Bruno Castanié

Bruno Castanié
Clément Ader Institute | ICA · Composites Materials and Structures Group

Full Professor

About

118
Publications
26,283
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2,045
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
INSA
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2009 - present
Clément Ader Institute
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (118)
Article
This work focuses on the effect of wrinkle defects within curved laminate composites under compressive load. In the study, 22 curved specimens with different levels of maximum misalignment angles – ranging from 1.5° to 17° – were manufactured. The specimens with embedded defects were tested under compression to assess the effect of defects on the c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of static and dynamic crushing of wood tubes made of poplar, birch and oak veneer. Despite different veneer thicknesses (poplar: 1 mm, birch: 0.5 mm and oak: 0.75 mm), the tubes have the same overall dimensions to enable comparisons. The static tests were carried out on an MTS 100 kN machine between two loading plate...
Article
Complex composite parts, and especially curved laminated composites, are more subject to defects than flat laminates. One of the most common defects is the presence of wrinkles, which can occur in the radius of curvature. Wrinkle effects must be studied to evaluate their influence on the mechanical properties of laminated composites. In this study,...
Article
An experimental study has been carried out to describe the evolution of the failure load relative to the maximum misalignment angle of curved carbon–epoxy laminates with out-of-plane wrinkle defects for a large range of misalignments. L-angle specimens with different levels of fibre wrinkling were manufactured and tested in four-point bending tests...
Article
Thermoplastic composites offer many opportunities for aeronautics. Among them is the possibility of overmolding composite parts to obtain finished “netshape” parts in medium series. This paper presents the complexity of the manufacturing method and the manufacturing defects that may occur in some grid-stiffened overmolded parts using aeronautic the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The VIRTUOSE project aims at reducing the number of experiments from the test pyramid that is necessary to certify aeronautical composite structures. Thanks to the VERTEX test rig [1, 2], a combined loading of tension/compression-shear-pressure can be applied on large specimens (400*400mm2 area of interest). Around the world, only few test rigs all...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Out-of-plane deformation generally develops for laminate composites during autoclave processing due to unbalanced residual stress in the stacking [1-4]. This can lead to undesired shape and poor dimensional control in part manufactured. This paper presents a study on out-of-plane deflection of symmetrical flat laminate composites. The effect of sta...
Article
Full-text available
To decrease development costs of aeronautical composite structures, industrials and academic researchers are turning to “virtual testing” methods. To help achieve this objective, a new methodology has been developed at the Institut Clément Ader. It is based on a complex loading test rig for technological specimens (more representative than the usua...
Article
The article presents the results of dynamic crushing of sandwich tubes that had skins made of carbon or glass fibers–with epoxy resin–and an I214 poplar ply core. By increasing the number of poplar plies from two to six, the absorbed energy is doubled, showing the significant contribution of the wood. The Specific Energy Absorption of sandwiches wi...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents static compression of sandwich tubes for crash applications in the transportation industry. The tubes were made from “I214” poplar veneers for the core, and carbon or glass woven plies reinforced with epoxy resin composites for the skins. The number of I214 layers in the core was varied between 2 and 6 while keeping the same num...
Article
Sandwich structures are widely used in many industrial applications and especially in light aviation. The local buckling phenomenon named “wrinkling” is one of the primary causes of compressive failure of such structures. Its calculation is a difficult practical problem since this phenomenon cannot be captured by the GFEM (Global Finite Element Mod...
Article
The geometric stability of bonded structural parts, such as self-stiffened panels, is a critical issue in aeronautics. However, autoclave curing and bonding of large complex integrated primary structures often induce distortions compromising their geometric stability. Composite cure-induced strains and distortions have been extensively studied in t...
Article
This work studies the potential of using wooden tubes for crash applications. The tubes were made from 1 mm thick “I214” poplar veneers, according to different stacking sequences. Four configurations were characterized under static crushing (5 mm/min) and the one that performed best ([90/04/90]) was chosen to undergo dynamic tests under a drop weig...
Article
Full-text available
Splitting is the presence of a long, thin matrix crack observed in laminates stacked with unidirectional plies. The importance of splitting has been highlighted several times in the literature to explain failure scenarios of open and, more rarely, filled hole CFRP coupon specimens. This failure mode also seems to play an important role in the incre...
Article
The paper concerns mechanical responses of helicopter blades made of composite materials. Structures with complicated geometries are modeled by using both beam and solid finite elements. The adopted one-dimensional kinematics only encompasses pure displacements; therefore, the connection with three-dimensional elements can be carried out with ease....
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a review of the issues concerning sandwich structures for aeronautical applications. The main questions raised by designers are first recalled and the complexity of sandwich structure design for aeronautics is highlighted. Then a review of applications is presented, starting with early examples from the 1930s and the Second Worl...
Article
Full-text available
The development and certification of aeronautical composite structures is still largely based on the pyramid of tests. This approach is extremely costly in terms of number of tests, especially at the level of coupons. Moreover, these tests are highly conservative, under uniaxial loading, and do not represent the actual behavior at structure scale....
