Bridget S. Wade

Bridget S. Wade
University College London | UCL · Department of Earth Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

464
Publications
79,210
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6,971
Citations
Citations since 2017
75 Research Items
3826 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Additional affiliations
May 2013 - present
University College London
April 2010 - April 2013
University of Leeds
September 2007 - March 2010
Texas A&M University

Publications

Publications (464)
Article
Full-text available
Trochospiral planktonic foraminifera will coil either sinistral (left) or dextral (right). The prevalence of sinistral or dextral coiling can change through the stratigraphic range of morphospecies with a preference in coiling direction. A number of coiling shifts have been applied as secondary marker events through the Recent to late Miocene (~0–7...
Conference Paper
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Globigerina falconensis and Globigerina bulloides are two widely used taxa in palaeoceanographic and paleoclimatic studies. Morphologically these two species are similar, with the main difference being the distinctive apertural lip in G. falconensis. Globigerina falconensis was originally described from Miocene sediments in Venezuela and it still r...
Article
Full-text available
Muricate planktonic foraminifera comprise an extinct clade that was diverse and abundant in the Paleogene oceans and are widely used in palaeoclimate research as geochemical proxy carriers for the upper oceans. Their characteristic wall texture has surface projections called “muricae” formed by upward deflection and mounding of successive layers of...
Article
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The fossil record of marine microplankton provides insights into the evolutionary drivers which led to the origin of modern deep-water plankton, one of the largest components of ocean biomass. We use global abundance and biogeographic data, combined with depth habitat reconstructions , to determine the environmental mechanisms behind speciation in...
Article
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The taxonomy and phylogeny of the Miocene to Recent genus Sphaeroidinellopsis have been documented in previous studies, but the evolution of this lineage remains unclear. Some authors have debated this genus in the past, choosing a variety of parameters to discriminate the morphospecies. Here we present new scanning electron microscope analyses of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fossil record of marine microplankton provides insights into the evolutionary drivers which led to the origin of modern deep-water plankton, one of the largest component of ocean biomass. We use global abundance and biogeographic data combined with depth habitat reconstructions to determine the environmental mechanisms behind speciation in two...
Article
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The Rashrashiyah Formation of the Sirhan Basin in northern Saudi Arabia contains diverse assemblages of planktonic foraminifera. We examined the biostratigraphy, stratigraphic range and preservation of upper Eocene planktonic foraminifera. Assemblages are well-preserved and diverse, with 40 species and 11 genera. All samples are assigned to the Pri...
Article
Full-text available
Coiling direction is a basic characteristic of trochospiral planktic foraminifera. Modifications in the coiling direction within ancient planktic foraminiferal populations may reflect important changes in evolution or environment, yet they remain scarcely discussed. Here we investigate fluctuations in the coiling direction within Morozovella assemb...
Article
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The base of the Priabonian Stage is one of two stage boundaries in the Paleogene that remains to be formalized. The Alano section (NE Italy) was elected by consensus as a suitable candidate for the base of the Priabonian during the Priabonian Working Group meeting held in Alano di Piave in June 2012. Further detailed research on the section is now...
Article
Full-text available
Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the tropical Pacific Ocean exert powerful controls on regional and global climates. Previous studies have suggested that during warm climate phases, the east-west temperature gradient collapsed. To date, there has been no high-resolution reconstruction of sea surface conditions in both the east and west Pacific Oc...
Article
Dentoglobigerina is a diverse genus of planktonic foraminifera ranging from the Eocene to Recent. However, the ancestry of Dentoglobigerina has been controversial. A growing body of evidence indicates that the genus Dentoglobigerina was spinose in life and evolved from Eocene Subbotina, whilst others have suggested its origins stem from Acarinina....
Article
Full-text available
The Paleogene history of biogenic opal accumulation in the North Atlantic provides insight into both the evolution of deepwater circulation in the Atlantic basin and weathering responses to major climate shifts. However, existing records are compromised by low temporal resolution and/or stratigraphic discontinuities. In order to address this proble...
