Bruno Alves Buzatto

Bruno Alves Buzatto
Flinders University

Ph.D

About

49
Publications
10,701
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Introduction
I am an evolutionary biologist fascinated by behavioural ecology and sexual selection, and my research has mostly focused on insects and arachnids. I also have a great interest on the evolution of alternative reproductive tactics, male dimorphism and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. I am a lecturer at Flinders University, and also hold an honorary lecturership at Macquarie University and an adjunct research fellow position at the University of Western Australia, where I did my PhD.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
Macquarie University
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2013 - December 2017
University of Western Australia
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2009 - January 2013
University of Western Australia
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
March 2009 - December 2012
University of Western Australia
Field of study
  • Evolutionary Biology
March 2006 - March 2008
University of Campinas
Field of study
  • Ecology
March 2001 - August 2005
University of Campinas
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
Trait databases have become important resources for large-scale comparative studies in ecology and evolution. Here we introduce the AnimalTraits database, a curated database of body mass, metabolic rate and brain size, in standardised units, for terrestrial animals. The database has broad taxonomic breadth, including tetrapods, arthropods, molluscs...
Article
Male–male competition after mating (sperm competition) favours adaptations in male traits, such as elevated sperm numbers facilitated by larger testes. Ultimately, patterns of female distribution will affect the strength of sperm competition by dictating the extent to which males are able to prevent female remating. Despite this, our understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Animal contests involve threatening displays and physical coercion, which are respectively performed by threat devices used in mutual evaluation of size or strength, and weapons used for grasping, stabbing, striking, or dislodging a rival. According to the functional allometry hypothesis, directional selection consistently favors hyper-allometry in...
Article
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The name “millipede” translates to a thousand feet (from mille “thousand” and pes “foot”). However, no millipede has ever been described with more than 750 legs. We discovered a new record-setting species of millipede with 1,306 legs, Eumillipes persephone , from Western Australia. This diminutive animal (0.95 mm wide, 95.7 mm long) has 330 segment...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of subterranean fauna has mostly been derived from caves and streambeds, which are relatively easily accessed. In contrast, subterranean fauna inhabiting regional groundwater aquifers or the vadose zone (between surface soil layers and the watertable) is difficult to sample. Here we provide species lists for a globally significant subterr...
Article
Conditional strategies occur when the relative fitness pay-off from expressing a given phenotype is contingent upon environmental circumstances. This conditional strategy model underlies cases of alternative reproductive tactics, in which individuals of one sex employ different means to obtain reproduction. How kin structure affects the expression...
Article
In many species, sexual dimorphism increases with body size when males are the larger sex but decreases when females are the larger sex, a macro-evolutionary pattern known as Rensch's rule (RR). Although empirical studies usually focus exclusively on body size, Rensch's original proposal included sexual differences in other traits, such as ornament...
Article
Full-text available
The Mygalomorphae includes tarantulas, trapdoor, funnel-web, purse-web and sheet-web spiders, species known for poor dispersal abilities. Here, we attempted to compile all the information available on their long-distance dispersal mechanisms from observations that are often spread throughout the taxonomic literature. Mygalomorphs can disperse terre...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme differences between the sexes are usually explained by intense sexual selection on male weapons or ornaments. Sexually antagonistic genes, with a positive effect on male traits but a negative effect on female fitness, create a negative inter-sexual correlation for fitness (sexual conflict). However, such antagonism might not be apparent if...
Article
Climate change is generating an intensification of extreme environmental conditions, including frequent and severe droughts [1] that have been associated with increased social conflict in vertebrates [2-4], including humans [5]. Yet, fluctuating climatic conditions have been shown to also promote cooperative behavior and the formation of vertebrate...
Article
Parasites play a central role in the adaptiveness of sexual reproduction. Sexual selection theory suggests a role for parasite resistance in the context of mate choice, but the evidence is mixed. The parasite-mediated sexual selection (PMSS) hypothesis derives a number of predictions, among which that resistance to parasites is heritable, and that...
Article
Full-text available
Many spectacular cases of biological diversity are associated with sexual selection, and structures under sexual selection often show positive static allometry: they are disproportionately large for the size of the animal’s body in larger individuals. Other sexually selected structures, however, show negative allometry or isometry. Theory fails to...
