Bruce Leonard Brown

Bruce Leonard Brown
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus | BYU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

89
Publications
12,925
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,673
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1968 - present
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
An intraneuronal parasite infecting approximately one-third of the world’s population, Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with markers of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we used data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate associations between T. gondii and blood...
Article
The nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) have been associated with worse human cognitive function in children and middle-aged adults. In this study, we sought to determine the association between Toxocara seropositivity and serointensity determined by detection of IgG antibodies against the Toxocara antigen reco...
Article
Introduction: Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs) are contracted during hospitalization for another disorder. We hypothesized that older adults with incident stroke and HAI experience faster subsequent cognitive decline than those having stroke without HAI and those without stroke. Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a cohort of Medic...
Article
Infecting much of the world's population, the herpesviridae virus cytomegalovirus has been associated with lower cognitive function in some but not all studies. In this study, we further investigate associations between cytomegalovirus and cognitive function in a community-based sample of adults aged 40 to 70 years (M = 55.3; SD = 8.1) from the Uni...
Article
Full-text available
Several viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases have been associated with cognitive function and neuropsychiatric outcomes in humans, including human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). In this study, we sought to further generalize previously reported associations of cognitive function and depression with HTLV-1 seropositivity and serointensity...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent clinical trials are considering inclusion of more than just apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype as a way of reducing variability in analysis of outcomes. Methods: Case-control data were used to compare the capacity of age, sex, and 58 Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to predict AD st...
Article
Full-text available
Infecting approximately one-third of the world’s population, the neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with cognition and several neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Findings have been mixed, however, about the relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and depression, with some studies reportin...
Article
Full-text available
The intracellular protozoal parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with worsened cognitive function in animal models and in humans. Despite these associations, the mechanisms by which Toxoplasma gondii might affect cognitive function remain unknown, although Toxoplasma gondii does produce physiologically active intraneuronal cysts and appea...
Article
Full-text available
Infecting approximately one-third of the world’s human population, Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with cognitive function. Here, we sought to further characterize the association between Toxoplasma gondii and cognitive function in a community sample of adults aged approximately 40 to70 years. Using adjusted linear regression models, we found...
Article
Full-text available
Background Air pollution has been associated with cognitive function and brain volume. While most previous research has examined the association between air pollution and brain volume in cortical structures or total brain volume, less research has investigated associations between exposure to air pollution and subcortical structures, including the...
Article
Full-text available
Total brain gray-matter and white-matter volumes can be indicators of overall brain health. Among the factors associated with gray-matter and white-matter volumes is exposure to air pollution. Using data from the UK Biobank, we sought to determine associations between several components of air pollution—PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10, nitrogen dioxide, and...
Article
Objective: We investigated two hypotheses: First, incident CHD, defined as myocardial infarction or definite angina, leads to faster long-term cognitive decline. Second, among those with CHD, treatment with CABG surgery or PCI leads to slower long-term cognitive decline. Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study is a cohort of US adults aged 65+. Gl...
Article
Associated with numerous cognitive and behavioral functions and with several diseases, the prefrontal cortex is vulnerable to environmental insult. Among other factors, toxins in air pollution have been associated with damage to the prefrontal cortex in children and older adults. We used data from the UK Biobank to assess further associations betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Infectious diseases might affect cognitive aging and dementia risk, possibly via neuroinflammation. Similarly, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are associated with cognitive function and dementia. We hypothesized that cardiovascular risk factors moderate the association of exposure to infectious diseases with...
Article
Full-text available
Background Infectious diseases might affect cognitive aging and dementia risk, possibly via neuroinflammation. Similarly, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are associated with cognitive function and dementia. We hypothesized that cardiovascular risk factors moderate the association of exposure to infectious diseases with...
Article
Background The hippocampus is important for memory processing. Several neuropsychiatric diseases including Alzheimer’s disease are associated with reduced hippocampal volume, and further the hippocampus appears vulnerable to environmental insult. Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular disease, abnormal brain structure, and cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) infects humans resulting in acute toxoplasmosis, an infection that in immunocompetent people is typically mild but results in persistent latent toxoplasmosis. In that T. gondii appears to affect dopamine synthesis and because addicting drugs affect midbrain dopamine transmissi...
Article
Mood disorders are common mental illnesses. Among the factors associated with major depression are exposures to infectious diseases including hepatitis C, influenza, varicella-zoster, and herpes viruses. In this study, we sought to evaluate further associations between viral exposure and depression. From the US Center for Disease Control's National...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To explore potential interactions between folate-cycle factors and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in the prediction of cognitive function. Methods We used data obtained from the 1999–2000 continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey produced by the United States’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using Ordina...
