Bruno J Strasser

Bruno J Strasser
University of Geneva | UNIGE · Section of Biology

PhD

About

62
Publications
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1,932
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Publications

Publications (62)
Article
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Over the past two decades, a number of digital platforms have been developed with the aim of engaging citizens in scientific research projects. The success of these platforms depends in no small part on their ability to attract and retain participants, turning diffuse crowds of users into active and productive communities. This article investigates...
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Science communication and public engagement with science have repeatedly been called for in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, die Swiss Academies of the Arts and Sciences have set up an expert group to assess the state of science communication in Switzerland, and to provide recommendations for how to improve it. Th...
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This article investigates how a discourse about the role and value of public participation in science, technology, and innovation emerged and evolved in the research policies of the European Commission. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, two main discourses have been successively institutionalized: the first focused on participation in p...
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Since the late twentieth century, “citizen science” has become an increasingly fashionable label for a growing number of participatory research activities. This paper situates the origins and rise of the term “citizen science” and contextualises “citizen science” within the broader history of public participation in science. It analyses critically...
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“Citizen science” refers to a broad range of activities where people produce scientific knowledge outside of traditional scientific institutions. From mapping natural phenomena to analyzing scientific data, sharing health information, and making new technologies, citizen science occurs across all the disciplines of science and involves a number of...
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Rethinking histories of data requires not only better answers to existing questions, but also better questions. We suggest eight such questions here. What counts as data? How are objects related to data? What are digital data? What makes data measurable, and what does quantification do to data? What counts as an “information age”? Why do we keep da...
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The public acceptance of evolution is under constant scrutiny. Surveys and polls regularly measure whether the public accepts evolutionist or creationist views. The differences between groups, such as people from various countries, are then explained by variations in religious views. But what is often overlooked, is that the data also show that a l...
Chapter
The American physical chemist Margaret Oakley Dayhoff was one of the major figures in the early history of bioinformatics. In 1965, she published the initial edition of the Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, the first comprehensive, computerised and publicly available collection of protein sequences. It became a model for many subsequent sequ...
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The standard narrative in the history of the life sciences focuses on the rise of experimentalism since the late nineteenth century and the concomitant decline of natural history. Here, I propose to reexamine this story by concentrating on a specific set of material and cognitive practices centered on collections. I show that these have been centra...
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Today, the production of knowledge in the experimental life sciences relies crucially on the use of biological data collections, such as DNA sequence databases. These collections, in both their creation and their current use, are embedded in the experimentalist tradition. At the same time, however, they exemplify the natural historical tradition, b...
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Collecting, comparing, and computing molecular sequences are among the most prevalent practices in contemporary biological research. They represent a specific way of producing knowledge. This paper explores the historical development of these practices, focusing on the work of Margaret O. Dayhoff, Richard V. Eck, and Robert S. Ledley, who produced...
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The rise of experimentation and the decline of natural history constitute the historiographic backbone to most narratives about the history of the life sciences in the twentieth century. As I argue here, however, natural history practices, such as the collection adn comparison of data from numerous species, adn experimental practices have actually...
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Neither science nor state has ever been transcendentally "neutral," but they have sometimes been made neutral, together, as this paper shows in the context of cold war Europe. The paper explores how the Swiss government tried to "depoliticize" and "demilitarize" new international research institutions in the fields of high- energy physics (CERN), s...
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Since its foundation, the nucleic acid sequence database GenBank has merged the values of natural history with those of the experimental sciences.
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Nature Medicine is the premier journal for biomedical research. Respected internationally for the quality of its papers on areas ranging from infectious disease to cancer and neurodegeneration, Nature Medicine aims to bridge the gap between basic research and medical advances and is consistently ranked the number one journal by the Institute of Sci...
