Bruno Simmen

Bruno Simmen
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Institute of Biological Sciences

PhD, HDR

About

119
Publications
20,251
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2,281
Citations
Introduction
Bruno Simmen currently works at the Institute of Biological Sciences, French National Centre for Scientific Research. Bruno does research in Biological Anthropology.
Additional affiliations
September 1994 - present
CNRS/Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle
Position
  • Chargé de Recherche

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Comparative behavioral studies of hand use amongst primate species, including humans, have been central in research on evolutionary mechanisms. In particular, the manipulative abilities of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), have been widely described in various contexts, showing a high level of dexterity both in zoo and in nat...
Article
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Biological conservation projects conducted in inhabited areas are often based on the combination of ecological diagnostics and study of practices and use of the environment by local communities. They less frequently integrate the influence of the perception and representation of nature on these practices, while these should also be taken into accou...
Article
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While the exploitation of aquatic fauna and flora has been documented in several primate species to date, the evolutionary contexts and mechanisms behind the emergence of this behavior in both human and non-human primates remain largely overlooked. Yet, this issue is particularly important for our understanding of human evolution, as hominins repre...
Article
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Life history, brain size and energy expenditure scale with body mass in mammals but there is little conclusive evidence for a correlated evolution between life history and energy expenditure (either basal/resting or daily) independent of body mass. We addressed this question by examining the relationship between primate free-living daily energy exp...
Article
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The reproductive cycle of several lemur species is synchronized by photoperiodic changes and it is attuned to the seasonal fluctuations in food supply. Nevertheless, irregular periods of food shortage occur in Madagascar, which can result in a negative energy balance and reduced fitness, especially in frugivorous species. Here, we tested whether ri...
Conference Paper
Is reproduction energetically costly, and do these energy costs underlie variation in fertility? In primates with dilute milk and long lactations for their body size, the interaction of energetics and reproductive rates remains the subject of considerable debate as to mechanisms and costs. Despite the long-held view that reproduction is a costly ac...
Conference Paper
The ability to store fat has been hypothesized to have a strong impact on the fitness value of primate species living in highly seasonal environments such as southern of Madagascar. In the Verreaux’s sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), fat storage would anticipate the long period of food shortage occurring during the dry season and/or cope with the ene...
Article
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Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate speci...
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Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate speci...
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Protein limitation has been considered a key factor in hypotheses on the evolution of life history and animal communities, suggesting that animals should prioritize protein in their food choice. This contrasts with the limited support that food selection studies have provided for such a priority in nonhuman primates, particularly for folivores. Her...
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Phylogenetic and geographic proximities between humans and apes pose a risk of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) of the Bolobo Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo, live in a fragmented forest-savanna mosaic setting, a marginal habitat for this species used to living in dense forests. Human activities in the forest h...
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Little is known about the absolute pool of energy primates use in the wild and how this pool varies seasonally. It is also not fully understood why some species facing unpredictable changes in food supply and risks of energy imbalance show high breeding seasonality. We examined these issues in a folivorous gregarious lemur (Propithecus coronatus) i...
Article
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Habituation is the term used to describe acceptance by wild animals of a human observer as a neutral element in their environment. Among primates, the process takes from a few days for Galago spp. to several years for African apes. There are also intraspecies differences reflecting differences in habitat, home range, and ape-human relationship hist...
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Plant phenology was studied in the dry semi-deciduous forest of Badrala (northwestern Madagascar). All categories of litterfall collected bi-weekly in 20 traps from the beginning of one year’s to the end of the next year’s dry season were separated, identified and weighed. The quantitative database on leaf litter production by different tree, shrub...
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H I G H L I G H T S • Primates have lower field metabolic rate than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. • Hominins and other primates may share a thrifty energy strategy. • Norms for obesity reduction should take into account low primate energy throughput. Keywords: Energy balance Metabolic allometry Field metabolic rate Physical activity Doubly...