Article
Full-text available
Getting more pumped It is thought that the ocean's biological carbon pump, the process that transfers organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean, should be sensitive to climate change because temperature controls photosynthesis and respiration rates. Boscolo-Galazzo et al. show that the efficiency of the biological carbon pump increased over...
Chapter
The Neogene oceans and continents were mosaicked to form a paleogeography similar to today and exposed to the warm conditions of the mid Neogene to the cooling toward the glacial Quaternary. Antarctic ice sheets stabilized, then Northern Hemisphere ice sheets grew and thickened. Tectonics continued to shape the continents and ocean floor. High risi...
Chapter
Planktonic foraminifera are marine protozoa with a calcar-eous and chambered test. The group evolved since late Early Jurassic, and from mid-Cretaceous onward, it has significantly proliferated and is a major component of oceanic oozes. Planktonic foraminifera phylogeny often is closely linked to paleoceanographic turnover events, and its detailed...
Article
Full-text available
International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 363 Sites U1489 and U1490, located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool, con- tain diverse assemblages of planktonic foraminifers. We examined and imaged specimens of Miocene Dentoglobigerina and Globo- quadrina to determine the presence or absence of spine holes and pustules in their wall texture. A tot...
Article
The composition and distribution of deep-sea sediments is the result of a multitude of climatic, biotic and oceanic conditions relating to biogeochemical cycles and environmental change. Here we utilize the extensive sediment archives of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors to construct maps of deep-sea sediment typ...
Article
Full-text available
Faulting and earthquakes occur extensively along the flanks of the East African Rift System, including an offshore branch in the western Indian Ocean, resulting in remobilization of sediment in the form of landslides. To date, constraints on the occurrence of submarine landslides at margin scale are lacking, leaving unanswered a link between riftin...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Faulting and earthquakes occur extensively along the flanks of the East African Rift System, including an offshore branch in the western Indian Ocean, resulting in remobilization of sediment in the form of landslides. To date, constraints on the occurrence of submarine landslides at margin scale are lacking, leaving unanswered a link between riftin...
Article
The widespread occurrence of lower Eocene chert and porcellanite has been viewed as a major paleoceanographic issue since the advent of ocean drilling, and both biotic and abiotic forcings have been proposed to explain it. We present a reconstruction of indurated siliceous sediment (ISS) and preserved biosiliceous sediment (PBS) occurrences in the...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple stable isotope investigations from upper Eocene to lower Oligocene deep-water marine sequences record the transition from global greenhouse to the icehouse conditions (Oi-1 glacial). While Southern Ocean high latitude deep sea records of this transition are well known, their shallow marine equivalents are rare and have the potential to rec...
Article
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Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1051 (Blake Nose, western North Atlantic) is of crucial importance for reconstructing diatom evolution and biosiliceous sedi- mentation patterns through the early Cenozoic period of extreme greenhouse warmth followed by the progressive global cooling. The magnetostratigraphy in Hole 1051A, however, has been subject...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present relative abundances of planktic foraminifera that span the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1258 in the western equatorial Atlantic. The EECO (~53.3−49.1 Ma) represents peak Cenozoic warmth, probably related to high atmospheric CO2, and when planktic foraminifera, a dominant component of mari...
Chapter
The Neogene oceans and continents were mosaicked to form a paleogeography similar to today and exposed to the warm conditions of the mid Neogene to the cooling toward the glacial Quaternary. Antarctic ice sheets stabilized, then Northern Hemisphere ice sheets grew and thickened. Tectonics continued to shape the continents and ocean floor. High risi...
Article
Planktonic foraminifera are widely used in marine biostratigraphy thanks to their small size, limited stratigraphic range and abundance in oceanic sediments. The utility of planktonic foraminifera in biostratigraphy was first fully recognised within the Caribbean region during the middle of the 20th century. The area was critical for the subsequent...
Article
Full-text available
The East African Rift Systems (EARS) exerted a major influence on river drainage basins and regional climate of east Africa during the Cenozoic. Recent studies have highlighted an offshore branch of the EARS in the western Indian Ocean, where the Kerimbas Graben and the Davie Ridge represent its sea floor expression. To date, a clear picture of the...
