Bruce Rittmann

Bruce Rittmann
Arizona State University | ASU · Department of Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering

PhD Environmental Engineering, Stanford University

About

808
Publications
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38,157
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Publications

Publications (808)
Article
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ensifer adhaerens were isolated from aerobic biomass acclimated to nitrobenzene (NB) based on ability to biodegrade NB and its intermediate, o-aminophenol. Bioaugmenting either of them into the acclimated biomass accelerated NB biodegradation. The NB removal rates were as 19% and 144% faster, respectively, with P. aerugin...
Article
Full-text available
Partial denitrification, the termination of NO3−-N reduction at nitrite (NO2−-N), has received growing interest for treating wastewaters with high ammonium concentrations, because it can be coupled to anammox for total-nitrogen removal. NO2− accumulation in the hydrogen (H2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) has rarely been studied, and the mec...
Cover Page
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The in situ synthesis and deposition of Pd0NPs on H2-transfer hollow fiber membranes enable the controllable catalyst surface loading selection and efficient H2 delivery to the catalyst. In this study, this catalytic platform achieved selective chlorophenol hydrodechlorination to phenol and hydrosaturation to cyclohexanone for detoxification and re...
Article
Syngas fermentation, in which microorganisms convert H2, CO, and CO2 to acids and alcohols, is a promising alternative for carbon cycling and valorization. The intellectual landscape of the topic was characterized through a bibliometric analysis using a search query (SQ) that included all relevant documents on syngas fermentation available through...
Article
The Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) process involves recirculating mixed liquor between its A and O tanks so that nitrate produced in the O tank can be used to for denitrification with influent COD in the A tank. Because biomass is recirculated along with nitrate, A/O operation leads to similar microbial communities in the A and O tanks, which may decrease the r...
Article
Rising global population and affluence are increasing demands for food production and the phosphorus (P) fertilizers needed to grow that food. Essential are new approaches for managing the growing amount of phosphogypsum (PG) that is a by-product of phosphoric-acid production from phosphate rock. Today, only ~15% of the worldwide production of PG i...
Article
Light-activated photosystem II (PSII) carries out the critical step of splitting water in photosynthesis. However, PSII is susceptible to light-induced damage. Here, results are presented from a novel microbial electro-photosynthetic system (MEPS) that uses redox mediators in conjunction with an electrode to drive electron transport in live Synecho...
Article
The economic viability of microalgal-derived products relies on rapid CO2 transfer in a cost-effective manner. Many industrial gas streams contain concentrated CO2 that, if converted to useful products, would lower greenhouse gas emissions and valorize the wasted CO2. Membrane carbonation (MC) uses non-porous hollow-fiber gas-transfer membranes to...
Article
Adsorption and catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of aqueous 2,4-DCP by palladium nanoparticles (Pd⁰NPs) associated with a biofilm (i.e., a Pd⁰-biofilm) was investigated in terms of the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP, dechlorinated product selectivity, and reduction kinetics. Experiments were executed with Pd⁰-biofilm and with abiotic Pd⁰NPs-film a...
Article
A new TiO2 nanoparticle modified via L‐cysteine is presented in this study. The L‐cysteine (cys) modified TiO2 nanomaterials impact as membrane modifier was examined in terms of pure water flux, hydrophilicity, morphology, and resistance ability. The mixed matrix membranes morphology investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic...
Article
Biodegradation of pyridine starts with two mono-oxygenation reactions, and 2-hydroxyl pyridine (2-HP) accumulates as pyridine is mono-oxygenated in the first reaction. The accumulation of 2-HP inhibits both initial reactions. Therefore, selective acceleration of the second mono-oxygenation reaction should significantly enhance pyridine transformati...
