects of habitat type and age on the quality of overwintering refuges for Coleoptera and Araneae on an arable farm in...
Article
Habitat loss and the intensification of farming practices have caused severe declines in the range and abundance of many bumblebee species in the UK. This study examines the long-term effectiveness of four different management strategies to enhance and restore bumblebee foraging habitat on arable field margins in two regions with markedly contrasti...