Article
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Reçu le 3 mars 2014 ; accepté le 24 avril 2013 © Société d'anthropologie de Paris et Springer-Verlag France 2014 Résumé La perception gustative permet d'orienter les choix alimentaires des primates dans les différentes niches écolo-giques où ils ont évolué. Les possibilités de choix sont cependant limitées par le poids corporel des différentes espè...
Conference Paper
Malagasy primates living in dry deciduous forests submitted to a subarid climate are expected to cope with marked, unpredictable changes of food supplies. Among them, the Verreaux’s sifaka Propithecus verreauxi is a folivorous species showing seasonal reproduction, reduced metabolism and slow life history compared with other strepsirrhine primates....
Article
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The evaluation of global perceptions about animal and plant species oy villagers living in protected area including fragmented dry forests has been conducted in the northwestern coastal zone of Madagascar. The methodology used in field conditions is presented and discussed in relation to possible integration of the results into localized botanical...
Article
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Folivorous primate biomass has been shown to positively correlate with the average protein-to-fiber ratio in mature leaves of tropical forests. However, studies have failed to explain the mismatch between dietary selection and the role of the protein-to-fiber ratio on primate biomass; why do not folivores always favor mature leaves or leaves with t...
Data
Résumé La perception gustative permet d'orienter les choix alimentaires des primates dans les différentes niches écologiques où ils ont évolué. Les possibilités de choix sont cependant limitées par le poids corporel des différentes espèces, selon des relations allométriques dont nous présentons les caractéristiques chez les lémuriens et les primate...
Article
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Dans le cadre d'une analyse de la structure des fragments forestiers de la côte ouest de Madagascar et des relations qu'entretiennent les populations humaines avec ces espaces limités, nous avons testé une méthode d'évaluation des perceptions et des représentations des acteurs locaux vis-à-vis des espèces animales et végétales qu'ils côtoient. Nous...
Article
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La perception gustative permet d'orienter les choix alimentaires des primates dans les différentes niches écologiques où ils ont évolué. Les possibilités de choix sont cependant limitées par le poids corporel des différentes espèces, en fonction des relations allométriques dont nous présentons les particularités des espèces de l'Ordre des Primates...
Article
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We carried out a study of the social behavior and dominance hierarchy in three groups of crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus) in the Antrema Forest Station in north-west Madagascar. Data were collected from April to June 2009 and October to November 2009 using all-occurrence sampling. During 273 hours of observation, the majority of social behavi...
Poster
Full-text available
Résumé: La perception gustative permet d’orienter les choix alimentaires des primates dans les différentes niches écolo-giques où ils ont évolué. Les possibilités de choix sont cependant limitées par le poids corporel des différentes espèces, selon des relations allométriques dont nous présentons les caractéristiques chez les primates strepsirrhini...
Article
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The correlation between the biomass of forest primates and a chemical index of the average nutritional quality of leaves in tropical forests has been repeatedly documented since 1990. We tested the role played by protein : fibre on lemur biomass in a gallery forest in southern Madagascar. Plant species abundance was determined based on transect cen...
Article
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The population of the Near Threatened brown lemur Eulemur fulvus on the island of Mayotte was censused in 1974, 1984 and 1999. We carried out a new census in 2008, estimating individual and group densities in the three main habitat types on the island (preserved forest, anthropogenic forest and agricultural areas), and more generally evaluating pop...
Article
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Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.). Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social) and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto stimulation) have been proposed to explain this behaviour based on the distinctive typology and context in w...
Chapter
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Food neophobia, the reluctance to taste novel food, is an adaptive food behavior in evolutionary terms with survival advantages. When measured by the declarative Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) it appears as a personality and heritable trait, thus susceptible to reduce the food repertory and to limit food variety consumption. Inducing changes in food ne...
Article
Full-text available
The population of the Near Threatened brown lemur Eulemur fulvus on the island of Mayotte was censused in 1974, 1984 and 1999. We carried out a new census in 2008, estimating individual and group densities in the three main habitat types on the island (preserved forest, anthropogenic forest and agricultural areas), and more generally evaluating pop...
Article
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Background: Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic se...
Article