Article
The geometric stability of structural parts is a critical issue in the aeronautical industry. However, autoclave curing of primary structural composite parts may cause significant distortions and divergences between the mould nominal geometries and the final shapes of the parts. To be able to anticipate such distortions, a robust simulation tool is...
Article
The potting failures of inserts in a sandwich structure are analyzed. The case of inserts potted with syntactic foam is investigated. First, the influence of defects is discussed. Then, experiments are performed to determine the tension and compression behavior of the syntactic foam. Later, a specific technological pull-out test was performed, whil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of very lightweight aircraft sandwich structured composites requires a deep knowledge to tackle the failure modes. In this paper, we focus on the wrinkling which may be the primary cause of failure of such structures. Currently, lightweight sandwich structured composites are more and more used in the aeronautics industry and extend to pr...
Article
Highly curved laminated parts are used at the junction between two different perpendicular panels on aircraft primary structures. Usually, these laminates fail by delamination due to a bending moment, which appears when the part is loaded. The bending moment tries to flatten the part and out-of-plane tensile stresses are generated in the curvature....
Article
This paper presents an experimental investigation of compression on pristine specimens and the compression after impact (CAI) response of wood-based sandwich structures. Nine different types of sandwiches, made with plywood core and different aluminum or composite (carbon or glass or flax fiber) skins, are studied. Impact energy levels were fixed a...
Article
This paper presents an experimental investigation of compression on pristine specimens and the compression after impact (CAI) response of wood-based sandwich structures. Nine different types of sandwiches, made with plywood core and different aluminum or composite (carbon or glass or flax fiber) skins, are studied. Impact energy levels were fixed a...
Article
Full-text available
Key message Raised grain occurring on wood surfaces after the application of a waterborne varnish was felt by human touch because of protruding peaks and a certain amount of materials in the core of the roughness profile. This tactile sensation was correlated with specific roughness parameters. Characteristics of a finished surface quality that is...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing demand for composite parts, more and more designs or re-designs are required to use such materials. This paper presents a new methodology for designing composite structures by considering three essential variables: the geometry, the architecture and the manufacturing process. The methodology proves to be useful during the pre-desig...
Article
The impact behavior of innovative wood based sandwich structures with plywood core and skins made either of aluminum or of fiber reinforced polymer (carbon, glass or flax composite skins) was investigated numerically. The wood based sandwich structures were subjected to low-velocity/low-energy impacts. An explicit nonlinear numerical model based on...
Article
Full-text available
The Clément Ader Institute's (ICA) Composite Materials and Structures research group (UMR CNRS 5312) was set up in 2010 after the Institute was created by decree in July 2009. The group conducts transversal research on materials, processes and structures, with a strong focus on numerical and experimental aspects.
Article
In this work, a modelling strategy based on damage mechanics is presented for Nomex honeycomb core. The proposed approach is based on the experimental analysis presented by the authors in [1] and consists of the decoupled modelling of the buckling and collapse of cells for the HRH-78 Nomex honeycomb core with two damage parameters. The proposed app...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this research, the virtual testing approach is used to study the failure of inserts in sandwich structures. First, a reduced F.E. model of inserts is presented, which includes nonlinear aspects of the materials such as the buckling and collapse of the honeycomb cells, the failure of the potting and the matrix failure of the skins. These model ar...
Conference Paper
Low carbon impact is a shared goal of all transportation industry. One way to match this expectation consists in the introduction of lightweight materials with high specific properties such as composites materials. A plywood based core material combined with metallic or composite skins appear as good candidates if we introduce safety considerations...
Article
This work is a contribution to the understanding of the nonlinear shear behaviour caused by cell postbuckling in Nomex honeycomb cores. First, an experimental benchmark study was made of different designs for the shear testing of honeycomb cores. Then, several test specimens were fabricated and tested, a 3D DIC system being used to measure and reco...
Article
Low carbon emission and sustainable development are shared goals throughout the transportation industry. One way to meet such expectations is to introduce lightweight materials based on renewable sources. Sandwich panels with plywood core and fiber reinforced composite skins appear to be good candidates. Additional properties of wood such as fire r...
Article
The quasi-static behavior of innovative wood based sandwich structures with plywood core and skins made either of aluminum or of fiber reinforced polymer (carbon, glass or flax composite skins) was investigated. The wood based sandwich structures were subjected to three point static bending tests to determine their strength and failure mechanisms....
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of composite laminates subject to notch based stress concentrations is difficult to apprehend, especially the mechanisms of damage progression leading to total failure. Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on three different stacking sequences of notched, thin ply carbon/epoxy laminates. This paper presents a comp...
Article
In aeronautics, honeycomb sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures such as landing gear doors, flaps or floors, and for primary structures in helicopters or business jets. These structures are generally joined by using local reinforcements of the insert type. In the present study, 50 J low velocity impact tests were performed on...
Article
In hybrid composite/metallic structures, loads can be transmitted from one part to the other through localized contact pressures, i.e., bearing. Such structures may be rotating structures, which can accumulate as many as 10⁹ load cycles during their service life. Designing safe hybrid rotating structures thus requires a sound understanding of how c...