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In 1957, Francis Crick outlined a startling vision of life in which the great diversity of forms and shapes of macromolecules was encoded in the one-dimensional sequence of nucleic acids. This paper situates Crick's new vision in the debates of the 1950s about protein synthesis and gene action. After exploring the reception of Crick's ideas, it sho...
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Collective memory links the past to the future in science as well as history.
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The intellectual origins of molecular biology are usually traced back to the 1930s. By contrast, molecular biology acquired a social reality only around 1960. To understand how it came to designate a community of researchers and a professional identity, I examine the creation of the first institutes of molecular biology, which took place around 196...
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This special issue of Studies collects a set of original papers on the making of molecular biology in postwar Europe. It includes several contributions on countries which have not yet received much attention in the historiography of molecular biology, for example, Italy, Spain, Germany, or Switzerland, along with new perspectives on better known ca...
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In 1949, Linus Pauling and his collaborators published a study in the journal Science entitled "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease." In this now classic study, they showed that hemoglobin from patients suffering from sickle cell anemia has a different electrical charge than hemoglobin from healthy individuals. This result demonstrated for the...
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RESUME. — Entre 1945 et 1960, une nouvelle serie de pratiques, d'instruments et de sujets de recherche sont developpes a Geneve, aux frontieres de la biologie, de la physique et de la medecine. Cet ensemble, sous le nom de « biophysique », se transforme et se redefinit tout au long de cette periode pour finalement se voir accorder, vers 1960, le st...
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In this contribution we describe the changes in structure and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus induced by inhibition or induction of polyamine biosynthesis. The synthesis or inhibition is controlled by white light of low and high intensities, as well as by blue and red irradiation. We ob...
Article
Changes in the photosynthetic apparatus occurring during the synchronous cell cycle of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus are compared to the adaptational response induced by light intensity variations. To investigate and compare these two phenomena, we analyze the polyphasic rise of the chlorophyll fluorescence yield exhibited by plants and cyano...
Chapter
The adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to low and high light intensities is a well documented phenomenon, as well in higher plants [1], as in green algae [2]. The organisms respond to shade conditions by increased amounts of chlorophyll at a lowered photosynthetic capacity. Their photosynthetic compensation point is shifted to lower light i...
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Chlorophyllafluorescence induction is extensively used as a probe of photosynthesis, and thus, it has become necessary to quantitatively analyse it to extend its usefulness. We simulate the experimental data of fluorescence transients in strong light through numerical integration, both in dark- and light-adapted plants. In the mathematical model us...
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In 1949, Linus Pauling and collaborators published in Science a paper provocatively titled: 'Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease'. What was actually meant by 'molecular disease'? We interpret the concept of molecular disease in the frame of the traditional positions about the nature of diseases, the ontological and the physiological positions....
Chapter
The main naturally occuring polyamines, the diamine putrescine (Put), the triamine spermidine (Spd) and the tetramine spermine (Spm) are ubiquitous in living organisms [1]. At cellular pH values, polyamines behave as polycations, and can interact with anionic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, phospholipids and certain proteins [1]. This association...
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The chlorophyll a fluorescence transient measured under high light shows a typical O-J-I-P polyphasic rise. However, under certain stress situations such as heat or drought stress, a rapid phase with a maximum around 300 s has been observed and called K (Guiss et al. (1995a) Arch Sci Genve 48: 147–160). Here, we show that under various conditions,...
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Au cours de la période contemporaine, les sciences de la nature ont connu un déve-loppement sans précédent, si bien qu'au XX e siècle, nombre de questions sociales, politiques, économiques et culturelles sont devenues indissociables des sciences et des techniques. La physique atomique est au coeur des stratégies militaires de la Guerre froide, la s...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Analyze the history of medical masks 16th-21st centuries
Project
A research project on the history and sociology of public participation in science. Analysis of public policies, participants' profiles and their networks, discourse and dynamics of participation in online platforms
Project
Geneva University outreach laboratory in biology and biomedical sciences. Goals - Citizen science, scientific literacy and health literacy. Health and environment education