Article
Full-text available
The early Eocene (56 to 48 million years ago) is inferred to have been the most recent time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Global mean temperatures were also substantially warmer than those of the present day. As such, the study of early Eocene climate provides insight into how a super-warm Earth system behaves and o...
Article
Full-text available
Planktonic foraminiferal species identification is central to many paleoceanographic studies, from selecting species for geochemical research to elucidating the biotic dynamics of microfossil communities relevant to physical oceanographic processes and interconnected phenomena such as climate change. However, few resources exist to train students i...
Article
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The extant morphospecies of the Trilobatus sacculifer plexus (T. sacculifer, T. quadrilobatus, T. immaturus and T. trilobus) have widespread biogeographical distributions and long stratigraphical ranges, and are thus routinely utilized in palaeoceanographical studies. The descendant morphospecies Globigerinoidesella fistulosa is comparatively short...
Article
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The Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT, ∼34–33.5 Ma) marks a major transition in Cenozoic climate evolution through the relatively rapid establishment of a continental-scale ice sheet on Antarctica. The EOT is characterized by two ∼200 kyr spaced shifts (termed EOT-1 and Oi-1) in the oxygen isotopic composition (σ18O) of benthic foraminifera, repre...
Preprint
Full-text available
The early Eocene (56 to 48 million years ago) is inferred to have been the most recent time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Global mean temperatures were also substantially warmer than present day. As such, study of early Eocene climate provides insight into how a super-warm Earth system behaves and offers an opportun...
Article
Full-text available
The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors have made a major contribution to the understanding of planktonic foraminifera evolutionary history through the recovery of expanded sedimentary successions, rich in microfossils. Ocean drilling cores allows the examination of how planktonic foraminifera responded through time, d...
Article
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The unique macroevolutionary dataset of Aze & others has been transferred onto the TimeScale Creator visualisation platform while, as much as practicable, preserving the original unrevised content of its morphospecies and lineage evolutionary trees. This is a “Corrected Version” (not a revision), which can serve as an on-going historical case examp...
Article
Full-text available
Planktonic foraminifera are widely used in biostratigraphic, palaeoceanographic and evolutionary studies, but the strength of many study conclusions could be weakened if taxonomic identifications are not reproducible by different workers. In this study, to assess the relative importance of a range of possible reasons for among-worker disagreement i...
Article
Full-text available
The Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT, ~34–33.5 Ma) marks a major transition in Cenozoic climate evolution through the relatively rapid establishment of a continental-scale ice sheet on Antarctica. The EOT is characterized by two ~200 kyr spaced shifts (termed EOT-1 and Oi-1) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic foraminifera, repre...
Article
Full-text available
Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, as well as independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two different astronomically tuned age models for the Oligocene–Miocene transition (OMT) from Integrated...
Chapter
Full-text available
We review past and recent advances in Oligocene chronostratigraphy (and its internal subdivisions) and geochronology, the so-called “missing” Oligocene debate of the 1960s, and planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphies of (sub)tropical and austral biogeographies. The Oligocene spans the interval from Chron C13r.0.14 to Subchron C6Cn.2n(o), corresp...
Book
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The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, distribution, paleoecology and phylogenetic systematics of Oligocene planktonic foraminifera are treated in an illustrated atlas format. One hundred and twenty-eight species are recognized, including three species of Catapsydrax, eight species of Globorotaloides, two species of Protentelloides, twelve species of Parag...