Article
Theory predicts that the evolution of polyphenic variation is facilitated where morphs are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, the assumption that developmentally plastic morphs can evolve independently has not been tested directly. Using morph-specific artificial selection, we investigated correlated...
Article
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic,, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evo...
Article
Full-text available
When females mate with multiple males, they set the stage for post-copulatory sexual selection via sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Surprisingly little is known about the rates of multiple mating by females in the wild, despite the importance of this information in understanding the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection to d...
Article
Conditional dimorphisms are widespread in color, morphology, behavior, and life history. Such traits have been successfully modeled in game theory as conditional strategies, and in quantitative genetics as threshold traits. Conditional trimorphisms have recently been unveiled, and here we combine the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) model of game theory a...
Article
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition....
Article
Full-text available
The historical contingencies of biological invasions may have important consequences for final invasion outcomes. Here, we characterize the variations in the realized niche during the invasions of the bull-headed dung beetle Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from its native Mediterranean range following accidental (Eastern North America...
Article
Full-text available
Abiotic factors exert direct and indirect influences on behavioral, morphological, and life-history traits. Because some of these traits are related to reproduction, there is a causal link between climatic conditions and the expression of reproductive traits. This link allows us to generate predictions on how reproductive traits vary in large geogr...
Article
Full-text available
The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estim...
Article
Sperm competition theory assumes a trade-off between precopulatory traits that increase mating success and postcopulatory traits that increase fertilization success. Predictions for how sperm competition might affect male expenditure on these traits depend on the number of competing males, the advantage gained from expenditure on weapons, and the l...
Article
Full-text available
Males and females differ in their phenotypic optima for many traits, and as the majority of genes are expressed in both sexes, some alleles can be beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other (intralocus sexual conflict; ISC). ISC theory has recently been extended to intrasexual dimorphisms, where certain alleles may have opposite effects on the...
Article
Full-text available
Alternative mating tactics are common among species exhibiting resource defense polygyny. While large territorial males aggressively defend harems, small sneaker males generally invade these harems to mate furtively. The result is a sexual network that provides information on the sperm competition intensity (SCI) faced by males of both morphs. Here...
Article
There is growing evidence that many organisms adjust their physiology and behaviour during sexual encounters according to changes in their sociosexual situation. Selection tends to favour plasticity in males that can strategically ejaculate and females that can alter their resistance or remating behaviour adaptively. We investigated plasticity both...
Article
Original sperm competition theory assumed that males trade expenditure on searching for mates for expenditure on the ejaculate, and predicted that males should increase their expenditure on the ejaculate in response to increased risk of competition. A recent extension of this theory has modeled pre-copulatory expenditure in terms of direct contest...
Article
Secondary sexual traits increase male fitness, but may be maladaptive in females, generating intralocus sexual conflict that is ameliorated through sexual dimorphism. Sexual selection on males may also lead some males to avoid expenditure on secondary sexual traits and achieve copulations using alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Secondary sex...
Chapter
Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) are a highly diverse group found in extremely different environmental conditions. For this and other reasons described in this chapter, they offer a novel and unique opportunity to explore hypotheses regarding the effect of abiotic environmental conditions on several life-history traits, and thus on their mating sy...
Article
Full-text available
Two new species of the arachnid order Schizomida, Rowlandius ubajara sp.nov. and Rowlandius potiguar sp.nov., are described based on both male and female specimens collected in caves from northeastern Brazil. Rowlandius ubajara is known only from the Ubajara Cave, in the state of Ceará; R. potiguar is recorded from 20 caves of the Apodi Limestone G...
Article
Full-text available
Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenic traits are widespread, but compared to other traits, relatively few studies have explored the mechanisms that influence their inheritance. Here we investigated the relative importance of additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental sources of variation in the expression of polyphenic male dimorphism in the mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus, a s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus...