Article
This study presents an approach for developing periphytic biofilm with N-acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) stimulation and lanthanum (La, a rare earth element) loading, to achieve highly efficient and stable phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater. AHLs stimulated biofilm growth and formation, also improved stable P entrapment by enhancing extracellu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Platinum group metal (PGM) miners and recycling facilities are losing ~$2 billion (~10% of the total market value) of PGM annually in wastewater and tailing. The membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is a modular biotechnology which contains a microbial community that can reduce and recover PGM at mining, refining, or manufacturing sites at concentration...
Article
Full-text available
The Editor in Chief and the authors have retracted this article because of multiple errors in the data that undermine the conclusions of the study. Bruce E Rittman agreed to this retraction wording. Yanqing Wu stated on behalf of all remaining authors that they agree to this retraction. The online version of this article contains the full text of t...
Article
Quorum sensing (QS) has been extensively studied in pure stains of microorganisms, but the ecological roles of QS in multi-species microbial aggregates are poorly understood due to the aggregates’ heterogeneity and complexity, in particular the phosphorus (P) entrapment, a key aspect of element cycling. Using periphytic biofilm as a microbial-aggre...
Article
This work evaluated the fates of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH+4-N), and total nitrogen (TN) when treating greywater (GW) in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR). An influent ratio of chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen (COD/TN) of 20 g COD/g N gave the best removals of LA...
Article
The effects of nitrate on 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) dechlorination and biodegradation in a hydrogen (H2)-based palladized membrane biofilm reactor (Pd-MBfR) were studied. The Pd-MBfR was created by synthesizing palladium nanoparticle (Pd⁰NPs) that spontaneously associated with the biofilm to form a Pd⁰-biofilm. Without input of nitrate, the Pd-M...
Article
Nitrated energetics are widespread contaminants due to their improper disposal from ammunition facilities. Different classes of nitrated energetics commonly co-exist in ammunition wastewater, but co-removal of the classes has hardly been documented. In this study, we evaluated the catalytic destruction of three types of energetics using palladium (...
Article
Full-text available
Background The large intestine provides a compensatory role in energy recovery when surgical interventions such as extensive small intestinal resections or bypass operations lower the efficiency of nutrient absorption in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While microorganisms in the colon are known to play vital roles in recovering energy, thei...
Article
We developed and demonstrated a novel intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) system. The ICPB system was comprised of photocatalytic optical hollow-fibers (POHFs) coated with Ag-loaded GeO2 and N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst, along with a biofilm that included phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. The POHFs exhibit high UV...
Article
Three bacterial strains were isolated from activated sludge acclimated to biodegrade pyridine and quinoline simultaneously. The strains were identified as Bacillus tropicus, Bacillus aquimaris, and Rhodococcus ruber. When the isolated bacteria were used for pyridine and quinoline biodegradation in separate or combined modes, R. ruber had much faste...
Article
Microalgae biodiesel is a candidate to provide renewable, C-neutral energy. However, microalgal cells possess strong cell walls and cell membranes with high selective permeability, both of which hinder the extraction of lipids from the microalgae. Optimizing lipid extraction involves disrupting the microalgae’s cell wall and membrane. The hydroxyl...
Article
Scalable applications of precious-metal catalysts for water treatment face obstacles in H2-transfer efficiency and catalyst stability during continuous operation. Here, we introduce a H2-based membrane catalyst-film reactor (H2-MCfR), which enables in situ reduction and immobilization of a film of heterogeneous Pd0 catalysts that are stably anchore...
Article
Groundwater co-contaminated with 1,4-dioxane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and trichloroethene (TCE) is among the most urgent environmental concerns of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and industries related to chlorinated solvents. Inspired by the pressing need to remove all three contaminants at ma...
Article
Rapid dechlorination and full mineralization of para-chlorophenol (4-CP), a toxic contaminant, are unfulfilled goals in water treatment. Means to achieve both goals stem from the novel concept of coupling catalysis by palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) with biodegradation in a biofilm. Here, we demonstrate that a synergistic version of the hydrogen (H...
Article
A vertical baffled bioreactor (VBBR) was employed for tertiary denitrification. Its features were designed to minimize the demand for externally supplied electron donor by minimizing net biomass synthesis and oxygen respiration. Over a two-year period, complete denitrification was realized routinely in the VBBR. The nitrate-removal rate was proport...
