Byron W. Byrne

Byron W. Byrne
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Engineering Science

BE (Hons) BCom MA DPhil

About

122
Publications
140,158
Reads
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4,892
Citations
Introduction
Byron Byrne is Professor of Engineering Science and Ørsted / Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chair in Advanced Geotechnical Design at the University of Oxford. He leads on research into the geotechnical engineering for offshore wind and other renewable energy structures. He works closely with the industry to deliver practical solutions to a wide range of foundation design problems. He led the Academic team on the PISA project that has delivered new design methods for monopile foundations.
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor of Engineering Science
October 2005 - June 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • Lecturer
October 2005 - present
St Catherine's College, Oxford
Position
  • Tutorial Fellow in Engineering Science
Education
October 1996 - July 2000
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Engineering
January 1990 - December 1994
University of Western Australia
Field of study
  • Commerce
January 1990 - December 1994
University of Western Australia
Field of study
  • Engineering

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Low-to-medium density chalk can be de-structured to soft putty by high-pressure compression, dynamic impact or large-strain repetitive shearing. These process all occur during pile driving and affect subsequent static and cyclic load-carrying capacities. This paper reports undrained triaxial experiments on de-structured chalk, which shows distinctl...
Article
This paper describes a finite element study of the uplift behaviour of a plane strain pipe segment embedded in modified Cam clay soil. The primary aim of this study is to explore the role of rate effects on pipe uplift capacity and the transition between drained and undrained behaviour using coupled-consolidation analyses. The velocities considered...
Article
Monopile foundations supporting offshore wind turbines are exposed to cyclic lateral loading, which can cause accumulated pile displacement or rotation and evolution of the dynamic response. To inform the development of improved design methods, the monopile's response to cyclic lateral loading has been explored through small-scale physical modeling...
Article
Full-text available
Suction caisson foundations provide options for new foundation systems for offshore structures, particularly for wind turbine applications. During the foundation design process, it is necessary to make reliable predictions of the stiffness of the foundation, since this has an important influence on the dynamic performance of the overall support str...
Article
Large-diameter open caissons are an increasingly common means of constructing underground storage and attenuation tanks, as well as launch and reception shafts for tunnel boring machines. A ‘cutting face’ at the base of the caisson wall, resembling an inclined ring footing, is typically used to aid the sinking phase. This paper describes a suite of...
Conference Paper
Robust design of offshore wind turbine foundations requires that the ultimate capacity is acceptable. In addition the accumulated deformations over 25 years of operational life, typically 10 8 cycles, must also be limited. This paper outlines a numerical method for modelling the response of monopiles to monotonic and cyclic lateral loading to very...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the use of optical fiber Bragg-grating (FBG) sensors to monitor the stress waves generated below ground during pile driving, combined with measurements using conventional pile driving analyzer (PDA) sensors mounted at the pile head. Fourteen tubular steel piles with a diameter of 508 mm and embedded length-to-diameter ratios of 6...
Article
Scour erosion processes can occur at seabed level around offshore wind turbine monopile foundations. These scour processes are often especially severe at sites where mobile sediments, such as sands, are present in the superficial seabed soils. Loss of local soil support to the monopile, caused by scour erosion, can lead to significant changes in th...
Article
Large-diameter open caissons are a widely used construction solution for deep foundations, underground storage and attenuation tanks, pumping stations, and launch and reception shafts for tunnel boring machines. The sinking phase presents a number of challenges during construction including maintaining caisson verticality, controlling the rate of s...
Article
The simulation of additional soil overburden pressure through the use of a surcharge system is a technique commonly adopted in laboratory testing of pipe-soil interaction. This paper examines the role of surcharge boundary conditions and pressure level on the axial sliding behaviour of a trenched pipeline surrounded by sand backfill. A novel testin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes an automated approach for determining the optimal dimensions (length and diameter) of a suction caisson foundation subject to lateral loads, to minimise the foundation weight, whilst satisfying installation requirements, serviceability and ultimate limit states. The design problem was cast as a constrained optimisation problem....
Article
Chalk is present under large areas of NW Europe as a low-density, porous, weak carbonate rock. Large numbers of offshore wind turbines, bridges and port facilities rely on piles driven in chalk. Current European practice assumes ultimate shaft resistances that appear low in comparison with the Chalk’s unconfined compression strength and CPT cone re...
Conference Paper
This paper provides an overview of the PISA design model recently developed for laterally loaded offshore wind turbine monopiles through a major European joint-industry academic research project, the PISA Project. The focus was on large diameter, relatively rigid piles, with low length to diameter (L/D) ratios, embedded in clay soils of different s...