Article
Full-text available
J. R. R. Tolkien claimed to create names based on sound symbolism and invented languages. Previous studies revealed that Tolkien had his own phonoprint (tendency to use the same phonemes repeatedly for character names) regardless of his claims that they reflected different language origins. However, this research examined phonemes and syllables rat...
Article
Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati, toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 19...
Article
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a microscopic, apicomplexan parasite that can infect muscle or neural tissue, including the brain, in humans. While T. gondii infection has been associated with changes in mood, behavior, and cognition, the mechanism remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that T. gondii may harvest folate from host neural cells....
Article
Career anchor theory was developed by Schein in 1974 to describe personality constructs that govern career decisions. Since then, numerous researchers have attempted to understand career anchors in specific populations and to further develop the theory. In 1996 Feldman and Bolino wrote a paper which included fifteen propositions for testing or impr...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an intracellular parasite that can cause ongoing latent infection persisting for the duration of a non-definitive host's life. Affecting approximately one-third of the world's population, latent toxoplasmosis has been associated with neuropsychological outcomes and a previous report suggested an asso...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in behaviour and cognition have been associated with latent infection from the apicomplexan protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) in both animal and human studies. Further, neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia have also been associated with latent toxoplasmosis. Previously, we found no association between T. go...
Article
In 1996, Feldman and Bolino suggested that career anchors can be complementary or mutually exclusive. In other words, if a person has more than one career anchor, the natural properties of career anchors would make some combinations more likely (complementarity) or less likely (mutually exclusive). They then suggested that an underlying factor stru...
Article
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with cognitive deficits in humans, an association potentially mediated or moderated by folate concentration or inflammation. Materials and methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets to examine whether folate concentration or inflammat...
Article
Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utili...
Article
Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a physiological measure of cognitive function that have shown diagnostic and prognostic utility in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used a novel eigenvector-based technique to better understand brain electrophysiological differences between subjects with mild AD and healthy controls (HC). Using ERPs fr...
Article
Full-text available
The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from...
Article
Full-text available
Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function...
Article
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this...
Article
Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a physiological measure of cognitive function that have shown diagnostic and prognostic utility in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we used a novel eigenvector-based technique to better understand brain electrophysiological differences between subjects with mild AD and healthy controls (HC). Using ERPs fr...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60% of all dementia. Numerous biomarkers have been developed that can help in making an early diagnosis. The P300 is an event-related potential that may be abnormal in Alzheimer's disease. Given the possible association between P300 amplitude and Alzheimer's disease and the need for biomarkers in early Alzheimer's d...
Article
Full-text available
Latent infection with the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and self-harm behaviour. However, the potential relationship between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and generalised-anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) has not been invest...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine two of Feldman and Bolino's proposals: career anchor plurality and career anchor relationships. Design/methodology/approach – A novel method for examining the relationships between career anchors called “indices of mutual presence” is developed for this study to generate meaningful results from ord...
Article
More than 20 years after Edgar H. Schein introduced career anchor theory (1977), Daniel Feldman and Mark Bolino critiqued both the theory and the methods Schein used to describe career anchors. They propose that understanding the underlying factor structure of the Career Orientations Inventory (COI) will give insight into the relationships between...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools...
Article
Full-text available
If authors put words together in ways that can be recognized as wordprints (Hilton, 1990; Morton, 1979; Archer et al., 1997), do they put sounds together in identifiable ways when they invent names? Could they have unique sound prints (phonoprints) as well? This exploratory study compared phonemic patterns of fictional names in the poorly written M...
Article
Full-text available
To monitor global representation in the psychiatric literature, we compared publication rates in the ten psychiatric journals with the highest impact factors in 1998 and 2008 by world regions. In both 1998 and 2008, North America, Northern Europe, Western Europe and Oceania produced the majority of psychiatric research papers published in these jou...
Article
Certain risk factors for cognitive decline appear modifiable. A potentially modifiable marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein may be associated with cognitive deficits, although not all studies have found a relationship between C-reactive protein and cognitive ability. Further, few research papers have examined whether gender may affect any ass...
Article
IntroductionMultivariate Methods as an Extension of Familiar Univariate MethodsMeasurement Scales and Data TypesFour Basic Data Set Structures for Multivariate AnalysisPictorial Overview of Multivariate MethodsCorrelational versus Experimental MethodsOld versus New Methods SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionDefinitions and NotationMatrix Operations and Statistical QuantitiesPartitioned Matrices and Adjoined MatricesTriangular Square Root MatricesDeterminantsMatrix InversionRank of a MatrixOrthogonal Vectors and MatricesQuadratic Forms and Bilinear FormsEigenvectors and EigenvaluesSpectral Decomposition, Triangular Decomposition, and Singul...
