Bruce J. Avolio

Bruce J. Avolio
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Management & Organization

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228
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (228)
Article
Full-text available
Leader behavioral integrity (BI) is central to perceived credibility and thus to leaders’ effectiveness at fostering ethical and other climates. Our research broadens the theoretical foundation for BI research by integrating the cognitive–attributional role of trust in the formation and maintenance of leader BI perceptions. Guided by recent researc...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to understand the processes behind how and why individuals emerge as leaders, so that the best and most capable individuals may occupy leadership positions. So far, most literature in this area has focused on individual characteristics, such as personality or cognitive ability. While interactions between individuals and context do g...
Article
Leadership is a process where leaders enact certain behaviors to influence followers. Yet, each follower may view the leader’s enactment differently, owing to differences in disposition and context. Here we examine leadership as a property attributed by followers to their leader, influenced by both the leader and followers’ personal attributes and...
Article
Using a multilevel field study with data collected over a 9-month period, we tested how team psychological safety interacts with levels of team relationship conflict to influence an individual’s team identification and satisfaction with their team. We propose that team psychological safety measured early in a team’s time together influences what te...
Chapter
This chapter begins with a discussion of whether information technology (IT) changes leadership and proceeds to discuss leadership in three IT-mediated contexts: same-place IT-supported meetings, virtual teams, and the age of social media. It discusses how leadership affects IT by influencing its adoption and assimilation and ends with topics for f...
Article
While largely untested, theorizing concerning transformational leadership has suggested that its effects will vary depending on the extremity of the context in which this leadership style is exercised. Further, knowing how to retain employees after they are exposed to the stresses and trauma of extreme events remains a challenge for organizations t...
Article
Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and co...
Article
This introduction includes the history of the leadership field that resulted in the creation of the developmental readiness construct, which represents readiness of the leader as well as followers, peers, and the target leader's leader, and how context is to be developed through some form of leadership intervention.
Research
Full-text available
Update and extension of the 1996 meta-analysis of the transformational leadership literature by Lowe, Kroeck and Sivasubramaniam (1996) published in The Leadership Quarterly.
Article
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In this paper, we show some recent experimental applications of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based sensors for geotechnical monitoring. In particular, how these sensors can be applied to detecting early movements of soil slopes by the direct embedding of suitable fiber cables in the ground is presented. Furthermore, the same techn...
Article
Using a multilevel research design with data collected over three time periods, we propose and test a model illustrating how team emergent states and conflict occurring over time influence individuals’ level of team identification as well as satisfaction with the team and team performance. We propose that team emergent states measured during the fo...
Article
Over the last thirty years, measures of transformational leadership have been positively related to a broad range of individual, unit and organizational performance outcomes. Most of this literature has focused on examining the motivation and performance of individuals who stay with organizations, while relatively few studies have examined how tran...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report the experimental application of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) to the monitoring of deformation of a small-scale slope reconstituted in a 1.5 m-long instrumented flume and subjected to artificial rainfall until failure. The tests confirm that the BOTDA technique is capable to detect soil movement during the pre-failure sta...
Article
Comments on the original article "Leadership and organizational behavior: A thermodynamic inquiry", by R. R. Kilburg and M. D. Donohue (see record 2014-57731-002). The science of leadership has been explored through the use of many scientific lenses—for instance, psychology, historically the most dominant lens; history; sociology; philosophy; polit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distributed optical fiber sensors, based on Brillouin scattering, are exploited to directly measure the deformation profiles of soil and to realize innovative inclinometers to monitor the stability of slopes and identify early symptoms of landslides.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distributed optical fiber sensors, and in particular those based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, have in recent years been the object of a growing attention for structural and environmental monitoring of large areas because they allow to measure strain and temperature profiles up to tens of kilometers with a strain accuracy of ±10ue and a tempe...
Article
The authors provide this addendum to the following article to provide corrections to the results reported and further explanation of the structural equation modeling techniques utilized: Sean T. Hannah, Bruce J. Avolio, and Fred O. Walumbwa, “The Relationships between Authentic Leadership, Moral Courage, and Ethical and Pro-Social Behaviors,” Busin...
