Bruno Vallet

Bruno Vallet
Institut national de l’information géographique et forestière | IGN · Laboratoire MATIS

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68
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Publications

Publications (68)
Preprint
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Recent works on 3D semantic segmentation propose to exploit the synergy between images and point clouds by processing each modality with a dedicated network and projecting learned 2D features onto 3D points. Merging large-scale point clouds and images raises several challenges, such as constructing a mapping between points and pixels, and aggregati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most current neural networks for reconstructing surfaces from point clouds ignore sensor poses and only operate on raw point locations. Sensor visibility, however, holds meaningful information regarding space occupancy and surface orientation. In this paper, we present two simple ways to augment raw point clouds with visibility information, so it c...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a novel learning-based, visibility-aware, surface reconstruction method for large-scale, defect-laden point clouds. Our approach can cope with the scale and variety of point cloud defects encountered in real-life Multi-View Stereo (MVS) acquisitions. Our method relies on a 3D Delaunay tetrahedralization whose cells are classified as in...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a novel learning-based, visibility-aware, surface reconstruction method for large-scale, defect-laden point clouds. Our approach can cope with the scale and variety of point cloud defects encountered in real-life Multi-View Stereo (MVS) acquisitions. Our method relies on a 3D Delaunay tetrahedralization whose cells are classified as in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce a new method for the piecewise-planar approximation of 3D data, including point clouds and meshes. Our method is designed to operate on large datasets (e.g. millions of vertices) containing planar structures, which are very frequent in an-thropic scenes. Our approach is also adaptive to the local geometric complexity of the input data....
Article
We propose a new method for the reconstruction of simplicial complexes (combining points, edges and triangles) from 3D points clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). Our method uses the inherent topology of the MLS sensor to define a spatial adjacency relationship between points. We then investigate each posible connexion between adjacent points,...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new method for the reconstruction of simplicial complexes (combining points, edges and triangles) from 3D point clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). Our main goal is to produce a reconstruction of a scene that is adapted to the local geometry of objects. Our method uses the inherent topology of the MLS sensor to define a spatial ad...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a new method for the reconstruction of sim-plicial complexes (combining points, edges and triangles) from 3D point clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). Our method uses the inherent topology of the MLS sensor to define a spatial adjacency relationship between points. We then investigate each possible connexion between adjacent points,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce a mathematical framework for obtaining spatially smooth semantic labelings of 3D point clouds from a pointwise classification. We argue that structured regularization offers a more versatile alternative to the standard graphical model approach. Indeed, our framework allows us to choose between a wide range of fidelity fu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nous traitons le problème de la classification sémantique de nuages de points 3D LIDAR pour les scènes urbaines à partir d'un jeu d'apprentissage limité. Nous introdui-sons un modèle de segmentation non paramétrique pour les scènes urbaines formées par des objets anthropiques de formes simples. Notre modèle segmente la scène en ré-gions géométrique...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose a generic framework for watertight mesh generation with uncertainties that provides a confidence measure on each reconstructed mesh triangle. Its input is a set of vision-based or Lidar-based 3D measurements which are converted to a set of mass functions that characterize the level of confidence on the occupancy of the sce...
Chapter
Mobile mapping technology (MMT) involves the dynamic digitization at very high spatial resolution of complex environments (mainly urban environments) using a mobile terrestrial platform. The aim is to acquire very precise and very accurate georeferenced data of objects of interest as well as in fine data for applications which require this level of...
Article
Full-text available
Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been ado...
Article
Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been ado...
Article
Full-text available
Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that take...