Article
Being an energetic fuel, methane is able to support microbial growth and drive the reduction of various electron acceptors. These acceptors include a broad range of oxidized contaminants (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, bromate, selenate, chromate, antimonate and vanadate) that are ubiquitously detected in water environments and pose threats t...
Article
Para-nitrophenol (PNP) is often detected in industrial wastewater that is discharged into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Intermittent discharge of PNP into municipal treatment facilities puts their biological process at risk of inhibition, and the risk is especially great for nitrification. In this work, nitrifying biomass was acclimated to...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Palladium nanoparticles were spontaneously formed from the Pd(II) solution and anchored on a gas-transfer membrane in a good dispersion as immobilized catalysts for 1,1,1-TCA and TCE reduction.
Article
Demand for water is expanding with increases in population, particularly in urban areas in developing countries. Additionally, urban water system needs a novel perspective for upgradation with urbanization. This perspective presents a novel 5R approach for managing urban water resources: Recover (storm water), Reduce (toilet flushing water), Recycl...
Article
Pyridine is a common heterocycle found in industrial wastewaters. Its biodegradation begins with a mono-oxygenation reaction, and bioaugmentation with bacteria able to carry out this mono-oxygenation is one strategy to improve pyridine removal and mineralization. Although bioaugmentation has been used to enhance the biodegradation of recalcitrant o...
Article
The key step for anaerobic biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is an initial dechlorination reaction, but Cl in the para-position is more difficult to remove than Cl in the ortho-position using normal 2,4-DCP-acclimated bacteria. In this work, a bacterial community previously acclimated to biodegrading 2,4-DCP slowly dechlorinated 4-chlo...
Article
Globally, the demand for sustainable energy production and high-value biological compounds have become intertwined in an attempt to improve the feasibility of sustainable algal cultivation. Marine microalgae, especially diatoms and coccolithophores, represent viable cultures that can produce biofuels and high-value compounds. Growing them in co-cul...
Article
Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) is a common disinfection byproduct (DBP) produced during chlorine disinfection. With the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the use of chlorine disinfection has increased, raising the already substantial risks of DBP exposure. While a number of methods are able to remove TCAA, their application...
Article
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC, e.g., cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, (CTAB)) are widely used as surfactants and disinfectants. QAC already are commonly found in wastewaters, and their concentration could increase, since QAC are recommended to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus. Exposure of bacteria to QAC can lead to proliferation of a...
Article
The economic viability of microalgal biofuels relies on increasing productivity in a cost-effective manner. As microalgal biomass contains >50% carbon, a high rate of CO2 delivery is required for high productivity, and inefficient CO2 delivery amplifies operating costs. Membrane carbonation using non-porous hollow fiber membranes can ideally delive...
Article
Full-text available
Although the etiology of obesity is not well-understood, genetic, environmental, and microbiome elements are recognized as contributors to this rising pandemic. It is well documented that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery drastically alters the fecal microbiome, but data are sparse on temporal and spatial microbiome and metabolome changes, es...
Article
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE) are common recalcitrant contaminants that coexist in groundwater. H2-induced reduction over precious-metal catalysts has proven advantageous, but its application to long-term continuous treatment has been limited due to poor H2-transfer efficiency and catalyst loss. Furthermore, catalytic...
Article
Background Human and microbial metabolism are distinct disciplines. Terminology, metrics, and methodologies have been developed separately. Therefore, combining the 2 fields to study energetic processes simultaneously is difficult. Objectives When developing a mechanistic framework describing gut microbiome and human metabolism interactions, energ...
Article
Cell-to-cell communication regulates microalgae production via signaling molecules (SMs), but few microalgal SM species are known. Here, we document two new microalgae SMs, benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA). Initially, crude SMs were extracted from a microalgae culture in which microalgae grew on heterotrophic-enriched phosphorus nutrition....