Conference Paper
Low carbon emission is a shared goal of all transportation industry. One way to match this expectation consist in the introduction of lightweight materials with high specific properties such as composites materials. Wood based materials combined with fiber reinforced composites appear to be good candidates if we introduce safety considerations and...
Article
This paper focuses on the study of the effect of rectification by grinding on the mechanical behavior in quasi-static tests (compression and inter-laminar shear) of two long fiber composite materials machined by two cutting processes: tool machining (edge cutting) and abrasive diamond cutting (ADS). Two sets of specimens of different surface roughn...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on the size effect in notched carbon/epoxy laminates. This paper presents a computational study of scaled open-hole tensile tests using the Discrete Ply Modeling (DPM) method, which has already proven efficient on both in-plane and out-of-plane loading cases, such as pull through, low veloc...
Conference Paper
Low carbon impact is a shared goal of all transportation industry. One way to match this expectation consist in the introduction of lightweight materials with high specific properties such as composites materials. Wood based materials combined with fibre reinforced composites appear as good candidates if we introduce safety considerations and energ...
Article
Full-text available
The bending-torsion coupling for a sandwich beam is analysed from the static and vibrational point of view. Off-axis orientations in the skin and transverse graded core are proposed to perform the coupling. Solutions are first compared numerically from a static point of view using a complete beam theory. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are...
Article
Fibre kinking is one of the main failure modes of composite laminates under compression loading. In this paper, the role of kinking in the failure of quasi-isotropic composites subjected to a bearing load is investigated. High-resolution CT scans show that kinking is largely involved in the events leading to laminate collapse, notably by triggering...
Article
This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures manufactured through autoclave process. It uses explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. Firstly, the spring-back of unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples of different sizes and thicknesses is analysed from an experimental point of view. Then,...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental investigation aiming to characterize the fatigue failure mechanisms and effect of ageing of skin/stringer interfaces is presented. A simplified specimen known as a "stringer foot specimen" is used. The effects of local design, of the angle of plies located at the interface and of moisture ageing are studied. Among other results, it...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of the machining parameters on the dust size and temperature generated during trimming of CFRP has not yet been fully understood. This paper investigates the influence of tool geometry and cutting conditions on surface defects and the dust generated during trimming. It was observed that these defects predominantly occurred due to cutt...
Article
The Discrete Ply Modelling (DPM) method, previously applied with success to out-of-plane loading such as impact or pull-through, is used to model open hole tensile tests. According to the literature, this kind of test is relevant to assess the efficiency of a modelling strategy. Four different stacking sequences are tested and the failure scenario...
Article
Full-text available
The hole wall defects created during drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates are analyzed. First, an analysis of the location of the defects on the wall is performed. It is shown that, using results of orthogonal cutting, it is possible to predict the location of the main defects. Then refined scanning electron microscopic observation...
Article
This paper focuses on the mechanical behavior in quasi-static tests (compression and inter-laminar shear) of two composite materials machined by different processes. First, the impact of the variation of average surface roughness (Ra) and the machining process is studied for both materials and for each stress. The results of compression and inter l...
Article
The main focus of this paper is to investigate the defects generated by different machining processes (namely burr tool machining, abrasive water jet machining 'AWJM' and abrasive diamond cutter 'ADS') and their impact on the mechanical behavior of CFRP in quasi-static (compression and inter-laminar shear) and tensile-tensile fatigue tests. The cut...
Article
The finite element simulation of structures subjected to post-buckling still faces computational limits, especially for large stiffened structures. Several solving strategies have already been proposed in response to this issue. Among them are the adaptive model reduction solving techniques which demonstrated their ability to drastically reduce the...
Article
In this chapter the influence of tool geometry and cutting conditions on cutting forces, surface defects and the percetage of dust generated durring trimming and reaching the pulmonary alveoli is investigated. The surface defects were analysed using a scanning electron microscope and diferent surface roughness measurement devices. It was observed t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The composite laminates are sensitive to the impact that generates transverse cracks and delaminations, damaging the material and contributing to a significant drop in the residual holding. One way a priori most effective to reduce the extent of the defects would be to sew impact transversely composit before impregnation with resin. Reverse again...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, high speed trimming of a multidirectional CFRP using unused and used burr tools is considered in order to investigate the influence of the machining parameters (e.g., feed speed, cutting speed and cutting distance) on the cutting forces, machining temperature, and the machined surface quality. To estimate the effect of the tools' wea...
Chapter
In this chapter, an original method for modeling the behavior of sandwich structures during and after impact is proposed and validated. It is based on the demonstration that Nomex honeycomb behaves in a post-buckling mode very early and that compression forces are taken up by the corners or vertical edges of the honeycomb cells in the same way as t...
Article
Full-text available
The general context of the development of out-of-autoclave processes in the aeronautics industry raises the question of the possible links between these new processes and impact behaviour. In this study, a Taguchi table was used in a design of experiment approach to establish possible links. The study focused on the liquid resin infusion process ap...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, high speed trimming of a multi directional carbon fiber reinforced plastic using a tungsten carbide burr tool is studied. The influence of the machining parameters on both the dust size and surface quality is investigated. A high percentage of dust is found under the theoretical chip size and the surface quality is found to be affecte...