Article
In this paper, we compare ethical leadership and authoritarian leadership in their influence on an organizational change process. In doing so, we highlight the overlooked impact of ethics on organizational change outcomes and explore the effects of leaders who are simultaneously ethical and authoritarian. We report results of an empirical study of...
Article
We examined in a 3-month longitudinal study how leader behavioral integrity relates to individual follower work engagement, and how that relationship, in turn, connects to performance. We hypothesized that ratings of leader behavioral integrity would mediate the relationship between leader transparent communication and follower work engagement, whi...
Article
We develop and test a model based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1991) that links abusive supervision to followers' ethical intentions and behaviors. Results from a sample of 2,572 military members show that abusive supervision was negatively related to followers' moral courage and their identification with the organization's core values. In...
Article
Full-text available
Utilizing the locus (source) and mechanism (transmission) of leadership framework (Hernandez, Eberly, Avolio, & Johnson, 2011), we propose and examine the application of an integrative process model of leadership to help determine the psychological interactive processes that constitute leadership. In particular, we identify the various dynamics inv...
Article
We develop and test a model linking ethical leadership with unit ethical culture, both across and within organizational levels, examining how both leadership and culture relate to ethical cognitions and behaviors of lower-level followers. The data were collected from 2,572 U.S. Army soldiers representing three organizational levels deployed in comb...
Article
Leader Self and Means Efficacy (LSME) is conceptualized as leaders' level of perceived capability to self-regulate their thoughts and motivation, draw from means in their environment, and act successfully across a span of leader challenges and tasks in their current context. We demonstrate the construct validity of LSME and test its relationship wi...
Article
Although theory suggests a link between authentic leadership style and follower positivity and performance, little empirical research exists to confirm this notion. Given that scholars have suggested that leadership studies have generally failed to adequately address or include organizational context in prior research, we examine whether two measur...
Article
In this study, we examined the moderating influences of gender and age with respect to testing the heritability of leadership emergence. A large data base of 12,112 twins from Sweden was used in the current study to decompose the variance of emergent leadership into an unobservable genetic component and environmental components that are either comm...
Article
This review tracks the evolution of the theory of authentic leadership from its theoretical conception to more recent empirical research. We begin this chapter by providing an overview of the construct of authenticity and various conceptualizations in the research literature. We follow that by an examination of the theoretical advances that have ch...
Article
Through a qualitative review of the leadership literature, we derive two fundamental principles for codifying the last century of leadership theory and research: the locus and mechanism of leadership. Our systematic review and categorization of past theories suggests that further development of the follower, collective and context loci, and the aff...
Article
We propose a theoretical model to examine how authentic transformational leadership influences follower individual and group ethical decision making. We investigate how follower moral identity and moral emotions mediate the effect of authentic transformational leadership on follower authentic moral action. Furthermore, we explore how authentic tran...
Article
Character is an indispensable component of leadership and its development, and thus warrants future research focus. Before a purposeful research stream on character can proceed, however, it is critical that we fully define and conceptualize the character construct (the ontological basis) and then consider how we might best measure this construct an...
Article
We advance the discussion that each leader has a moral component that can be defined as character that is distinct from values, personality, and other similar constructs. We seek to clarify what underpins forms of character-based leadership and exemplary leader behaviors. We build out our previous discussion (Hannah & Avolio, this issue) that the l...
Article
We set out to address a gap in the management literature by proposing a framework specifying the component capacities organizational actors require to think and act morally. We examine how moral maturation (i.e., moral identity, complexity, and metacognitive ability) and moral conation (i.e., moral courage, efficacy, and ownership) enhance an indiv...
Article
Organizations constitute morally-complex environments, requiring organization members to possess levels of moral courage sufficient to promote their ethical action, while refraining from unethical actions when faced with temptations or pressures. Using a sample drawn from a military context, we explored the antecedents and consequences of moral cou...
Article
Full-text available
While practitioners and scholars tout the importance of mentorship in leader development, few studies have empirically determined whether mentoring actually positively impacts a leader's development, and if so, in what ways. In a longitudinal field experiment, we examined how a targeted mentorship program that unfolded over 6 months enhanced the de...