Article
This paper presents an analytical methodology for calibration of the Hyperplastic Accelerated Ratcheting Model (HARM, Houlsby et al., 2017 [3]), based on a closed-form expression for the accumulation of ratcheting strain with cyclic history. The proposed method requires the fit of one test response and of a few continuous cyclic tests. The initial...
Article
Full-text available
The failure envelope approach is widely used to assess the ultimate capacity of shallow foundations for combined loading, and to develop foundation macro-element models. Failure envelopes are typically determined by fitting appropriate functions to a set of discrete failure load data, determined either experimentally or numerically. However, curren...
Article
Full-text available
The failure envelope approach is commonly used to assess the capacity of shallow foundations under combined loading, but there is limited published work that compares the performance of various numerical procedures for determining failure envelopes. This paper addresses this issue by carrying out a detailed numerical study to evaluate the accuracy,...
Chapter
This paper provides a brief overview of the Pile Soil Analysis (PISA) project, recently completed in the UK. The research was aimed at developing new design methods for laterally loaded monopile foundations, such as those supporting offshore wind turbine structures. The paper first describes the background to the project and briefly outlines the ke...
Article
This paper provides a summary of the PIle Soil Analysis (PISA) project, completed in the UK during the period 2013 to 2018. The research led to the development of a new, computationally efficient, one dimensional design model for laterally loaded monopile foundations, particularly for offshore wind turbine support structures. The current form of th...
Chapter
Local and global scour around offshore wind turbine monopile foundations can lead to a reduction in system stiffness, and a consequential drop in the natural frequency of the combined monopiletower- nacelle structure. If unchecked this could lead to operational problems such as accelerated fatigue damage and de-rating or decommissioning of the turb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most existing Winkler models use non-linear elastic soil reactions to capture the non-linear be-haviour of foundations. These models cannot easily capture phenomena such as permanent displacement, hys-teresis and the influence of combined loading on the failure states. To resolve these shortcomings, an elasto-plastic Winkler model for suction caiss...
Article
Suction caissons are a promising foundation concept for supporting offshore wind turbines. Compared to applications in the oil and gas industry, where most practical experience exists, significant differences arise in terms of load paths and magnitudes, soil type and caisson aspect ratio (skirt length to diameter). In a set of two companion papers,...
Article
Suction caissons have been used for numerous oil and gas installations and are increasingly considered as a foundation solution for offshore wind turbines (OWTs). There can be significant differences between the two offshore energy applications in the load paths and magnitudes, soil type and caisson aspect ratio (skirt length to diameter). This pap...
Article
This paper describes a full-scale laboratory study of the axial sliding behaviour of a trenched pipeline surrounded by sand backfill. Cyclic axial displacements are applied to a heavy pipe buried in a narrow trench (less than three pipe diameters wide), using various backfill cover depths and two different soils: dry Hostun sand and a damp, silty s...
Conference Paper
Large-diameter open caissons are a widely-adopted solution for deep foundations, underground storage and attenuation tanks, pumping stations, and launch and reception shafts for tunnel boring machines. The sinking process presents a number of challenges including maintaining verticality of the caisson, controlling the rate of sinking, and minimizin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the outcome of a recently-completed research project – known as PISA – on the development of a new process for the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine support structures. The PISA research was concerned with the use of field testing and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis to develop and calibrate...
Poster
Full-text available
In the PISA project, over 28 pile test are performed to investigate the behaviour of monopile foundations. These test piles are instrumented with inclinometers and displacement transducers above ground; a subset of the piles are instrumented below ground with inclinometers, extensometers and strain gauges. To analyse the data, processing tools are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improved design of laterally loaded monopiles is central to the development of current and future generation offshore wind farms. Previously established design methods have demonstrable shortcomings requiring new ideas and approaches to be developed, specific for the offshore wind turbine sector. The Pile Soil Analysis (PISA) Project, established i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines experimental and theoretical research exploring the response of rigid piles to cyclic lateral loading, relevant to large diameter monopiles for offshore wind applications. The experimental work comprised of 1-g laboratory scale model tests in sand, where up to 100,000 cycles were applied. The tests were designed specifically for...
Article
This paper introduces sequential limit analysis (SLA) as a method for modelling large plastic deformations of purely cohesive materials such as undrained clay. The method involves solving a series of consecutive small-deformation plastic collapse problems using finite element limit analysis, thus ensuring high levels of accuracy, efficiency and rob...