Article
Full-text available
Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that take...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian traffic flow estimation is essential for public place design and construction planning. Traditional data collection by human investigation is tedious, inefficient and expensive. Panoramic laser scanners, e.g. Velodyne HDL-64E, which scan surroundings repetitively at a high frequency, have been increasingly used for 3D object tracking. In...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian traffic flow estimation is essential for public place design and construction planning. Traditional data collection by human investigation is tedious, inefficient and expensive. Panoramic laser scanners, e.g. Velodyne HDL-64E, which scan surroundings repetitively at a high frequency, have been increasingly used for 3D object tracking. In...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes an hybrid online calibration method for a laser scanner mounted on a mobile platform also equipped with an imaging system. The method relies on finding the calibration parameters that best align the acquired points cloud to the images. The quality of this intermodal alignment is measured by Mutual information between image lumin...
Article
This paper proposes an hybrid online calibration method for a laser scanner mounted on a mobile platform also equipped with an imaging system. The method relies on finding the calibration parameters that best align the acquired points cloud to the images. The quality of this intermodal alignment is measured by Mutual information between image lumin...
Article
Full-text available
Statistics on street-side car parks, e.g. occupancy rates, parked vehicle types, parking durations, are of great importance for urban planning and policy making. Related studies, e.g. vehicle detection and classification, mostly focus on static images or video. Whereas mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are increasingly utilized for urban street e...
Article
Full-text available
Despite of the popularity of Delauney structure for mesh generation, octree based approaches remain an interesting solution for a first step surface reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a generic framework for a octree cell based mesh generation. Its input is a set of Lidar-based 3D measurements or other inputs which are formulated as a set of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a pipeline to produce road orthophoto and DTM from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). For the ortho, modern laser scanners provide a reflectance information allowing for high quality grayscale images, at a much finer resolution than aerial photography can offer. For DTM, MLS offers a much higher accuracy and density than aerial produc...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are now commonly acquiring lidar scans of urban environments for an increasing number of applications such as 3D reconstruction and mapping, urban planning, urban furniture monitoring, practicability assessment for persons with reduced mobility (PRM)... MMS acquisitions are usually huge enough to incur a usability bottl...
Article
Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the TerraMobilita/iQmulus 3D urban analysis benchmark is to evaluate the current state of the art in urban scene analysis from mobile laser scanning (MLS) at large scale. A very detailed semantic tree for urban scenes is proposed. We call analysis the capacity of a method to separate the points of the scene into these categories (c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a full pipeline to extract mobile objects in images based on a simultaneous laser acquisition with a Velodyne scanner. The point cloud is first analysed to extract mobile objects in 3D. This is done using Dempster-Shafer theory and it results in weights telling for each points if it corresponds to a mobile object, a fixed object...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation o...
Article
Full-text available
Historical photographs become widely used in geographical and environmental applications. Their enhancement involves converting them into georeferenced data, such as orthoimages or digital models. However no ground control points are available unlike in current image processing, and many problems such as image noise, landscape modifications, perspe...
Article
Full-text available
The 3D reconstruction of similar 3D objects detected in 2D faces a major issue when it comes to grouping the 2D detections into clusters to be used to reconstruct the individual 3D objects. Simple clustering heuristics fail as soon as similar objects are close. This paper formulates a framework to use the geometric quality of the reconstruction as...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a generic and efficient method to register terrestrial mobile data with imperfect location on a geographic database with better overall accuracy but less details. The registration method proposed in this paper is based on a semi-rigid point to plane ICP ("Iterative Closest Point"). The main applications of such registration is...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to the development of Mobile mapping systems (MMS), street object recognition, classification, modelling and related studies have become hot topics recently. There has been increasing interest in detecting changes between mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds in complex urban areas. A method based on the consistency between the occupancie...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstructing fine facade geometry from MMS lidar data remains a challenge: In addition to being inherently sparse, the point cloud provided by a single street point of view is necessarily incomplete. We propose a simple framework to estimate the facade surface with a deformable 2.5d grid. Computations are performed in a "sensor-oriented" coordina...
Article
Full-text available
Digital Elevation Models provide an accurate description of scenes allowing change detection by radiometric independence measurements. The height information gives access to the changes in the 3D shape of a scene occurring between two dates. In this paper, a procedure to extract meaningful changes is proposed based on analysing this shape variation...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a practical approach for generating an occlusion-free textured 3D map of urban facades by the synergistic use of terrestrial images, 3D point clouds and area-based information. Particularly in dense urban environments, the high presence of urban objects in front of the facades causes significant difficulties for several sta...