Article
Membrane carbonation, the delivery of CO2 by diffusion through non-porous hollow fiber membranes, was successfully integrated into outdoor raceways (5.6 m², 900 L) and operated continuously for up to 45 days. Biomass productivity associated with membrane carbonation was similar to using traditional sparging, but the average carbon utilization effic...
Article
While biodiesel production from photosynthetic algae is a promising form of non-fossil energy, the process often has high water and nutrient demands. We developed a mathematical model for a photobioreactor system in which the photobioreactor's effluent is membrane filtered, with most of the permeate returned to the photobioreactor (PBR). The model...
Article
Electro-Selective Fermentation (ESF) is a means to enhance lipid wet extraction from microalgal biomass. The Solids Retention Time (SRT) is a decisive factor for maximizing lipid extraction and recovery, and effective ESF treatment requires a minimum SRT that needs to be determined. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was manipulated to control the...
Article
We created a hydrogen-based membrane palladium-film reactor (MPfR) by depositing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) on hollow-fiber membranes via autocatalytic hydrogenation to form a Pd-film. The MPfR was used for hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). HDC performances and mechanisms were systematically evaluated, and a continuous...
Article
Aerobic biomass (acclimated activated sludge) was treated by ultrasound and used to accelerate biodegradations of pyridine and p-nitrophenol (PNP), which begin with mono-oxygenation reactions that need an internal electron donor. Ultrasound treatment disrupted the biomass and produced more soluble and (especially) colloidal organic material. Compar...
Article
The recent discovery of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) in human brain tissue has raised concerns regarding their source and neurotoxicity. As previous studies have suggested that magnetite in urban dust may be the source, we collected and thoroughly characterized the nature of ambient urban magnetic dust particles prior to investigating their neuroto...
Article
Many municipal wastewater treatment plants in China receive industrial wastewater that contains inhibitory organic chemicals, such as chlorinated phenols. For the common aerobic biological treatment, nitrification is a key step, but nitrifying bacteria are notably sensitive to inhibition by chlorinated phenols. In this work, normal activated sludge...
Article
Full-text available
The literature is replete with clinical studies that characterize the structure, diversity, and function of the gut microbiome and correlate the results to different disease states, including obesity. Whether the microbiome has a direct impact on obesity has not been established. To address this gap, we asked whether the gut microbiome and its bioe...
Article
The increasing use and associated loss of phosphorus to the environment pose risks to aquatic ecosystems. Technology for phosphorus removal based on microbial aggregates is a natural, ecologically widespread, and sustainable reclamation strategy. Two main processes dominate phosphorus removal by microbial aggregates: extra- and intra-cellular entra...
Article
Cyanobacteria can have high lipid content, are amenable to metabolic engineering, and contain valuable materials, such as ultraviolet (UV) protectants and antioxidants. Maximizing the production and harvesting of several valuable products at the same time is an important objective. UV exposure was evaluated as a strategy to induce synthesis of UV p...
Article
In this study, a new intimately coupling technology of advanced oxidation and biodegradation was proposed, called simultaneous combination of ozonation and biodegradation (SCOB), which uses ozonation in place of traditional photocatalysis. SCOB was evaluated for its ability to degrade and detoxify tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). Biodegradation al...
Article
Homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis, which usually occur during anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination, affect the removal of TCE and its daughter products. This study develops a one-dimensional, multispecies H2-based biofilm model to simulate the interactions among six solid biomass species [Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, methanogens, homoace...
Article
Hundreds of consumer and commercial products containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently used in food, personal-care products, pharmaceutical, and many other applications. Human exposure to AgNPs includes oral intake, inhalation, and dermal contact. The aim of this review was to focus on oral intake, intentional and incidental of AgNPs wh...
Article
A hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) equipped with separate hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) adjustable gas-transfer modules was used to explore denitrification in a water containing a high concentration of sulfate (SO42-) (500 mg S/L). CO2 was used for pH control and as the sole carbon source for long-term operation of the MBfR,...