Article
A newly developed sequential limit analysis (SLA) technique is used to perform large-displacement numerical simulations relevant to thermally-induced lateral buckling of untrenched subsea pipelines. A rigid plane-stain pipe segment, partially embedded in undrained clay, is subjected to cyclic lateral displacements with amplitudes of up to eight pip...
Article
We present a theoretical model to describe the response of a one dimensional mechanical system under cyclic loading. Specifically, the model addresses the non-linear response on loading, hysteretic behaviour on unloading and reloading, and the phenomenon of ratcheting under very many cycles. The methods developed are formulated within the hyperplas...
Poster
Full-text available
Development of improved methods to capture the lateral cyclic behaviour of offshore wind monopiles through experimental and theoretical modelling
Article
A theoretical model is proposed for a row of sub-arrays of tidal turbines aligned in a cross-stream fashion across part of a wide channel. This model builds on previous work investigating the behaviour of a single partial row array that split the problem into two flow scales; device and channel. In the present work, three flow scales are proposed:...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An open-dug caisson shaft is a form of top-down construction in which a concrete shaft is sunk into the ground using the weight of the shaft and additional kentledge, if required. Excavation at the base of the caisson shaft wall allows the structure to descend through the ground. A thorough understanding of the interaction between the caisson shaft...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have emerged as a relatively new strain sensing technology for civil engineering applications. This paper presents a field trial to assess the feasibility of using FBG sensor arrays to measure strain in driven steel piles. Two FBG arrays were installed in grooves within the wall of an open-ended st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Offshore wind turbines are typically founded on single large diameter piles, termed monopiles. Pile diameters of between 5m and 6m are routinely used, with diameters of up to 10m, or more, being considered for future designs. There are concerns that current design approaches, such as the p-y method, which were developed for piles with a relatively...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is currently a significant focus on developing offshore wind power in the UK and Europe. The most common foundation type for wind turbines is a single large diameter pile, termed a monopile, on which the turbine is located. As the diameter of such piles is envisaged to increase in future installations, there are concerns that current design m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines are subjected to many cycles of loading during their lifetime. This loading consists of a range of amplitudes, applied in various sequences, of many different cycle numbers. Calculation of the accumulated rotation experienced by the monopile as a result of this cyclic loading, and whether this exceeds...
Article
Full-text available
Perforated shallow foundations are commonly used as mudmats to support subsea infrastructure such as pipeline end manifolds and terminations. The perforations may be included in the foundation design to allow water to escape during installation, or to reduce uplift resistance on decommissioning. Perforated geometries, often involving a single perfo...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper describes research investigating the influence of stress level, grain size, and over-burden effects on pipe uplift resistance in loose sand. The work consists of plane-strain uplift tests in dry and saturated sand. The results are compared to tests with an applied surface pressure, intended to simulate rock dump techniques. Force-displac...
Article
Full-text available
The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and desig...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind turbines play a key part in the renewable energy strategy in the UK and Europe as well as in other parts of the world (for example, China). The majority of current developments, certainly in UK waters, have taken place in relatively shallow water and close to shore. This limits the scale of the engineering to relatively simple structu...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore pipelines are often laid directly on the seabed, particularly in deep water. Cyclic changes in the temperature and pressure of the pipe contents can lead to cyclic growth and contraction of (planned) lateral buckles. This results in severe plastic deformation of the near-surface soil as it is progressively scraped away and accumulated into...
Article
Full-text available
A key parameter for assessing the unburial behaviour of offshore pipelines, such as during upheaval buckling, is the soil uplift resistance. Despite much research on uplift response, two variables remain relatively unexplored: the effect of low relative density backfill and partially drained soil response. To address this shortcoming, an investigat...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore pipelines are often buried to protect them from damage, and to provide additional thermal insulation. In sandy soils the pipes are trenched using jet-trenching or ploughing. In both cases the nature of the trenching operation means that the backfill material can be placed over the pipe in an extremely loose state. If the pipe then undergoe...
Article
Full-text available
Skirted gravity base foundations and suction caisson foundations are considered as viable alternatives to monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. While recent work has focused on the monotonic moment-rotation response for shallow foundations, the cyclic response and the accumulation of rotation over the life of the turbine must