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L’homme est-il le seul animal à prendre du plaisir à manger ? Sans doute pas. Des études menées chez les primates révèlent une étonnante proximité entre nos percep-tions gustatives et celles de nos cousins.• L’homme et les autres primates distinguent vraisemblablement les mêmes types de saveurs ; toutefois l’homme est davantage influencé dans ses c...
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This is a preliminary presentation of the results obtained on forest composition, sifaka population density and group composition, and the diet and activity pattern of Propithecus coronatus in the dry forest of Madagascar.
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The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential weight reduction session (WRS; mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity was assessed using recognition thresholds for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride and 6-n propylthiouracil (PROP) and...
Article
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We investigated the feeding ecology of Eulemur macaco macaco in an old coastal secondary forest of northwestern Madagascar. We analyzed whether the local combination of introduced and native plant species could provide viable anthropic conditions for sustaining the black lemurs. Fruits (79 spp.) dominated the annual diet (>104 species from 50 famil...
Article
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The purpose is to determine whether taste functions are different in massively obese adolescents as compared with non-obese adolescents, and to what extent metabolic disorders may interfere with taste perception, as suggested by the results of recent animal studies. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURES: We compared taste sensitivity and hedonic responses...
Article
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Feeding strategy and social dominance in female sifakas (Propithecus v. verreauxi) living in a Didiereaceae forest in southern Madagascar. We addressed the issue of female social dominance as an adaptive response to seasonal energy stress in white sifakas living in a fragment of Didiereaceae forest of southern Madagascar. We tested whether female a...
Article
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We addressed the issue of female social dominance as an adaptive response to seasonal energy stress in white sifakas living in a fragment of Didiereaceae forest of southern Madagascar. We tested whether female and male sifakas would exhibit different activity budgets, food choices and energy input given harsh ecological constraints that prevail in...
Article
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Previous studies in humans have shown that short to middle-term pre-exposure to multiple foods can reduce the negative response to novel foods (neophobia). In order to explore the effects of a long-term exposure to varied foods on food neophobia, we studied a population of obese adolescents observed in a longitudinal protocol in which the multiple...
Article
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We determined taste recognition thresholds for six compounds (sucrose, fructose, sodium chloride, quinine sulphate, PROP and liquorice) in fasting students and, in the same subjects, after a meal. The testing procedure was the staircase-method in blind conditions. Although taste sensitivity may vary with hormonal status, our results did not show an...
Chapter
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In this paper, we provide an overview of the feeding trends of Lemur catta, the ringtailed lemur, including a checklist of all plant species and plant items known to be ingested by this prosimian species in three different forests of southwestern and southern Madagascar. Ringtailed lemurs have been mainly studied in gallery forests including riveri...
Article
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We studied a black lemur population over a 2-year period (1992-1993) and 8 years later (2000) in a 50-ha secondary forest in northwest Madagascar. All of the animals were marked to investigate population dynamics and seasonal variation in ranging and behavior, and new data on black lemurs were obtained. Our data on demographic characteristics were...
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Secondary metabolite contents in the forests of Mayotte and Madagascar, and their incidence on two leaf-eating lemur species (Eulemur spp.). — We measured concentrations of total phenolics (TP), condensed tannins (CT), and total alkaloids, as well as bovine serum albumin precipitation (BSAp), in leaves of lianas, trees, and palms from six tropical...
Article
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We measured concentrations of total phenolics (TP), condensed tannins (CT), and total alkaloids, as well as bovine serum albumin precipitation (BSAp), in leaves of lianas, trees, and palms from six tropical forests (four rainforests plus one dry forest in Mayotte Island, and one anthropogenic rainforest in Madagascar). We established chemical profi...
Article
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Although studies of humans in a state of hunger or satiety show variations in hedonic responsiveness (preference/aversion) to sugar, the taste recognition thresholds for different substances appear to be stable individual characteristics, as Pangborn, beginning in 1959, observed on a small sample of human subjects. However, a recent study suggests...
Article
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La présence des métabolites secondaires dans les plantes influence la sélection des aliments chez de nombreuses espèces de primates non-humains. Le rôle des substances potentiellement toxiques des végétaux dans la sélection alimentaire par les jeunes primates est en revanche méconnu. Dans cette étude, nous avons effectué des observations en forêt s...