Bruce C Elliott

Bruce C Elliott
University of Western Australia | UWA · School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health

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339
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Publications

Publications (339)
Article
Background There is a range of magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) systems commercially available, however sensor specifications and fusion methods vary considerably between manufacturers. Such variability can influence the concurrent validity of MIMUs relative to reference standard measurement devices. Different MIMUs have been compared durin...
Article
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Magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) systems allow calculation of simple sensor-to-sensor Euler angles, though this process does not address sensor-to-segment alignment, which is important for deriving meaningful MIMU-based kinematics. Functional sensor-to-segment calibrations have improved concurrent validity for elbow and knee angle measureme...
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Delivering a cricket ball with a wrist-spin (WS) bowling technique is considered one of the game’s most difficult skills. Limited biomechanical information exists for WS bowlers across skill levels. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical, isokinetic strength and anthropometric measures between elite (12) and pathway bowlers (eight)....
Article
This study aimed to develop a 2-dimensional (2D) video screening tool capable of predicting an athlete’s peak 3-dimensional (3D) knee moments during unplanned sidestepping. 2D video-based kinematic measures were simultaneously captured with 3D peak knee moments for 30 female field hockey players (15 junior, 15 senior). Intra- and intertester repeat...
Conference Paper
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Identifying lumbar injury risk amongst cricket bowlers is a challenge to those involved in the sport. Bowling technique injury risk factors concerning thoracic and pelvic motion have been identified by previous research that used three-dimensional (3D) retro-reflective (RR) motion analysis. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are considered a feasibl...
Article
Magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMUs) may provide an accessible, three-dimensional, in-field alternative to laboratory-restricted marker-based motion capture. Existing upper limb MIMU models have predominantly been validated with low-velocity motion and their suitability for use with sport-based movements remains relatively untested. We p...
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This study investigates the inter-tester repeatability of an upper limb direct kinematic (ULDK) model specifically for the reporting of elbow flexion-extension (FE) during overhead sporting movements, such as cricket bowling. The ULDK model consists of an upper arm and a forearm connected with a 6° of freedom elbow joint. The ULDK model was assesse...
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With advances in technology, scientists are now able to more accurately measure elbow displacement changes during the cricket bowling action. This has led to the realisation that the majority of bowlers undergo some degree of elbow extension during the forward swing phase of bowling. Consequently, the International Cricket Council were obliged to r...
Chapter
Groundstrokes are the predominant strokes in tennis, outnumbering serves by a factor of almost 2. While the volume of groundstrokes is typically double for men compared with those of women, the similarity in velocity generation for forehands and backhands, irrespective of sex, means that a biomechanical base to groundstroke production is critical i...
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Spin bowling plays a fundamental role within the game of cricket yet little is known about the initial ball kinematics in elite and pathway spin bowlers or their relationship to performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to record three-dimensional ball kinematics in a large and truly high level cohort of elite and pathway finger-spin (F...
Article
To appropriately use inverse kinematic (IK) modelling for the assessment of human motion, a musculoskeletal model must be prepared to 1) match participant segment lengths (scaling) and 2) to align the model's virtual markers positions with known, experimentally derived kinematic marker positions (marker registration). The purpose of this study was...
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Background Exercise-based training programs are a popular injury prevention measure to prevent sports injuries but there have been few trials of their effectiveness in real-world sports settings. Methods A clustered randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 18 community-level (non-elite) Australian Football (AF) clubs in two states with multip...
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The aim of this study was to compare the associations between lower limb biomechanics and ball release speed in 15 high-performance (HP) and 15 amateur fast bowlers. Kinematic and kinetic variables of the lower limbs collected in the laboratory environment with a 3D Vicon motion analysis system were compared between groups, as well as their associa...
Conference Paper
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Bayne et al. (2016) recently established a direct link between lumbar injury incidence and increased 3D measures of thorax lateral flexion, pelvis rotation and hip extension during the cricket fast bowling action. However, the majority of bowlers are not able to avail themselves to 3D biomechanical analysis. Therefore, we set out to ascertain wheth...
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Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 ma...
