Burak Gunay

Burak Gunay
Carleton University · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Ph.D.

About

153
Publications
32,342
Reads
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3,519
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2017 - present
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2016 - December 2016
National Research Council Canada
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
September 2012 - July 2016
Carleton University
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering
September 2009 - September 2011
Carleton University
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering
September 2005 - June 2009
Bogazici University
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (153)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines a methodology for disaggregating building-level occupancy data into zone-level occupant counts using opportunistic data from Wi-Fi access points, motion detectors, and CO2 sensors via sensor fusion for a floor of an academic office building. The efficacy of different combinations of data for this purpose is explored and the occu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor grid configuration has implications on indoor air quality (IAQ) when used for demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). The non-homogeneity of occupancy across a floorplate can result in high localized concentrations of CO2 which may go unaddressed if unmonitored. This study identifies zone locations, occupancy-types, and occ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Submetering significantly enhances building performance monitoring capabilities by providing a higher resolution to resource use and revealing energy consumption across the building and systems that would otherwise remain hidden. Previous studies indicated that building automation system (BAS) trend data represents an untapped opportunity to disagg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uninformed building operations and mechanical faults and anomalies often lead to poor building energy performance. Though analytical software tools incorporating several data-driven methods that identify energy deficiencies and energy-saving opportunities have been proposed as an accessible method for building operators to improve energy performanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maintaining CO2 sensors for demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) requires frequent and costly recalibration. Therefore, identifying the minimum CO2 sensing infrastructure needed to enable DCV can lower costs while improving indoor air quality (IAQ). This study simulates the floor of a building under ten stochastic occupancy scenarios to help inform...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods for buildings have been developed but many faults are still undetectable. There are also several crowdsourcing applications developed to collect building occupants' input. However, there is no solid framework enabling building operators to make the most of the collected data and directly integrat...
Article
Full-text available
A holistic fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) method should explicitly consider the dependencies between faults at the system- and zone-level to isolate the root cause. A system-level fault can trigger false alarms at the zone-level, while concealing the presence of a zone-level fault. However, most FDD methods have focused on a single component...
Article
Full-text available
Data-driven operation and maintenance analytics for improving building energy performance are prevalent in the literature and produce various visualizations and key performance indicators that identify hard and soft heating, ventilation, and air conditioning faults, occupancy patterns, and energy use deficiencies. However, an underlying assumption...
Article
Energy data estimated by virtual meters provide operational staff with an opportunity to improve building energy performance. Interactive visualization of virtual metered energy serves as a tool that can be used to identify energy consumption patterns and gain insights that can support operational decisions. This paper introduces a novel interactiv...
Article
While the emphasis of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) research has been on hard faults (e.g., stuck/leaking/broken valve or damper), soft faults or, in general, human errors account for a significant portion of faults occurring in variable air volume (VAV) air handling unit (AHU) systems. Human errors encompass a wide range of errors occurring...
Article
Full-text available
Partial occupancy of commercial offices has become the norm in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this, occupant-centric control (OCC), which adapt building systems based on occupants’ presence or preferences, offer an alternative to traditional control that assumes full occupancy. However, poor sequences of operation can degrade the benefits...
Article
Data-driven building operation and maintenance research such as metadata inference, fault detection and diagnosis, occupant-centric controls (OCCs), and non-invasive load monitoring have emerged (NILM) as independent domains of study. However, there are strong dependencies between these domains; for example, quality of metadata affects the usabilit...
Article
Mixed-mode ventilation is a design feature to improve building energy efficiency and indoor air quality. However, in practice, it does not always achieve better performance, largely due to inappropriate window operations. The research effort is also limited when exploring approaches to regulate manually operable windows. The present study found tha...
Article
Implementation of sequences of operation for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems into a building automation system (BAS) is a critical process for building performance. Mistakes are commonly made while interpreting the sequences of operation from the mechanical design, converting them into BAS programs, and making ad-hoc chang...
Article
Although understanding end uses in large commercial and institutional buildings is of great utility for achieving energy efficiency, most new and existing buildings still lack adequate submetering except for large end uses. End use disaggregation methods offer an alternative to fulfill weaknesses in a metering network, especially in large commercia...
