C. Leigh Anderson

C. Leigh Anderson
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance

PhD Economics

About

67
Publications
19,755
Reads
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925
Citations
Citations since 2016
31 Research Items
643 Citations
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Introduction
400 technical briefs available from EPAR's website: https://evans.uw.edu/policy-impact/epar
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
Women's groups are a widely implemented and researched development intervention, particularly in South Asia and Africa. Groups encompass many models and aim to address a range of objectives. However, there is no consistent approach to describing their varied implementation models, which hinders the accurate interpretation of evidence and construct...
Preprint
Full-text available
While impact evaluations of formalized savings groups show that they can improve financial inclusion and women’s economic empowerment in a variety of settings in sub-Saharan Africa, only very few studies examine the impact of informal savings groups. This paper examines the association between informal savings group membership, individual-level ass...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Nigeria, different types of groups exist, including women’s groups, and groups focused on agriculture, savings, credit, religious and social pursuits, and business associations, all of which are avenues through which to deliver interventions that aim to improve women’s economic and social empowerment (Desai et al., 2019). “Women’s groups” is an...
Preprint
Full-text available
African governments increasingly support large-scale women’s groups interventions aiming to improve women’s economic empowerment with support from multilateral donors and Foundations. Previous evidence indicates that women’s savings, producer, and livelihoods groups can improve women’s access to savings and credit, and human as well as social capit...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and some of the associated policy responses have resulted in significant gendered impacts that may reverse recent progress in gender equality, including in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents emerging evidence from studies in diverse contexts in sub-Saharan Africa —with a deep dive into Nigeria a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This brief focuses on the gendered impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and especially the impacts on members of women’s self-help groups (SHGs) before the Delta variant peaked in India. During the initial nationwide lockdown in India that began on March 25, 2020, all but the most essential services— including public offices—were closed. Although the...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents emerging evidence from studies in diverse contexts in sub-Saharan Africa —with a deep dive into Nigeria and Uganda—on how COVID-19 has affected women’s groups and how these groups have helped mitigate the gendered effects of the pandemic’s and the associated policy responses’ consequences up until April 2021. The synthesis prese...
Article
Purpose This study aims to develop and apply a multidimensional measure of financial inclusion (FI) to address measurement issues and determine the level of FI of rural smallholder farmers and the contribution of domain indicators to the level of FI in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach The paper adapts the Alkire–Foster method to develop a mult...
Preprint
Full-text available
Women’s groups are a widely implemented and researched development intervention, particularly in South Asia and Africa. Groups encompass many models such as self-help groups, mother’s groups and workers’ cooperatives and aim to address a range of objectives, such as improved livelihoods, health and community solidarity. However, there is no consist...
Article
Full-text available
Designing effective policies for economic development often entails categorizing populations by their rural or urban status. Yet there exists no universal definition of what constitutes an “urban” area, and countries alternately apply criteria related to settlement size, population density, or economic advancement. In this study, we explore the imp...
Technical Report
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To estimate women’s saving group participation rates in Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, the Evidence Consortium on Women’s Groups (ECWG) conducted an analysis of two established data sets on financial inclusion; FinScope and Financial Inclusion Insights (FII). This research brief reviews the findings of the ECWG’s analysis, including an asses...
Article
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses generally focus on intervention impacts or outcomes. Less common, however, are reviews of the assumptions and theory underlying the pathways between intervention and outcome. We consider the hypothetical case for interventions to empower female farmers, either by prioritising women for new investments or re-allo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This guide provides a collection of field-tested survey instruments and questions for measuring women’s empowerment and economic outcomes in quantitative impact evaluations and mixed-methods studies of women’s groups, along with recommendations on how to use these tools. The purpose of the guide is to explicitly link the foundational work on how to...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To consolidate learnings and inform ongoing and new investments, the Evidence Consortium on Women’s Groups (ECWG) reviewed a selection of 46 foundation investments featuring women’s groups, made between 2005 and 2017. This research brief provides an overview of the ECWG’s portfolio evaluation findings, identifies evidence gaps, and recommends ways...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of improved seed adoption in developing countries are almost always based on household surveys and are premised on the assumption that farmers can accurately self‐report their use of improved seed varieties. However, recent studies suggest that farmers’ reports of seed varieties planted, or even whether the seed is local or improved, are so...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
The Evidence Consortium on Women’s Groups (ECWG) was developed to strengthen, expand, and disseminate the global evidence base on women’s groups and support the investments of the Gates Foundation’s Gender Equality team. The ECWG includes experts from the American Institutes for Research; the Population Council; the Evans School of Public Policy an...
Article
Full-text available