Article
Although we are aware of some positive cases of leadership and management emerging on the African continent, very little empirical or theoretical work has addressed leadership and management in Africa. This raises a challenge for African nations in that ultimately a country's economic performance is contingent on the effectiveness of its leadership...
Article
The positive core construct of psychological capital (consisting of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been conceptually and empirically demonstrated to be related to employee performance. However, much of this work has relied on cross-sectional designs to examine these relationships. This study utilizes longitudinal data from a large fi...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article is to study the effects of transformational versus transactional leadership behavior on how followers report their level of moral identity. Using field survey data (n = 672) and experimental data (n = 225), the authors found that transformational leadership and transactional leadership (including contingent reward and activ...
Article
Full-text available
This field experimental study examined the role that positive leadership plays in producing effective leader and follower outcomes. Specifically, a sample of engineers (N = 106) from a very large aerospace firm were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. Two conditions involved assigning these engineers to a low and high problem complex...
Book
A practical guide to leadership development based on the world's most thoroughly researched leadership development model Conversational and accessible, this Second Edition of Bruce J. Avolio's groundbreaking book uses the full range leadership development model as an organizing framework and shows how it can be directly applied to improving leaders...
Article
Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such PsyCap...
Article
Using a sample of 79 police leaders and their direct reports (264 police followers), this study investigated the relationships of leader and follower psychological capital, service climate, and job performance. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) results revealed that leader psychological capital was positively related to follower performance, with...
Article
In this article, we propose a new construct titled moral potency and its component elements: moral courage, moral efficacy, and moral ownership. We propose that moral potency is a critical factor in developing leaders who have the conation to act on their moral judgments and behave as leaders of character. Furthermore, we offer a new measure and pr...
Article
A theory of leader developmental readiness is examined comprised of leaders' motivation and ability to develop. Early theory-building and testing suggests leaders' motivation to develop is promoted through interest and goals, learning goal orientation, and developmental efficacy; while leaders' ability to develop is promoted through self-awareness,...
Article
We examined the direct and indirect effect of authentic leadership behavior on the organizational citizenship behavior and work engagement of followers. With 387 employees and their 129 immediate supervisors, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) results revealed that authentic leadership behavior was positively related to supervisor-rated organizatio...
Article
When making capital investment decisions organizational leaders are trained to consider the financial return on investment. Yet, the same expectation typically does not exist for investments in leadership training. We suggest that decisions regarding leadership training and development ought to use a similar approach as the process leads to organiz...
Article
A critical challenge facing today's organizational leaders is gaining their followers' trust and having them view leaders as effective in addressing turmoil and change. Using a downsizing scenario as the context, this field experiment examined how a leader's positivity and transparency impacted followers' perceived trust, defined in terms of willin...
Article
The limited behavioral genetics research reported in the leadership literature has not investigated the degree to which early life experiences predict future emergence into leadership roles. This is the first study to focus on parenting style and early life experiences of rule breaking, and their relationships to leadership roles assumed in adultho...
Article
Full-text available
In this review, we develop a framework to guide future research and to examine the execution of leadership in extreme contexts. We start by defining and distinguishing extreme contexts from crisis and other contexts. A five component typology is developed comprised of magnitude of consequences, form of threat, probability of consequences, location...
Article
Extending previous research on the genetic underpinnings of entrepreneurship, we investigate gender differences in the genetic influences on the tendency of people to become entrepreneurs. We also examined two mediating variables through which genetic factors may impact this tendency: extraversion and neuroticism. Based on 1285 pairs of identical t...
Article
This study examines whether follower characteristics moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and follower work engagement. Data were collected from 140 followers and their 48 supervisors from a diverse range of industries in South Africa. Hierarchical linear modeling results show that follower characteristics moderate the posi...
Article
In this study we set out to conduct a comprehensive quantitative research analysis of literature reporting results on the causal impact of leadership by focusing on examining what we refer to as ‘leadership interventions.’ We defined leadership interventions as those studies where the researcher overtly manipulated leadership as the independent var...