Article
Peak load management strategies are useful to commercial building operators for saving on energy costs and also to electricity grid operators for helping to balance power supply and demand. Peak load demand reduction can be achieved through demand-side management that facilitates the planning and implementation of demand response strategies and mai...
Article
Full-text available
Faults in air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems lead to energy waste and discomfort. While the emphasis of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) research has been on hard faults in actuators, sensors, and equipment, faults arising from human errors account for a significant portion of faults occurring in HVAC systems. I...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that—relative to conventional roofs—green roofs can significantly reduce rooftop heat exchange in moderate climates; however, limited research exists on the performance of green roofs in colder climates. This paper analyzes the comparative performance of two side-by-side roof assemblies: a conventional roof and a green roof locate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most commercial HVAC systems provide ventilation assuming near-full occupancy during working hours. As conditioning outdoor air requires significant energy, reducing the ventilation requirements based on actual occupancy can improve energy efficiency without significantly impacting occupant comfort. An occupancy-based predictive control program was...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper aims to document the status and challenges of communicating occupant-related assumptions among design stakeholders during the building design process. In this study, the findings of interviews with ten building design professionals are presented. To this end, architects, engineers, and energy consultants from different countries were int...
Article
This paper explores how effectively building variable air volume air handling unit (VAV AHU) configurations supply required outdoor air to building spaces using data analysis and building performance simulation. One year’s worth of zone-level occupancy data from a floor of an institutional office building was estimated using Wi-Fi device count and...
Article
Air infiltration has a significant impact on building energy performance and the indoor environment. An accurate estimate of air infiltration rate informs envelope retrofit decisions to improve airtightness. However, air mobility and other environmental factors, such as wind or indoor-outdoor temperature differences, often make the accurate measure...
Article
Faults in air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings often waste energy and/or cause discomfort. Intermediate AHU sensors are dedicated merely for diagnostics and are essential to isolate faults rather than for controls; However, in many AHUs, such sensors are either missing, misplaced, or uncalibrated. This paper investigates three model-ba...
Article
Following our previous study, which indicated that several occupant-related assumptions in the National Building Code (NBC) of Canada are different from findings in recent measurement-based studies, this study aims to: i) quantify the direct energy impact associated with discrepancies between the current code's occupant-related assumptions and thos...
Article
Full-text available
Poor building energy performance often arises from suboptimal operations such as inappropriate control sequences or hard faults in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Furthermore, such deficiencies are often left unaddressed due to a lack of accessible analytical tools that can derive insights which identify energy-saving mea...
Article
The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic caused a tremendous impact on our societies, including changes in household energy consumption. Using measured electricity use data from 500 homes in Ottawa, Canada, this study applies changepoint analysis, descriptive statistics, k-means clustering, and the corresponding change of electricity utility bills befor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the ongoing significance of energy efficiency in the building sector, the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) and the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (NECB) are essential for improving energy efficiency and minimizing energy consumption in housing and small buildings, and large buildings, respectively. Given that human behaviou...
Article
In the context of increasing renewable energy penetration in energy systems, demand response is acknowledged as a solution to guarantee grid stability and security of supply. Direct control of appliances by utilities, however, may lead to user dissatisfaction and disengagement via overrides. The present study, based on data from 6,389 connected the...
Article
Operable windows have become desirable design features of modern mechanically ventilated office buildings in North America. While they improve perceived control and adaptive comfort, their inappropriate use poses risks associated with increased heating and cooling energy use. Therefore, the sequence of operations for terminal devices serving zones...
Article
While baseline energy modelling approaches for buildings are progressing to meet the demand for measurement and verification (M&V) of savings of an energy performance contract, more robust and insightful modelling approaches are needed. This study compares four baseline modelling approaches (e.g., change point, nonlinear autoregressive exogenous mo...
Article
Building management tools, such as building automation systems (BASs) and computerized maintenance management systems (CMMSs), are intended to support the efficient operation of building systems while maintaining occupants’ comfort. However, observing current building management practices in commercial and institutional buildings demonstrates sever...