Precise agricultural statistics are necessary to track productivity and design sound agricultural policies. Yet, in settings where multi-cropping is prevalent, even crop yield—perhaps the most common productivity metric—can be challenging to measure. In a survey of the literature on crop yield in low-income settings, we find that scholars specify h...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Studies of improved seed adoption in developing countries almost always draw from household surveys and are premised on the assumption that farmers are able to self-report their use of improved seed varieties. However, recent studies suggest that farmers' reports of the seed varieties planted, or even whether seed is local or improved, are sometime...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We examined recent trends in mobile money and branchless banking regulations related to cash-in, cash-out (CICO) networks (physical access points allowing users to exchange physical cash and electronic money) in low- and middle-income countries, and reviewed evidence on the impacts of CICO regulations on markets and financial inclusion....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Precise agricultural statistics are necessary to track productivity and design sound agricultural policies. Yet, in settings where intercropping is prevalent, even crop yield can be challenging to measure. In a systematic survey of the literature on crop yield in low-income settings, we find that scholars specify how they estimate the yield denomin...
Article
Full-text available
Donors and governments increasingly seek to deliver development projects through community‐based organizations such as self‐help groups (SHGs), but little is known about the effectiveness of such arrangements. This paper briefly summarizes hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of interventions using SHGs and presents the results of an evidence rev...
Article
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Previous research has shown that men and women, on average, have different risk attitudes and may therefore see different value propositions in response to new opportunities. We use data from smallholder farm households in Mali to test whether risk perceptions differ by gender and across domains. We model this potential association across six risks...
Article
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Relative to chronic hunger, seasonal hunger in rural and urban areas of Africa is poorly understood. This paper examines the extent and potential correlates of seasonal hunger in Malawi using panel data from 2011–2013. We find that both urban and rural households report seasonal hunger in the pre-harvest months. Certain strategies to smooth consump...
Article
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Aid donors are interested in understanding whether allocating aid via bilateral or multilateral channels might be more effective for achieving development goals. We review 45 papers that empirically test the associations between bilateral and multilateral aid flows and various development outcomes including gross domestic product growth, governance...
Article
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We use OLS and logistic regression to investigate variation in husband and wife perspectives on the division of authority over agriculture-related decisions within households in rural Tanzania. Using original data from husbands and wives (interviewed separately) in 1,851 Tanzanian households, the analysis examines differences in the wife’s authorit...
Article
Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livel...
Article
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a1 Increasing farm productivity is widely regarded as a prerequisite for improving rural livelihoods and supporting development in low-income countries. Public and private institution mission statements and budgets reflect this priority: the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) mandate is to " improve agricultural productivity, better the l...
Article
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Many environmental factors constrain the production of major food crops in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. At the same time, these food production systems themselves have a range of negative impacts on the environment. In this paper we review the published literature and assess the depth of recent research (since 2000) on crop x environment inte...
Article
We contribute new individual and intra-household findings to the literature on positionality – the degree to which an individual's perceptions of well-being are influenced by his or her income or consumption relative to others – using primary data from Vietnam. In addition to a rich field setting for testing social preferences, we interviewed male...
Technical Report
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This overview introduces a series of EPAR briefs in the Agriculture-Environment Series that examine crop-environment interactions for a range of crops in smallholder food production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA). The briefs cover the following important food crops in those regions; rice (#208), maize (#218), sorghum/millet...
Technical Report
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This review is one in a series that examines crop-environment interactions drawing on both the academic literature and the field expertise of crop scientists. In this brief we examine the environmental constraints to, and impacts of, smallholder cassava production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), noting where the analysis ap...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This review is one in a series that examines crop-environment interactions drawing on both the academic literature and the field expertise of crop scientists. In this brief we examine the environmental constraints to, and impacts of, smallholder maize production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), noting where findings apply to...
Article
The ability to save for future needs is critical to family well‐being and is especially challenging for low‐income families with little extra income and limited access to institutional structures like employment‐based retirement funds or low cost savings mechanisms. Many nonprofits and governments have created new savings vehicles to fill this void...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines husband and wife perspectives on the division of authority over agriculture-related decision-making within households in Tanzania and Mali. We develop a theoretical model of intrahousehold “accord,” defined as the level of agreement between husbands and wives over who holds authority for different decisions. We then empirically...
Article
Full-text available