Chapter
IntroductionApplied Example of Canonical Correlation: Personality Orientations and PrejudiceMathematical Demonstration of a Complete Canonical Correlation AnalysisIllustrations of Canonical Correlation Tables and Graphics with Finance DataSummary and Conclusions Study QuestionsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionThe Fundamental Method of Multiple RegressionTwo-Way Analysis of Variance (AV2) Using Multiple RegressionAnalysis of Covariance and the General Linear ModelLinear Contrasts and Complex DesignsRegressing Categorical VariablesSummary and Conclusions Study QuestionsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionAn Applied Example of Hotelling's T2 Test: Family Finances and Relational AggressionMultivariate versus Univariate Significance TestsThe Two Sample Independent Groups Hotelling's T2 TestDiscriminant Analysis from a Hotelling's T2 TestSummary and Conclusions Study QuestionsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionThe Meaning of Measurement ScalesThe Meaning of Measures of Central TendencyVariance and Matrix AlgebraCovariance Matrices and Correlation MatricesClassical Probability Theory and the Binomial: The Basis for Statistical InferenceSignificance Tests: From Binomial to z-Tests to t-Tests to Analysis of VarianceMatrix Approach to Analysis of...
Chapter
IntroductionAn Applied Example of Factoring: The Mental Skills of MiceCalculating Factor Loadings to Reveal the Structure of Skills in MiceSimplest Case Mathematical Demonstration of a Complete Factor AnalysisFactor Scores: The Relationship between Latent Variables and Manifest VariablesPrincipal Component Analysis: Simplified Factoring of Covarian...
Chapter
IntroductionLatour's Graphicity ThesisNineteenth-Century Male Names: The Construction of Convergent Multivariate GraphsVarieties of Multivariate GraphsFlourishing Families: An Illustration of Linked Graphics and Statistical Analyses in Data ExplorationSummaryStudy QuestionsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionAn Applied Example of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MAV1)One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MAV1)The Four Multivariate Signifi cance TestsSummary and Conclusions Study QuestionsReferences
Article
Research on vocal expressions of emotion indicates that persons can identify emotions from voice with relatively high accuracy rates. In addition, fairly consistent vocal profiles for specific emotions have been identified. However, important methodological issues remain to be addressed. In this paper, we address the issue of whether there are indi...
Article
The clinical global impression-improvement scale (CGI-I) is used to monitor treatment outcome in mental disorders. To better understand the properties of the CGI-I scale in social anxiety disorder, effects sizes from the CGI-I scale were compared to comparably calculated effect sizes from other rating scales obtained from double-blind, placebo-cont...
Article
A common quest among theoretical psychologists is the transformation of psychology to accommodate human agency and meaning. Several strong experimental methods are used in cognitive neuroscience but are based almost entirely upon a mechanistic ontology. A step toward rapprochement is proposed using precise and powerful experimental methods that are...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased hippocampal volume, but the relationship between trauma and brain morphology in the absence of PTSD is less clear. In this study, measures of brain integrity were determined by estimating gray and white matter regional brain volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging in six...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The minimum number of observations necessary in factor analytic studies to produce factor loading stability and structural integrity is inconsistent and highly debatable. Research studies recommend minimum observations ranging from 40 to 1,000 and observation-to-variable ratios of 1:1 to 10:1. Research has also demonstrated that the number of obser...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning, significant personal distress and a possible economic burden, resulting in a reduction in quality of life. To understand better the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled...
Article
This paper employs a cue synthesis experimental method to examine the effects of pitch and intonation on male vocal attractiveness to women. Voices were acoustically manipulated to yield nine combinations of three levels of average fundamental frequency and three levels of variance of fundamental frequency. Strong main effects were obtained for the...
Article
A series of studies of eight acted emotions compared acoustical measurements, respondents? identifications, and vocal ratings. Predictions were made as to which of these three approaches would be most accurate in differentiating between emotions within a pair. Emotion pairs were classified as logically similar and/or perceptibly similar. Logically...
Article
There was a strong interest in psychology at Brigham Young University at the turn of the century; the third president was a psychologist and a number of distinguished psychologists regularly visited the campus. An outstanding young scholar who was destined to become the only Mormon president of the American Psychological Association started a vigor...
Article
Examined the interactive effects of speech rate, dialect, and attributional context using a realistic vocal presentation. The test passage was a 153-word explanation of somewhat complex social psychological principles of language behavior that was audio-recorded as it was produced by a bidialectal male speaker in 6 forms: The speaker used either a...
Article
Transparency theory is a view of learning and skill acquisition that grew out of the tradition in psychology that emphasizes the functional and holistic aspects of human perception and action. It emphasizes the tacit skill aspects of language acquisition and the functioning of language as a tool of social interaction as well as the more traditional...
Article
A program in Pascal is described that computes the correlational statistics for a data set with up to 25 variables and up to 50 observations or entities. PRIFAC computes mean, unbiased standard deviations, and unbiased variances for each individual variable, and also covariances and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for all pairs of t...