Bushra Allah Rakha

Bushra Allah Rakha
PMAS - Arid Agriculture University | PMAS-AAUR · Department of Wildlife Management

Ph.D. in Wildlife Conservation

About

97
Publications
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Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Full-text available
Present study was designed to determine impact of ecological manipulation on rodent density inhabiting croplands in district Chakwal, Pothwar Pakistan. Rodent density and crop damage were assessed in treated and reference sites each of about 2.5 ha. Four rodent species was investigated in following order of dominance: Bandicota bengalensis > Nesoki...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of alanine on post-thaw quality of Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Qualifying semen ejaculates [motility (>60%) volume (>4ml) and concentration (>0.5 billion/ml)] collected from three Sahiwal bulls were diluted with tris-citric acid extender supplemented with different concentration of alanine (5, 10, 15 and...
Article
Background: Egg yolk is inevitably associated with risks of microbial contamination and anti-cryoprotectant agents that necessitate the investigation of some synthetic alternatives. Objective: To investigate the potential of carboxylated poly-L-lysine (CPLL) as a replacement for egg yolk during the cryosurvivability of Nili-Ravi buffalo sperm....
Article
The present study was designed to determine physico‐chemical characteristics and best extender for refrigerated preservation of Labeo rohita milt. In experiment I, milt was collected from mature and healthy brooders (n = 5) of L. rohita reared at fish seed hatchery, Rawal Town, Islamabad, Pakistan. After collection, milt was maintained at 4°C and p...
Article
During cryopreservation sperm encounter oxidative stress due to higher production of ROS molecules and insufficient natural antioxidant defence system. Therefore, present study was designed to identify the effects of various glutathione (GSH) concentrations on Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) pre-freezing and post-thaw incubation hours...
Article
Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Pakistan) has a rich diversity of wild caprinae and is one of key area for caprinae community-based conservation programs. In this program, selective hunting of small proportion of adult males with large horns is done on annual basis to generate money for the conservation, habitat improvement and livelihood of local commu...
Article
This study reports the first evaluation of sperm hyaluronan binding assay (HBA) for predicting the fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls in relation to standard parameters of sperm quality. Cryopreserved semen doses of low (n = 6), medium (n = 3) and high fertility (n = 8) bulls based on their respective return rates were used. Significantly, more s...
Article
Asphaltum, a mineral exudate from the mountains, is an ayurvedic medicine believed to be a panacea for male reproductive health issues. The objective of the study was to evaluate asphaltum in terms of phytochemical components, radical scavenging activity (RSA), in vitro dose tolerability, and cryosurvivability of buffalo sperm. Asphaltum was procur...
Article
The Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a least concern carnivore according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). However, in Pakistan Red fox is considered as Near Threatened (NT), due to habitat destruction and depletion of food resources. The objective of the study was to identify habitat preferences and population density of Red fox in Dist...
Article
Full-text available
The Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a least concern carnivore according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). However, in Pakistan Red fox is considered as Near Threatened (NT), due to habitat destruction and depletion of food resources. The objective of the study was to identify habitat preferences and population density of Red fox in Dist...
Article
Carboxylated poly-l-lysine (CPLL), an ampholytic polymer, has remarkable cryoprotective properties. It was hypothesized that CPLL will reduce/replace glycerol in extender and improve the freezability of buffalo semen. The objective was to evaluate various combinations of CPLL and glycerol in extenders for any synergism toward cryosurvivability of N...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) belongs to order Galliformes and family Phasianidae. It has been recognized as the most hunted bird due to its attractive colorful appearance and meat. Loss of habitat and hunting pressure has caused population fluctuations in the native range. Under these circumstances, this species can be conserved by em...
Article
Aim: The study was designed to elucidate the effects of quercetin as an extender on oxidative stress, mitochondrial activity and quality of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) sperm during cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from seven adult males through abdominal massage and evaluated for semen volume, concentr...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to evaluate in vivo fertility of cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa by addition of arachidic acid in semen extender. For this purpose, semen was collected from 3 adult buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) of same age by artificial vagina keeping temperature at 42°C for a period of 5 weeks (replicates; n=30). Ejaculates were mixed in tris...
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric characters and meristic counts of genera Shizothorax and Schizothorichthyes have been studied from River Swat, Pakistan. Monthly collection of both Genuses was conducted and identified on morphometric and meristic counts and fin formula. The minimum and maximum range, mean, standard error, percentage of various parameters in total leng...
Article
Full-text available
In fragmented landscapes, the accessibility of resources not only influences the spatial distribution of the predators themselves, but may similarly affect the abundance of their prey. We studied the influence of habitat dynamics and predator density on the spatial abundance of Cape hare (Lepus capensis) in the Karakorum Range in a 5700 km 2 area i...