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Adolescent tennis players are at risk of low back pain (LBP). Recent research has demonstrated a potential mechanical aetiology during serves; however, groundstrokes have also been suggested to load this region. Therefore, this study compared lumbar mechanics between players with and without a history of LBP during open and square stance tennis for...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: Since the publication of the Calibrated Anatomical Systems Technique (CAST) 1 , modelling approaches-generally speaking-can be segregated into those that use this approach (complex), and those that do not (simple). There is however, a paucity of research that has directly compared the kinematic estimates of both models. In a sport suc...
Conference Paper
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The scaling of rigid-linked skeletal models is an important consideration for researchers looking to calculate joint angles via inverse kinematics (IK). It has been suggested (Dunne et al., 2013) that registering marker positions with known kinematics during scaling can improve the accuracy of IK derived lower limb joint angles during gait. The pur...
Conference Paper
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This study investigated the effect of a 16-week maintenance training program which directly followed a high-dose 9 week initial training intervention, as part of a biomechanically informed ACL injury prevention program. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data of elite female hockey players (n=16) were collected at baseline, post initial traini...
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This study aimed to identify modifiable mechanisms associated with low back injury in adolescent cricket fast bowlers. A prospective study design examined the association between intrinsic risk factors, workload, bowling kinematics, lumbar load and low back injury incidence. Twenty-five injury free fast bowlers, aged 14-19 years, were assessed prio...
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This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowling actions...
Article
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Abstract This modelling study sought to describe the relationships between elbow joint kinematics and wrist joint linear velocity in cricket fast bowlers, and to assess the sensitivity of wrist velocity to systematic manipulations of empirical joint kinematic profiles. A 12-camera Vicon motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz recorded the bowlin...
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Dance training on floors that are not ‘sprung’ are assumed to have direct implications for injury. Standards for dance floor manufacture in Europe and North America quantify floor force reduction by measuring the impact forces of drop masses. In addition, many studies of human mechanical adaptations to varied surfaces, have quantified test surfaces...
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Abstract Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pube...
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The application of sport and exercise research findings to practice requires careful interpretation and integration of evidence. This paper reviews principles of evidence-based practice and the application of research in sports and exercise, in order to provide recommendations on developing appropriate application sections in research reports for s...
Conference Paper
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Purpose: Despite the complexity of coordinating the body to hit a golf ball, skilled golfers have the ability to consistently deliver the club-head to within a few millimetres of the same position between swings (Watanabe et al., 1998; Betzler et al., 2012). A popular explanation of such consistency in the 'outcome' of the swing is that skilled gol...
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Objectives Dance floor mechanical properties have the potential to influence the high frequency of ankle injuries in dancers. However, biomechanical risk factors for injury during human movement on hard, low force reduction floors have not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the ankle joint mechanics of dancers performing drop la...
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Objectives Determine if balance and technique training (BTT) implemented adjunct to 1,001 male Australian football (AF) players’ training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned (PpSS) and unplanned (UnSS) sidestepping. Design Randomized Control Trial. Methods Each AF player participated in either 28...
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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are costly. Sidestep technique training reduces knee moments that load the ACL. This study examined whether landing technique training alters knee moments. Nineteen team sport athletes completed the study. Motion analysis and ground reaction forces were recorded before and after 6-weeks of technique modific...
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This interdisciplinary case study describes the key challenges experienced in the delivery of a team-based lower limb injury prevention training program in community-level sport. Player factors such as punctuality, commitment to other sports, and absences from full training due to injuries presented difficulties. The support of coaches and senior l...
Conference Paper
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This study investigated lower limb muscular activation strategies following an 8-week body-weight based training intervention focused on the dynamic control of the hip/trunk. Muscle activation, support moment and frontal plane knee moments of elite female hockey players (n=13) were measured during unplanned sidestepping pre/post training. Post-trai...
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The forehand ranks closely behind the serve in importance in the sport of tennis. Yet, while the serve has been the focus of a litany of research reviews, the literature describing forehand stroke production has not been reviewed as extensively. The purposes of this article are therefore to review the research describing the mechanics of the foreha...