Article
Mosaic generation is a central tool in various fields ranging way beyond the scope of photogrammetry and requires the radiometry and color of the images to be corrected. Correction can either be done by a global parametric approach (looking for an optimal gain or gamma for each image of the mosaic), or by iteratively correcting image pairs with a n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the context of urban autonomous navigation systems for going from point A to point B, a practicable trajectory which takes into account drivable areas and permanent obstacles should be designed first. A robot should then follow this trajectory while avoiding not only dynamic obstacles such as cars and pedestrians but also permanent obstacles suc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a method to estimate the local sharpness of an optical system through the wavelet-based analysis of a large set of images it acquired. Assuming a space-invariant distribution of image features, such as in the aerial photography context, the proposed approach produces a sharpness map of the imaging device over 16 × 16 pixels bloc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a method to efficiently compute the visibility of a 3D model seen from a series of calibrated georeferenced images. This is required to make methods aimed at enriching 3D models (finer reconstruction, texture mapping) based on such images scalable. The method consists in rasterizing the scene on the GPU from the point of views o...
Article
Depuis quelques années, des véhicules de cartographie mobile ont été développés pour acquérir des données géoréférencées très précises et en grande quantité au niveau du canyon urbain. L'application majeure des données collectées par ces véhicules est d'améliorer les bases de données géographiques existantes, en particulier leur précision, leur niv...
Article
This paper presents a fully automatic framework to extract building footprints from a Digital Surface Model (DSM). The proposed approach may be decomposed in two steps, each of them relying on a global optimization solver. The first step aims to extract rectangular building footprints directly from the DSM using a Marked Point Process (MPP) of rect...
Article
3D reconstruction of traffic signs is of great interest in many applications such as image-based localization and navigation. In order to reflect the reality, the reconstruction process should meet both accuracy and precision. In order to reach such a valid reconstruction from calibrated multi-view images, accurate and precise extraction of signs i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a practical approach for generating an occlusion-free textured 3D map of urban facades by the synergistic use of terrestrial images, 3D point clouds and area-based information. Particularly in dense urban environments, the high presence of urban objects in front of the facades causes significant difficulties for several sta...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a pipeline developed to automatically detect and correct motion blur due to the airplane motion in aerial images provided by a digital camera system with channel-dependent exposure times. Blurred images show anisotropy in their Fourier Transform coefficients that can be detected and estimated to recover the characteristics of...
Article
Full-text available
3D reconstruction of trees is of great interest in large-scale 3D city modelling. Laser scanners provide geometrically accurate 3D point clouds that are very useful for object recognition in complex urban scenes. Trees often cause important occlusions on building façades. Their recognition can lead to occlusion maps that are useful for many façade...
Article
Full-text available
A reliable and accurate facade database would be a major asset in applications such as localization of autonomous vehicles, registration and fine building modeling. Mobile mapping devices now provide the data required to create such a database, but efficient methods should be designed in order to tackle the enormous amount of data collected by such...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present relevant results for the texturing of 3D urban facade models by exploiting the fusion of terrestrial multi-source data acquired by a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and image inpainting. Current 3D urban facade models are often textured by using images that contain parts of urban objects that belong to the street. These urban o...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present relevant results of a work in progress1 that deals with the texturing of 3D urban facade models by fusing terrestrial multi-source data acquired by a Mobile Mapping System (MMS). Some of current 3D urban facade models often are textured by using images that contain parts of urban objects that belong to the street. These urb...
Article
We present a general framework to improve a vectorial building footprint database consisting of a set of 2D polygons. The aim of this improvement is to make the database more proper to subsequent 3D building reconstruction at a large scale. Each polygon is split into several simple polygons guided by a digital elevation model (DEM). We say that thi...