Using controlled experiments to compare the risk attitude and willingness to compete of husbands and wives in 500 couples in rural Vietnam, we find that women are more risk averse than men and that, compared to men, women are less likely to choose to compete, irrespective of how likely they are to succeed. Relevant to development programmes concern...
Article
Assuming that individual discount rates are constant over time has important implications for policies and programs that involve intertemporal decision making. Using original data from Vietnam and Russia, we find evidence that discount rates do change over time for many individuals, implying that preferences for savings and credit might not be inte...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores whether there are systematic differences in decision-making between those who regularly allocate public resources and those who are the intended recipients. To test for differences we sample across farmers and policy makers in Vietnam. Our findings suggest that preference parameters such as fairness, risk orientation, discountin...
Chapter
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Many development policies and programmes are premised on a traditional economic model of rationality to predict how individuals will respond to changes in incentives. Despite the emphasis of these programmes on poverty reduction, economists and the development community in general are still unable to understand fully how the poor make decisions, es...
Article
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A variety of factors have been posited to account for rising levels of debt and dissaving. Using data spanning two decades, we explore whether attitudes towards thrift have shifted in Canada, demographic differences, and the relationship between peoples’ priority for teaching thrift to their children and their own savings behavior. Among other find...
Article
Full-text available
New technologies such as seed varieties are usually designed assuming that a representative consumer or target recipient will respond as though they have optimized a utility function conditioned by the statistical probabilities of certain events occurring. However, there is a substantial literature that challenges this expected utility model, and t...
Article
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We have suspected for some time that discount rates, the rates at which individuals are willing to trade current for future consumption, are not constant over time, and that individuals reveal "present-biased preferences." We sense this intuitively as we break diets, postpone dental appointments, and run up credit card balances.2 We have discovered...
Article
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Earlier accounts of the creation of property rights in the California gold fields ignored culture and are incomplete. We argue that culture matters in solving collective-action problems. Such problems in the California gold fields were solved through reliance on cultural focal points. Focal points included individualism, equality, respect for prope...
Article
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Introduction and motivation Empirical evidence that firms respond to differences in environmental compliance costs among jurisdictions---the industrial-flight hypothesis---has been mixed. In this article, we propose a new explanation for this ambivalence, which also sheds light on an emerging paradox in overseas investment: U.S. capital outflows ap...
Article
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Using viewer share and rating points for the Toronto|Hamilton television market, we estimate the demand for U.S. programs retransmitted in Canada and test several hypotheses on the effect of domestic content regulation, program type, simulcasting regulations, network affiliation, and other broadcasting variables on audience size. These estimates ha...
Article
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"There has been considerable debate in regulatory policy circles concerning the industrial flight hypothesis: increases in environmental regulatory compliance costs will, at the margin, drive investment overseas. The literature on environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness, however, provides little solid empirical support for the hypo...
Article
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By law, 50 percent of private Canadian television broadcasters' programming must be Canadian. The author proposes that the laws promote one mandate of broadcasting policy by increasing programming diversity. The quotas induce substitution out of the dominant category and into other categories, in response to differential costs and revenues between...
Article
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"Why did the Western Apache and Zuni allow individuals to own land, the Tzeltal only permit household ownership, the Yucatec Mayo allow private ownership of all property except land which was maintained as communal, and the Seri reserve all land for the Chief? The object of this paper is to motivate and test a hypothesis of property rights formatio...
Article
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Many environmental services, such as agricultural biodiversity and water quality, can be considered local public goods, whereby providers receive private consumption benefits from the service they produce. In these cases, the appropriate model is one that recognizes the decision-maker as both a producer and consumer. This paper develops a simple ho...
Article
Full-text available
Using original data from Vietnam and Russia, we find that individual's discount rates change over time, replicating earlier results from the United States and Israel. We find that commonly held beliefs about gender differences do not hold, and that agricultural populations have higher discount rates, but that they vary less over time than their urb...
Article
abstract This paper,explores,whether,there are systematic,differences,in decision-making,between
Article
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This paper represents work in progress and is circulated for discussion and comment. Views and opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and do not represent official positions or endorsement of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), or the International...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores two questions: first, is bounded rationality demonstrated in populations outside the laboratory experiments of the U.S and Europe? Second, are there systematic differences in decision making procedures between those who regularly allocate public resources, and those who are more frequently the intended recipients of these policy...

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