Article
A total of 57 intervention-based leadership studies that included sufficient data on leader and follower gender were included in this meta-analysis. By intervention, the authors mean any study where the researcher overtly manipulated leadership as the independent variable through training, assignment, scenarios, or other means. Results showed a sig...
Article
Viewing psychological ownership as a positive resource for impacting human performance in organizations, the present study investigated the components of an expanded view of psychological ownership. Confirmatory factor analyses on a proposed measure of psychological ownership provided support for a positively-oriented, “promotion-focused” aspect of...
Article
Full-text available
Perhaps the most important “Point” we would like to make in this “Point-Counterpoint” on positive organizational behavior is the role that research must play in this evolving area of study. We follow this point on the importance of research by drawing from recent findings that indicate in discussions such as this point and counterpoint, that taking...
Article
In this rejoinder to Hackman's counterpoint piece on positive organizational behavior (POB), we again take a positive, inquiry approach. We address and build out each of his identified potential perils with the aim of accelerating the journey of POB understanding, research, and application. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
Full-text available
We provide a review of the authentic leadership development (ALD) literature and suggest a framework that articulates how the strategies, contexts, and particular self-regulated behaviors increase individual agentic capacities to move toward higher levels of development. Research on the heritability of leadership and history of leadership intervent...
Article
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This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre...
Article
The concept of leader efficacy has received relatively little attention in the leadership literature. This is somewhat surprising given that effective leadership requires high levels of agency (i.e., deliberately or intentionally exerting positive influence) and confidence. This review uses existing theory and research on leader efficacy as a point...
Article
This study examined how transformational leadership directly and indirectly relates to supervisory-rated performance collected over time including 437 participants employed by 6 U.S. banking organizations in the midwest. Results revealed that one's identification with his or her work unit, self-efficacy, and means efficacy were related to superviso...
Article
The development of leaders is a stated goal of most organizations, yet a validated framework and theory for leader development does not yet fully exist, nor is there a method for determining who is developmentally ready to engage in leader development. The authors of this article provide a framework for examining how one can accelerate leader devel...
Article
Campania Region (Italy), one of the most densely populated areas in Europe, is probably the one with the highest risk of landslide. A large part of the region is covered by unsaturated cohesionless pyroclastic deposits subjected to rainfall-induced landslides. According to experience, these can display different features and magnitude. The most cat...
Article
Bernard M. Bass, distinguished professor emeritus in the School of Management at Binghamton University, was born on June 11, 1925, in the Bronx, New York, and died in Binghamton, New York, on October 11, 2007, at the age of 82. Bass published more than 400 journal articles and technical reports, wrote 21 books, and edited an additional 10. Almost a...
Article
Full-text available
This study developed and tested a theory-based measure of authentic leadership using five separate samples obtained from China, Kenya, and the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a higher order, multidimensional model of the authentic leadership con-struct (the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ]) comprising leader self-aware...
Chapter
Overview of Leadership: Major PerspectivesA Review of Past Approaches to Leadership DevelopmentWhat Constitutes Development?What Constitutes Genuine/Authentic Leadership Development?Authentic Leadership Development (ALD) TheoryWhat Will be the Next Great Advances in Leadership?Integration and Conclusions AcknowledgementsReferences
Article
Although the value of a supportive organizational climate has been recognized over the years, there is a need for better understanding of its relationship with employee outcomes. This study investigates whether the recently emerging core construct of positive psychological capital (consisting of hope, resilience, optimism, and efficacy) plays a rol...
Article
Les données d'une étude en cours furent rassemblées dans trois conditions d'échantillonnage variées afin d'examiner si des cadres hommes et femmes, observés par leurs évaluateurs directs, avaient le même style de commandement. L'étude en cours se démarque d'une recherche beaucoup plus ancienne sur les différences entre hommes et femmes en leadershi...
Chapter
A laboratory experiment was conducted with 42 student groups to evaluate the effects of transactional vs. transformational leadership styles and anonymity when groups supported by an Electronic Meeting System (EMS) discussed the ethical issue of copying copyrighted software. A confederate leader displayed either transformational or transactional be...