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High-quality sport-specific information about the nature, type, cause, and frequency of injuries is needed to set injury prevention priorities. This article describes the type, nature, and mechanism of injuries in community Australian Football (community AF) players, as collected through field-based monitoring of injury in teams of players. Compila...
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Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, ov...
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While velocity generation is an obvious prerequisite to proficient tennis serve performance, it is also the only stroke where players are obliged to negotiate a unique target constraint. Therefore, the dearth of research attending to the accuracy component of the serve is surprising. This study compared the body, racquet and ball kinematics charact...
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This study compared regional lumbar (upper and lower), pelvis, trunk and lower limb kinematics between elite male adolescent players with and without a history of LBP during the kick and flat serves, as well as regional lumbar mobility and serving kinematics relative to end range. Seven players with a history of LBP and confirmed L4/L5 injury and 1...
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This study aimed to assess variability in lumbo-pelvic forces and moments during a dynamic high-impact activity (cricket fast bowling) when calculated using different body segment parameters (BSPs). The first three BSPs were estimated using methods where the trunk was divided into segments according to nonspinal anatomical landmarks. The final appr...
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Objectives: The mechanical properties of the floors used by dancers have often been suggested to be associated with injury, yet limited etiological evidence is available to support this hypothesis. The dance floors at three theatres regularly used by a touring professional ballet company were mechanically quantified with the aim of comparing floor...
Article
Objectives: Collision models for hitting implements denote how ball speed and swing weight increase proportionally when swing speed and impact location are held constant. The biomechanical effects of swing weight interventions are less understood. This study examined the effects of swing weight on serving arm mechanics, racquet kinematics, impact...
Article
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Objective To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Design Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. Setting A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1–...
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Despite many coaching and biomechanical texts describing how the kinematics of the club-head at impact lead to distance and accuracy of the ball flight, there is limited quantitative evidence supporting these assertions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationships between club-head kinematics and subsequent early ball flight charact...
Article
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Purpose: This study aimed to quantify and compare lumbar region kinetics in kick and flat serves performed by elite, adolescent male players with and without a history of low back pain (LBP). Lumbar region kinematics, as well as racquet velocity and the position of the ball at impact, was described to facilitate kinetic data interpretation. Metho...
Article
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The development of a powerful and accurate serve is a priority for most tennis players. Various drills are proposed to enhance characteristics of the serve such as ball speed and spin, yet research has failed to address their efficacy. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the kinematics of a flat serve with that of a service drill, where...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to describe three-dimensional ball kinematics including spin axis and spin rate for the flat, slice, and kick serves executed by elite male tennis players. Trajectories of three retro-reflective markers attached to the surface of the ball were measured using a Vicon MX motion analysis system. The local coordinate syste...
Article
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The effects of string tension and longitudinal racket flexibility on post-impact ball velocity were investigated in tennis. Six wooden rackets, two with flexible shafts, two with medium and two with stiff shafts were strung with synthetic gut at tensions of 245N (55 lb), 289N (65 lb) and 334N (75 lb).A pneumatically driven racket-arm was triggered...
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Abstract This study aimed to assess changes in bowling technique and lumbar load over the course of a bowling spell in adolescent fast bowlers, and to investigate the relationship between lumbar loads during fast bowling and kinematic factors which have previously been associated with low back injury. Three-dimensional motion analysis was carried o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are traumatic and debilitating, with over half occurring during non-contact sidestepping situations. In-vivo and in-silico research show that the ACL is at greatest risk of injury during the weight acceptance (WA) phase of stance, when the knee is in an extended posture, and valgus and internal rotation mom...
Article
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The importance of the flat serve in tennis is well documented, with an abundance of research evaluating the service technique of adult male players. Comparatively, the female and junior serves have received far less attention. Therefore, the aims of this study were to quantify the flat serve kinematics in elite pre-pubescent, pubescent and post-pub...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze lumbo-pelvic lateral flexion kinematics and kinetics in junior fast bowlers and compare bowlers with varying quadratus lumborum (QL) cross-sectional area (CSA) asymmetry profiles. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine QL CSA of 39 participants who also underwent three-dimensional analysis...