Article
Full-text available
Serracutisoma proximum is a harvestman with alternative male morphs. Large males use sexually dimorphic second legs in fights for the possession of territories on the vegetation, where females oviposit. Small males have short second legs and do not fight but rather sneak into the territories and copulate with egg-guarding females. We investigated t...
Article
Polyphenic traits are widespread and represent a conditional strategy sensitive to environmental cues. The environmentally cued threshold (ET) model considers the switchpoint between alternative phenotypes as a polygenic quantitative trait with normally distributed variation. However, the genetic variation for switchpoints has rarely been explored...
Article
Full-text available
In arthropods, most cases of morphological dimorphism within males are the result of a conditional evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) with status-dependent tactics. In conditionally male-dimorphic species, the status’ distributions of male morphs often overlap, and the environmentally cued threshold model (ET) states that the degree of overlap de...
Article
Although the benefits of maternal care have been investigated in many species, the caring role of males in species with exclusive paternal care has received less attention. We experimentally quantified the protective role of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa. Additionally, we compared the effectiveness of paternal care against pr...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were: (1) to test the existence of an aggregation pheromone in the gregarious psocid Cerastipsocus sivorii; (2) to compare the attractiveness of odors from different aggregations; (3) to test whether nymphs are able to chemically recognize damage-released alarm signals. In a choice experiment conducted in the laboratory...
Article
Full-text available
Opiliones (harvestmen) undergo a prolonged process of reproduction, which consists of finding a suitable mate, persuading the mate to copulate, succeeding in fertilization and oviposition, and, in some cases, protecting the brood. In most harvestman species studied so far the manner of mate acquisition is a type of resource defense polygyny in whic...
Article
Full-text available
We provide observational and experimental evidence that territorial males of the maternal harvestman Acutisoma proximum temporarily care for clutches that are left unattended by females from their harems. The evolution of paternal care in harvestmen from a territory-based polygynous mating system is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Although studies classify the polygynous mating system of a given species into female defense polygyny (FDP) or resource defense polygyny (RDP), the boundary between these two categories is often slight. Males of some species may even shift between these two types of polygyny in response to temporal variation in social and environmental conditions....
Article
Full-text available
We investigated an ornamental trait known to reflect male fighting ability and tested whether it shows heightened condition dependence compared with nonornamental traits in the American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana). Adult males bear red wing spots, the size of which is sexually selected: large-spotted and fatter males are more successful in terri...
Article
Adult males of the American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana) dispute riverine territories where females arrive to mate. On the wing basis, these males bear a red pigmentation spot whose area correlates with territorial disputes and mating rate: males with larger spots are more successful. This is explained by the fact that spot size correlates with f...
Article
1. Few studies have experimentally quantified the costs and benefits of female egg- guarding behaviour in arthropods under field conditions. Moreover, there is also a lack of studies assessing separately the survival and fecundity costs associated with this behavioural trait. 2. Here we employ field experimental manipulations and capture–mark–recap...
Article
Full-text available
A field account of the behavior and ecology of the gregarious and corticolous psocopteran Cerastipsocus sivorii is presented. The study was conducted from February to November 2003 on the campus of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. There was a strong positive correlation between the relative abundance o...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present field observations on paternal care in five species of harvestmen belonging to the family Gonyleptidae: Gonyleptes saprophilus, Neosadocus sp. (Gonyleptinae), Iguapeia melanocephala, Iporangaia pustulosa, and Progonyleptoidellus striatus (Progonyleptoidellinae). We also provide a critical reassessment of all cases of pater...

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Projects (2)
Project
Females of numerous species are polyandrous, that is, they mate with multiple males during the breeding season. Although polyandry is very common in nature, we still know very little about when and why females choose to mate with multiple males and what factors may influence this decision. Thus, I chose to explore the causes and consequences of polyandry in my PhD project, exploring how social experience during development affects polyandry in adult crickets and how paternity uncertainty affects male weaponry evolution in anurans.
Project
This is part of a MSc project that aims to understand what factors modulate the relationship between alternative mating tactics and sperm investment.