Article
Nitrate (NO3-) affected perchlorate (ClO4-) reduction in a membrane batch biofilm reactor (MBBR), even though the electron donor, CH4, was available well in excess of its demand. For example, the perchlorate-reduction rate was 1.7 mmol/m2-d when perchlorate was the sole electron acceptor, but it dropped to 0.64 mmol/m2-d when nitrate also was prese...
Article
A biogeochemical model describing the rate at which calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is precipitated from the pore water and biogas (carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas) is generated by dissimilatory reduction of nitrate (denitrification) through microbially induced desaturation and precipitation (MIDP) has been developed. Both CaCO3 precipitation and desatur...
Article
Electro-selective fermentation (ESF) can improve lipid extraction from Scenedesmus acutus biomass using green solvents like hexane and 1:1 hexane: isopropanol, but accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) wastes useable electrons. To eliminate the electron loss, we designed a flat-plate microbial electrolytic cell (MEC) to have a large anode...
Article
CO2 must be delivered efficiently during large-scale microalgal cultivation. Bubbleless mass-transfer via diffusion through hollow-fiber membranes (HFM) can achieve much higher CO2-transfer efficiency than traditional sparging systems. This study developed and used a model to compute accurate values for the CO2 flux (JCO2), overall mass-transfer co...
Article
It is common that biological wastewater-treatment processes are exposed to inputs of toxic compounds, such as phenolics. Due to their slow growth rate, nitrifying bacteria are most susceptible to inhibition that can lead to loss of nitrification capacity. Here, a microbial community containing nitrifying bacteria was acclimated to phenol, and it de...
Article
Intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) is a promising technology for treating wastewater containing antibiotics. While past work has documented the benefits of ICPB for removing and mineralizing antibiotics, its impacts on mitigating biotoxicity from products has not been studied. We fabricated an ICPB carrier by coating Ag-dop...
Article
Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to denitrification (AOM‐D) in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), a platform used for efficiently coupling gas delivery and biofilm development, has attracted attention in recent years due to the low cost and high availability of methane. However, experimental studies have shown that the nitrate removal flux in...
Article
Full-text available
Gas-to-liquid mass transfer of hydrogen (H2) was investigated in a gas–liquid reactor with a continuous gas phase, a batch liquid phase, and liquid mixing regimes relevant to assessing kinetics of microbial H2 consumption. H2 transfer was quantified in real-time with a H2 microsensor for no mixing, moderate mixing [100 rotations per minute (rpm)],...
Article
Full-text available
During the culturing of cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria can compete for nutrients, compromise the quality of the harvested biomass, or cause culture crashes. We systematically investigated the effects of depleting inorganic phosphate (Pi) on the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, its community of heterotrophic bacteria,...
Article
Three continuous-flow column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrate loading rate and input concentrations of acetate and calcium on the effectiveness of denitrification to promote microbially induced desaturation and precipitation (MIDP). MIDP differs from microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) in that it relie...
Article
The success of algal and cyanobacterial cultivation hinges on the robustness of the processes, and a key to this success is managing the microbial community co-existing with the algae or cyanobacteria. In this work, we grew the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 in a flat-plate photobioreactor operated as a sequencing batch reactor using two...
Article
Chloroform (CF) can undergo reductive dechlorination to dichloromethane, chloromethane, and methane. However, competition for H2, the electron‐donor substrate, may cause poor dechlorination when multiple electron acceptors are present. Common acceptors in anaerobic environments are nitrate (NO3‐), sulfate (SO42‐), and bicarbonate (HCO3‐). We evalua...
Article
A specially designed CH 4 -based membrane biofilm batch reactor (MBBR) was applied to investigate anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to perchlorate reduction (AnMO-PR). The 0.21 mM ClO 4⁻ added in the first stage of operation was completely reduced in 28 days, 0.40 mM ClO 4⁻ was reduced within 23 days in stage 2, and 0.56 mM of ClO 4⁻ was reduced...