Article
The present study investigates the efficacy of dimehtlyformamide (DMF) as a permeable cryoprotectant and its effect on semen quality and fertility of Indian red jungle fowl sperm. Semen was collected from eight mature cocks, pooled, divided into five aliquots and diluted with red fowl extender having DMF (0%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%). Diluted semen samp...
Article
Background: The quality of cryopreserved buffalo semen is low due to high susceptibility of sperm membranes to cold shock. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of recombinant type-III antifreeze protein from the eel pout Macrozoarces americanus (rAFPIII) on freezability of buffalo semen. Materials and methods: Se...
Article
Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of linoleic acid (LA) supplementation in extender on post thaw quality of cryopreserved buffalo semen. Semen was collected from three adult Nili Ravi buffalo bulls of same age with artificial vagina (42°C) for five weeks (replicates; N=30). Qualified semen ejaculates (>1mL volume, >60% motility, >0....
Article
Full-text available
The depth of intravaginal insemination to achieve optimum fertility with frozen-thawed semen is highly species specific in birds and differ even in breed and/or strains of a species. Therefore, study was designed to evaluate the influence of intravaginal insemination depths (2 and 4 cm) on fertility outcome in Indian red jungle fowl. Semen collecte...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Morphometric characters and meristic counts of genera Shizothorax and Schizothorichthyes have been studied from River Swat, Pakistan. Monthly collection of both Genuses was conducted and identified on morphometric and meristic counts and fin formula. The minimum and maximum range, mean, standard error, percentage of various parameters in t...
Article
Full-text available
Optimal escape theory predicts that animals would balance the costs and benefits of flight. One cost of not fleeing is the ongoing cost of vigilance for upcom-ing environmental threats. Our results show that FID increases for vigilant hares with predator starting distance, due to the costs acquired by continuing to scan for ecological dangers. The...
Article
The antimicrobial properties of honey have stimulated interest in evaluating it as an alternative to antibiotics for cryopreserved buffalo semen. Acacia nilotica, Brassica campestris and Ziziphus jujuba honey were analyzed and Z. jujuba honey was found suitable in terms of quality and purity. Buffalo semen (24 ejaculates) was studied for in vitro d...
Article
Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate enrofloxacin (EN), a fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antibacterial drug for use in cryopreservation of Zebu bull semen. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from three Zebu bulls of the Sahiwal breed (Bos indicus) for 3 weeks (replicates) for each experiment. Experiment I: semen samples were cul...
Article
Aim: The study elucidates the impact of cryopreservation on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant potential, DNA integrity, and mitochondrial activity of Indian red jungle fowl sperm. Materials and methods: Semen from eight mature cocks was pooled and diluted at 37°C using a specific medium for red fowl species. The diluted semen samples were im...
Article
Glycerol is a least toxic and most effective cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of poultry semen, but due to its contraceptive properties removal of glycerol is usually needed prior to artificial insemination. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), a small amphiphilic molecule used as penetrating cryoprotectant for biological cells, has been recognized as an a...
Article
Egg yolk is used as a cryoprotectant in semen preservation. However, its composition varies according to the species which may influence its effectiveness during the freeze-thaw process. Therefore, study was conducted to identify the optimum level of pigeon egg yolk (PEY) in Tris citric acid (TCA) extender for freezability and in vivo fertility of...
Article
Egg yolk is a good external cryoprotectant of mammalian sperm and some wild bird's sperm, but, at least in domestic breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), it may inhibit eventual fertilization of ova when high concentrations are used. We hypothesized that egg yolk can protect the sperm from cryo-induced damages providing adequate fertilizati...
Article
Semen cryopreservation protocols for wild avian species need to be optimised in order to achieve optimum post-thaw sperm quality and fertility. The present study was designed to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of different glycerol concentrations (11%, 15% and 20%) on post-thaw quality, recovery rates, absolute livability index and fertility of...
Article
Full-text available
The free radical scavenging activity (RSA) of Nigella sativa extract and its efficiency for cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa was investigated. In experiment 1, Nigella sativa extract was prepared and evaluated for RSA using 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl assay. The results showed increased pattern of RSA at 1%–5% of Nigella sativa extract. In...
Article
It was hypothesized that dimethyleacetamide (DMA) can be used as an alternate to glycerol for cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl semen. Four concentrations of DMA (4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) in extender were compared with previously optimized cryopreservation protocol based on 20% glycerol (control) for Indian red jungle fowl. Sperm motility, plas...