Chapter
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Ciperoella Olsson and Hemleben n. gen. is erected for Oligocene spinose species that have a neogloboquadrinid-type wall texture and 4½-5 similarly sized chambers in the final whorl. Four species are recognized as distinct, namely Ciperoella anguliofficinalis (Blow), Ciperoella angulisuturalis (Bolli), Ciperoella ciperoensis (Bolli), and Ciperoella...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, phylogeny, and biostratigraphy of Oligocene and early Miocene Paragloborotalia and Parasubbotina are reviewed. The two genera are closely related; Paragloborotalia was derived from Parasubbotina in the early Eocene. Parasubbotina was more diverse during the middle Eocene, while Paragloborotalia experienced considerable diversification...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, phylogeny and biostratigraphy of Oligocene and lower Miocene Globoturborotalita is reviewed. Globoturborotalita is a long-ranging genus appearing in the basal Eocene and still present in modern oceans with one living representative G. rubescens. Species attributed to this genus are generally common and cosmopolitan. The following spec...
Chapter
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The taxonomy of Oligocene planktonic foraminifera of uncertain affinity are discussed and reviewed in this chapter. The following taxa are considered Problematica: Acarinina inaequiconica Subbotina, Globigerina brevis Jenkins, Globigerina? grata Todd, Globigerina khadumica Bykova, Globigerina postcretacea Myatliuk, Globigerina pseudoedita Subbotina...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Subbotina is discussed and reviewed. We include forms that have teeth extending into the umbilicus. A total of nine species are accepted as distinct, namely Subbotina angiporoides (Hornibrook), Subbotina corpulenta (Subbotina), Subbotina eocaena (Gümbel), Subbotina gortanii (Borsetti), Subbo...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of the Oligocene Globigerinitidae (comprising the genera Dipsidripella, Globigerinita and Tenuitella) is reviewed. This family is here included in the Superfamily Globigerinitoidea based on the distinctive wall texture. The group is united by possessing a ‘radially crystalline’ wall texture (the glutinat...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, phylogeny, and biostratigraphy of Oligocene and lower Miocene Dentoglobigerina and Globoquadrina are reviewed. Because of the discovery of spine holes in various species assigned to these genera, the entire group is now considered to have been fully or sparsely spinose in life and hence part of Family Globigerinidae. One new species,...
Chapter
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The taxonomy, phylogeny and biostratigraphic ranges of three Oligocene species of Acarinina are discussed together with their synonymies. Acarinina diversified in the Paleocene and Eocene and only a few species remain in the OligoceneThe following taxa are recognized as valid species: Acarinina collactea (Finlay), Acarinina echinata (Bolli), and Ac...
Article
Full-text available
A new relational taxonomic database for planktonic foraminifera (“pforams@mikrotax�) has been constructed and is now freely available online at http://www.mikrotax.org. It represents amajor advance from its predecessor, the CHRONOS online taxonomic database, which has served the research community since 2005. The benefits of the new database to...
Article
Full-text available
Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle-pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, and independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two astronomically tuned age models for the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) from Integrated Ocean Drilling P...
Article
Full-text available
The symbiont-bearing mixed-layer planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina were among the most important calcifiers of early Paleogene tropical-subtropical oceans. A marked and permanent switch in the abundance of these genera is known to have occurred at low-latitude sites at the beginning of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO),...
Article
Full-text available
At low latitude locations in the northern hemisphere, striking changes in the relative abundances and diversity of the two dominant planktic foraminifera genera, Morozovella and Acarinina, are known to have occurred close to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; ~ 49–53 Ma). Lower Eocene carbonate-rich sediments at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) S...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted quantitative biostratigraphic and morphometric studies at two ocean drilling sites in the Pacific Ocean to investigate the extinction of the planktonic foraminifera genus Chiloguembelina, a distinctive biserial genus ranging in the Eocene and Oligocene. The extinction of the last species of the genus, C. Cubensis, has historically been...
Article
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Key extinctions in two major planktonic foraminiferal groups and high taxic turnover in radiolarians have led to the identification of the Middle/Late Eocene Turnover (MLET) and point towards significant palaeoclimatic and/or palaeoceanographic changes at around 38 million years ago. Here we present quantitative calcareous nannofossil data from Oce...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from the Bartonian to the Priabonian, as traditionally understood, has long been associated with a series of extinctions and originations in several microfossil groups. The planktonic forami-nifer genus Morozovelloides and large species of Acarinina suffered a rapid global extinction, as did many radiolarians. Calcareous nannofossils...