Article
Full-text available
This papers presents a multi-scale method that computes robust geometric features on lidar point clouds in order to retrieve the optimal neighborhood size for each point. Three dimensionality features are calculated on spherical neighborhoods at various radius sizes. Based on combinations of the eigenvalues of the local structure tensor, they descr...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of D reconstruction of wide urban areas, the use of building footprints has shown to be of great help to achieve both robustness and precision. These footprints however often present inconsistencies with the data (more than one building in the footprint, inner courts, superstruc- tures...) This paper presents a fast and efficient alg...
Article
In the context of 3D reconstruction of wide urban areas, the use of building footprints has shown to be of great help to achieve both robustness and precision. These footprints however often present inconsistencies with the data (more than one building in the footprint, inner courts, superstructures.) This paper presents a fast and efficient algori...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce an unsupervised segmentation method to build a hierarchical representation of a building facade from a single calibrated street level image. The process recursively splits horizontally or vertically the rectified image along dominant alignments until the radiometric content of the region hypothesis corresponds to a given model. This pa...
Article
Full-text available
Many algorithms in texture synthesis, nonphotorealistic rendering (hatching), or remeshing require to define the orientation of some features (texture, hatches, or edges) at each point of a surface. In early works, tangent vector (or tensor) fields were used to define the orientation of these features. Extrapolating and smoothing such fields is usu...
Article
Many objects have patterns that vary in appearance at different surface locations. We say that these are differences in materials, and we present a material-space approach for interactively designing such textures. At the heart of our approach is a new method to pre-calculate and use a 3D texture tile that is periodic in the spatial dimensions (s;t...
Article
Function bases are fundamental objects in geometry processing as they allow to represent functions as vectors, that is to apply tools from linear algebra to functional analysis. In this thesis, we present various constructions of useful functions bases for geometry processing. We start by presenting usual function bases, their theory and limits. We...
Thesis
Les bases de fonctions sont des outils indispensables de la géométrie numérique puisqu'ils permettent de représenter des fonctions comme des vecteurs, c'est à dire d'appliquer les outils de l'algèbre linéaire à l'analyse fonctionnelle. Dans cette thèse, nous présentons plusieurs constructions de bases de fonctions sur des surfaces pour la géométrie...
Article
We present an explicit method to compute a generalization of the Fourier Transform on a mesh. It is well known that the eigenfunctions of the Laplace Beltrami operator (Manifold Harmonics) define a function basis allowing for such a transform. However, computing even just a few eigenvectors is out of reach for meshes with more than a few thousand v...
Article
Full-text available
Many algorithms in computer graphics and geometry processing use two orthogonal smooth direction fields (unit tangent vector fields) defined over a surface. For instance, these direction fields are used in texture synthesis, in geometry processing or in nonphotorealistic rendering to distribute and orient elements on the surface. Such direction fie...
Article
Full-text available
Accurately representing higher-order singularities of vector fields defined on piecewise linear surfaces is a non-trivial problem. In this work, we introduce a concise yet complete interpolation scheme of vector fields on arbitrary triangulated surfaces. The scheme enables arbitrary singularities to be represented at vertices. The representation ca...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new formulation of a deformable model segmentation in prolate spheroidal coordinates for segmentation of 3D cardiac echocardiography data. The prolate spheroidal coordinate system enables a representation of the segmented surface with descriptors specifically adapted to the "ellipsoidal" shape of the ventricle. A simple data e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a method for fitting constrained models in multiple aerial images for building reconstruction applications. Compared to previous works, geometrical constraints are automatically inferred and enforced on the initial approximate model of building and the final constrained model is inherently compliant with the detected constraints...
Article
Les bases de fonctions sont des outils indispensables de la géométrie numérique puisqu'ils permettent de représenter des fonctions comme des vecteurs, c'est à dire d'appliquer les outils de l'algèbre linéaire à l'analyse fonctionnelle. Dans cette thèse, nous présentons plusieurs constructions de bases de fonctions sur des surfaces pour la géométrie...

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