Article
Computerized maintenance management systems (CMMSs) of large commercial and institutional buildings archive work order logs. These logs contain invaluable operational performance indices pertaining to occupants and building systems. However, there are barriers to extract and visualize meaningful metrics from CMMSs. This study proposes a three-part...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor climate and lighting in office buildings are operated using static and conservative setpoints and schedules that are sub-optimal for real occupancy/occupants’ diverse preferences. In contrast, occupant-centric control (OCC) is an operational strategy whereby occupancy/occupants’ preferences are estimated to improve energy efficiency and comf...
Article
Virtual metering at the equipment level provides a non-intrusive tool to understand energy flows in commercial buildings and monitor building energy performance. The accuracy of virtual meters depends on the modelling approach and its ability to capture the underlying physical processes. This paper presents a novel comparison and provides guidance...
Article
This paper presents a proof-of-concept of an inverse model-based method for the characterization of envelope thermal transmittance and air permeance with historical space heating load and building automation system trend data. The method is demonstrated with hourly heating, indoor temperature and CO2, and outdoor temperature and global horizontal s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Quantifying occupant-related uncertainty has been considered a major challenge during simulation-aided building design process. To this end, this paper outlines a reproducible method that aids designers in handling occupant-related inputs during the simulation-aided design process. The proposed method includes three main steps: (1) establishing occ...
Article
Facility managers of large commercial and institutional buildings periodically collect text-based survey data from their tenants. While these large and amorphous datasets contain valuable information to benchmark operational performance and identify anomalies, it is time and resource-intensive to hire employees to read and analyze the datasets and...
Article
Faults in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning control networks substantially affect energy and comfort performance in commercial buildings. As these control networks are comprised of many sensors and actuators, it is challenging to identify, often subtle, anomalies caused by these faults. In this paper, we develop a cluster analysis method f...
Article
Designers typically follow a simplistic approach regarding occupant distribution in building simulation models, such as a uniform distribution. However, this approach rarely reflects reality, as occupants are often distributed heterogeneously in building spaces. To this end, this study develops a methodology to examine the impact of occupant distri...
Article
Building performance optimization is a powerful technique that assists designers in identifying optimal design solutions. However, occupant-related uncertainty is considered a major challenge that can influence the credibility of the selected optimal design. This paper proposes an occupant-centric method for window and shading design optimization i...
Article
Building operators and facility and energy managers of large buildings make essential operational decisions that affect energy and comfort performance. For example, they decide on the hours of operation of an air-handling unit, default zone temperature settings and outdoor airflow rates, largely based on assumptions about a building’s occupancy and...
Article
Occupant-centric control (OCC) strategies rely on different algorithms to learn and predict occupants’ patterns and preferences, then utilize these predictions to optimize building operations. However, testing different OCC algorithms or fine-tuning their configurations in real buildings can be a lengthy process. To this end, we present a framework...
Article
Operational parameters of air handling units (AHUs) play an important role in the energy and comfort performance of commercial buildings. Current guidelines to determine these parameters are based on heuristics and are not informed by formal optimization. This paper presents a building performance optimization method to derive sequence of operation...
Article
Office lighting installations often inefficiently expend energy illuminating space that is unoccupied and/or already receiving adequate daylight. Illuminance and occupancy sensors can enable substantial energy savings by deploying electric lighting only in proximity to occupants, and at levels required to supplement available daylight. Savings vary...
Article
While the research community widely recognizes the importance of post-occupancy measurement of buildings to verify performance, requirements of green building certification schemes are highly varied. To assess the effectiveness of building certification schemes during the operation and maintenance stage of certified buildings, this paper critically...
Article
Given that human behavior is increasingly recognized to play an essential role in building energy use, the validity of occupant-related assumptions in the building code and in the energy performance modeling tools used for demonstrating code compliance is a central concern. This paper investigates the current occupant-related assumptions in the Nat...
Article
Energy submetering at the equipment level provides a tool to identify energy use anomalies and detect operational inefficiencies. While physical meters can be costly and difficult to install, virtual meters (VMs) overcome practical issues associated with physical meters and provide insights into critical unmeasured quantities. This article introduc...