Article
Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is integral component of cell membrane that protects the cell in stressful events and involves in many metabolic pathways. It was hypothesized that ALA have the ability to protect the structural and functional integrity of buffalo spermatozoa during freeze-thawing. Therefore, study was designed to evaluate ALA supplementa...
Article
The Indian red jungle fowl is a sub-species of the genus Gallus native to South Asia; facing high risks of extinction in its native habitat. During cryopreservation, permeable cryoprotectants like glycerol are usually employed and we previously showed encouraging results with 20% glycerol. Because bird spermatozoa contain very little intracellular...
Article
The reproductive potential of the adult males is expected to vary with age/season and largely differ not only in closely related avian species but even in subspecies, breeds and/or strains of the same species. Thus, it is pre-requisite to have knowledge of seminal parameters to achieve maximum production potential of at-risk species for ex situ in...
Thesis
Full-text available
Menstrual cycle is the reproductive cycle in human females with entire blood loss between 25 and 80 ml lasting an average of 5 days. Menstrual flow lasting longer than 7 days with a blood loss of greater than 80ml constitutes menorrhagia. Present study was conducted to check the epidemiology of menorrhagia among the females of Rawalpindi-Islamabad....
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was designed to show the capacity of Indian Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) sperm to be cryopreserved. The changes in characteristics of Indian Red Jungle Fowl spermatozoa during different phases of cryopreservation with the glycerol cryoprotectant and straw packaging were recorded. Semen from eight mature cocks were pooled, d...
Article
Oxidative damage to sperm during cryopreservation is one of the main causes of decline in fertilizing potential. Present study aimed at evaluating the role of melatonin in extender for its cryoprotective effect on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls...
Article
Egg yolk is used as a cryoprotectant for semen in different mammalian species including buffalo. Egg yolk from different sources may affect freezability of buffalo bull semen. Quail egg yolk (QEY) and Turkey egg yolk (TEY) in Tris citric acid extender was evaluated for post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved Buffalo bull semen...
Article
Commercially available OptiXcell® extender was compared with conventional extenders for freezability and in vivo fertility of bull semen. Semen was collected from three Friesian bulls for five weeks (replicate) and qualifying ejaculates (motility >60%, concentration >0.5 billion/mL, volume >1mL) were diluted (37°C; 50 × 10⁶ spermatozoa/ml) with Opt...
Article
Sperm selection techniques have been developed to get sperm suspensions enriched in motile and functional cells. Studies show that selection before cryopreservation improves post-thaw quality of cryopreserved sperm but information on buffalo bull sperm is scarce. The study was aimed to 1) perform a comparative analysis of sperm selection procedures...
Article
The population of red jungle fowl is declining and needs special attention for its conservation with suitable approaches. For ex situ in vitro conservation of Indian red jungle fowl, establishment of semen cryobank is an appropriate option, for which an extender with adequate retrieval capacity for functional spermatozoa is required. Therefore, stu...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate a range of avian semen extenders for liquid storage of Indian Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) spermatozoa at 5 °C. Semen was collected from 8 mature trained cocks and processed in the Beltsville Poultry, Turkey, Lake, EK, Tselutin Poultry and Chicken semen extenders for storage at 5 °C. Semen quality param...
Article
Full-text available
The study was designed to investigate the effect of cholesterol supplementation in extender on post-thaw quality of cryopreserved Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42°C) for five weeks ie., two ejaculates/ week and bull (replicate; n=30). Two consecutive ejaculates fro...
Article
This study was designed to determine the effect of thioglycol in extender on fertility of cryopreserved buffalo semen under filed conditions. For this purpose, semen from two Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of known fertility was split-sampled and diluted with tris-citric acid extender either containing thioglycol or without thioglycol (c...
Article
Overwintering larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis produce potent antifreeze proteins to inhibit inoculative freezing and promote supercooling. We hypothesized that addition of D. canadensis recombinant antifreeze proteins (DAFP) in the extender will improve the quality and fertility of cryopreserved Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm....
Article
Full-text available
Pothohar area has a specific geographic location and specific set of biotic and abiotic factors, hence is expected to have a specific combination of biodiversity like a number of birds, mammals and other organisms. No comprehensive study is available on morphometrics of common quail (Coturnix coturnix) or other birds of family Phasianidae. The pres...
Article
The present study was conducted to compare the liposome-containing, animal protein-free, commercially available OPTIXcell extender with the Tris-citric-egg yolk extender for postthaw quality and fertility of buffalo semen. Semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with an artificial vagina (a...
Article
The study was designed to investigate the breeding biology of scaly-bellied woodpecker (Picus squamatus) in Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP), Pakistan. Ten active nests were located on tree trunks and out of these five successful nests were made at 1-3 meters, 2 at 5.1-7 meters, 1 at 9.1-11 and two were made at 13.1-15 meter height. Scaly-bellie...
Article
The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus murghi), a native species of Southern Asia is threatened by habitat destruction, egg collection, predation and genetic hybridisation. Semen banking is one of the reproductive techniques used for the conservation of endangered species. To develop a semen bank for Red Jungle Fowl, the impact of semen collection freq...
Article
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Antarctic fish antifreeze glycoproteins, (AFGP) size 1-5 (34-10.5kDa) and 7-8 (3.2 and 2.4kDa) in extender on buffalo bull sperm at cooling (4°C) and at post thawing. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls with artificial vagina for 3 weeks. Qualifying ejaculates from each buffalo...
Article
Full-text available
The Indian Red Jungle Fowl is a wild native gallus subspecies of Southern Asia. Semen has never been studied in this species. In order to better know the male reproductive capacities, experiments were conducted to study the semen characteristics, impact of ejaculate collection frequencies, and timing of collection on sperm quality parameters. Mean...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to compare six different milk based extenders for the liquid storage of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen. Semen was collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42°C) at weekly intervals (n=5). Semen was diluted (at 37°C) with six milk based extenders; homogenized milk (HOM), whole buffalo milk (BUF), who...
Article
The effect of cysteine addition to the freezing extender on the progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane and DNA integrity of buffalo bull spermatozoa was studied. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of similar age group was collected with artificial vagina. Qualifying ejaculates were split in three aliquots for dilution (50 × 106 sper...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of thioglycol in extender on post-thaw quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen from three buffalo bulls was collected at weekly intervals (three replicates; two ejaculates per bull per replicate) and qualifying ejaculates (n=18) were cryopreserved in extenders containing...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of glutathione addition in tris-citric acid extender on the freezability of Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three Sahiwal bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were pooled, split into three aliquots and dilu...
Article
The present work was designed to study the effect of different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in extender on post-thaw quality of buffalo spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculate from each bull was split into five aliquots and dilut...
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out to determine the effect of fructose in extender on fertility of cooled buffalo semen after fixedtime insemination. Two consecutive ejaculates were collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo bull of known fertility by using artificial vagina (42°C). The pooled ejaculates were splitsampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37°C...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to study the ecology of feral pigeon (Columba livia) in the urban areas of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Pakistan. Seasonal changes in population density, sex ratio, age group, roosting sites, nesting sites, food and water points of pigeons were recorded in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. Higher population density of the pigeon in Islamabad w...
Article
Breeding biology of Red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) was studied in the areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A total of 45 nests were located in the study area out of which 35 nests were found active. Majority of successful nests (43%) were in the fork of trees followed by middle of the trees (29%) and on the top (11%) of the trees. Preferred nes...
Article
Cryopreservation process reduces lipids and phospholipids from buffalo bull spermatozoa. It was therefore hypothesized that supplementation of fatty acid to extender may improve the post-thaw quality of buffalo semen. The objective was to evaluate the effect of arachidic acid supplementation in extender on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull (Bubalus...
Article
The Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is an endangered subspecie of ovidae, distributed as small scattered populations in the forest belt of the Himalayan foothills of Pakistan and in the areas enclosed by the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the liquid storage of Punjab Urial spermatozoa in different e...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to compare the effect of traditional antibiotics streptomycin–penicillin (SP) with neomycin–penicillin (NP), polymyxin–penicillin (PP), and colistin–penicillin (CP) in extender against the post-thaw quality and bacterial count of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Qualifying semen ejaculates (n = 18) from three Nili...
Article
Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomyc...
Article
In this study we evaluated the effects of semen extender supplementation with different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and DNA integrity as well as in vivo fertility. Semen from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was collected, and qualified semen ejaculates (n=1...
Article
Full-text available
The experiments were designed to determine the effect of a-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid in extender on post-thaw motility, plasmalemma functionality, viability and chromatin damage of Zebu bull spermatozoa. Semen collected from three bulls of Sahiwal breed (Bos indicus) was diluted with tris-citric acid extender either containing a-tocopher...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the feeding habits of common quail (Coturnix coturnix) in rural areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan during September 2008 to May 2009. A total of 28 birds were captured (12 males and 16 females), gizzards were removed for feeding analysis. Out of 28 samples, two gizzards were empty and the remaining 26 samples cont...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species in black rat (Rattus rattus), house mouse (Mus musculus) and mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) residing at poultry farms in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. For this purpose, sixty seven specimens (black rat 46; house mouse 16; mongoose 5) were captured to check the presence of b...