Preprint
This paper introduces a robust data preprocessing framework for time series building energy data. Once configured, the proposed framework will provide an automated pipeline to prepare, screen and correct energy consumption data for subsequent analysis. The framework adopts an ensemble data imputation approach which automatically selects the best im...
Article
Full-text available
Fault detection, diagnostics, and prognostics (FDD&P) ensure the operation efficiency and safety of engineering systems. In the building domain, they can help significantly reduce energy consumption and improve occupant comfort. Specifically, prognostics are becoming increasingly important as a pro-active fault prevention strategy through continuou...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial and institutional buildings often operate at a fraction of their full occupancy, yet ventilation is frequently provided assuming maximum occupancy during working hours. Forecasting building occupancy can improve the operation of system level equipment by reducing chronic overventilation. However, developing actionable occupancy forecasti...
Article
While understanding end-uses and their flow within a building is essential for energy management, many existing buildings still do not have adequate submetering for important end-uses such as chillers, fans, lighting and plug loads. To this end, this paper presents a new end-use disaggregation method for commercial buildings. Unlike previous disagg...
Article
Metadata in most existing building automation systems (BASs) is inconsistent, incomplete, and nondescriptive. This situation is a major obstacle to the widespread use of data analytics to improve the operation of buildings. In this article, we put forward a method to infer zone-level metadata from features derived from BAS data. The method includes...
Article
Despite the fact that buildings are designed for occupants in principle, evidence suggests buildings are often uncomfortable compared to the requirements of standards; difficult to control by occupants; and, operated inefficiently with regards to occupants’ preferences and presence. Meanwhile, practitioners –architects, engineers, technology compan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most commercial HVAC systems provide ventilation assuming near-full occupancy during working hours. As conditioning outdoor air requires significant energy, reducing the ventilation requirements based on actual occupancy can improve energy efficiency without significantly impacting occupant comfort. An occupancy-based predictive control program was...
Article
Zone-level sensor and actuator faults can substantially affect the energy and comfort performance of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings. As these faults leave their fingerprints on a building automation system (BAS), algorithms which use features generated from BAS data streams as symptoms to detect an...
Article
Full-text available
Building occupants are often assumed to follow deterministic schedules in building performance simulation programs. Therefore, to accurately capture the dynamic nature of the occupants' movement patterns, researchers have proposed various indoor localisation technologies to infer occupancy information with varying degrees of accuracy and resolution...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The energy use of many buildings is significantly influenced by the presence and number of occupants. The prevalence of personal mobile devices has highlighted Wi-Fi data as a strong indicator of occupancy levels, with a strong correlation between the number of occupants and the number of Wi-Fi-enabled devices in a building. With accurate occupancy...
Article
Coupling building performance simulations with mathematical optimization offers a promising solution to minimize energy use in buildings by identifying optimal design alternatives. However, uncertainties due to occupant behaviour and building operations are rarely considered in this process. To address this issue, we combined stochastic occupant be...
Article
Holistic performance metrics are necessary to understand how operational resources are used and to detect anomalous zones, floors, equipment, and work-order categories in large commercial and institutional buildings. Work-order data in computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) represent an untapped potential to extract such performance met...
Conference Paper
The morning start time of heating and cooling equipment plays an important role in the energy and comfort performance of buildings. Existing algorithms to guide this decision require either many data types with a consistent labelling nomenclature or a detailed calibrated model. In this paper, a model-free clustering-based morning start time estimat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metadata inference for building automation system (BAS) is an increasingly important topic to promote wider adoption of smart building technologies. Metadata inference is used to automatically discover semantics within the BAS, such as labelling sensors, discover control variable relationships, etc. Clustering analysis has been applied in many prev...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term forecasts of energy demand in buildings serve as key information for various operational schemes such as predictive control and demand response programs. Despite this, developing forecast models for heating and cooling loads has received little attention in the literature compared to models for electricity load. In this paper, we present...
Article
This paper aims at illustrating the importance of occupant modelling for decision-making during the building design process. It identifies the energy implications of conventional ways of modelling occupants for the design of office buildings. Furthermore, it presents a step towards bridging the gap between the research efforts and conventional prac...