Bridget Hamre

Bridget Hamre
University of Virginia | UVa · Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning (CASTL)

Ph.D.

About

90
Publications
75,817
Reads
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14,318
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Alpha Educational Society
January 2002 - December 2011
University of Virginia

Publications

Publications (90)
Chapter
Full-text available
Teacher social emotional competence has been connected to literacy development as well as broader academic outcomes through the domains of Emotional Support and Classroom
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Research Findings: Many policy efforts designed to improve the quality of early care and education (ECE) settings in the United States have focused on increasing teachers’ education levels, despite the weak evidence linking education to quality. Much of this evidence comes from studies with single-sector samples (e.g., only child care, Head Start,...
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Use of observational measures to monitor preschool quality is growing rapidly. Although a large body of research has examined the validity of classroom observation tools within the context of researcher-conducted studies, little research to date has examined the extent to which the observations conducted as a part of state accountability efforts co...
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Research Findings This study examined the relation between classroom behavioral composition and teacher–child interactions in preschool classrooms and the potential for teachers’ experience, education level, and area of study to buffer against the challenges of teaching in classrooms with high levels of disruptive behaviors. Classroom behavioral co...
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This mixed methods study examines the impact of online professional development on preschool teachers’ self-efficacy, burnout, and stress. Participating teachers (n = 89) were randomly assigned into four groups: one of three treatment conditions (course-only, conference, reflective writing) or a control group. All treatment conditions received a 14...
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Research Findings: This study examined the association between interactive book reading quality and prekindergarten children’s gains in language and literacy skills over the course of an academic year for 96 teachers and 417 children across multiple locations in the United States. Two moderators were examined, namely, children’s initial skill level...
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There has been limited research on the development of in-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs across multiple school years. The current longitudinal study investigated (a) how teachers' self-efficacy beliefs change over time and (b) how teacher and classroom characteristics relate to these changes in a sample of 341 US American preschool teacher...
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Teacher reflection has been at the core of teacher development efforts for almost 100 years, yet inconsistency in the literature results from a lack of clarity on how reflection is conceptualized—from its purpose to processes, and how they relate to refining teacher practice. This article draws from research in cognitive science to explain how enga...
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The authors wish to better understand the developmental effect of mathematics teacher expectations on future student achievement. Results indicate that students’ experiences with teacher expectations from 1 time point to the next are not significantly associated with one another, but their association with future student achievement grows over time...
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Early childhood teacher preparation programs play a critical role in preparing teachers to work with young children, yet the field knows relatively little about how these programs carry out this important function. The culminating classroom-based experience, generally termed “student teaching”, is an important component in teacher preparation. The...
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Among all the factors that influence the success of preschool programs, none is more important than the quality of the teaching workforce. The design and delivery of effective approaches to professional development (PD) are central to the support of the early childhood education workforce. In this article, we provide a model outlining the PD featur...
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Public investments in early childhood education have increased sharply over the past three decades. Nonetheless, many children in the United States do not have access to high-quality early education settings and large sociodemographic gaps in children's early learning remain. In this article, we argue that to address these issues, early learning po...
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This study investigated the cross-lagged associations between teacher-student relationships and problem behaviors in a sample of 440 Finnish students (half of them identified as being at risk of reading difficulties). The degree to which these associations were moderated by a child’s gender, academic performance, risk for reading difficulties, pare...
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Research Findings: Effects on children’s school readiness were evaluated for 2 interventions focused on improving teacher–student interactions (coursework, coaching) implemented sequentially across 2 years. Teachers from public prekindergarten programs in 10 locations were assigned randomly to treatment or control conditions in each year. Children’...
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Although scalable programs, such as online courses, have the potential to reach broad audiences, they may pose challenges to evaluating learners’ knowledge and skills. Automated scoring offers a possible solution. In the current paper, we describe the process of creating and testing an automated means of scoring a validated measure of teachers’ obs...
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This study built on prior research regarding the effectiveness of the National Center for Research in Early Childhood Education (NCRECE) course by exploring the individual course components. Core aspects of course engagement and performance were described and examined in relation to improvements in the observed quality of teacher–child interactions...
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Preschool teachers were randomly assigned to participate in two professional development interventions over two phases, both designed to improve their interactions with children: the NCRECE college course (N = 169) and MyTeachingPartner video-based coaching (N = 202). Using Berkel et al.’s (2011) integrated model of intervention implementation, we...
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School psychologists have training and expertise in consultation and evidence-based interventions that position them well to support early career teachers (ECTs). The current study involved iterative development and pilot testing of an intervention to help ECTs become more effective in classroom management and engaging learners, as well as more con...
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El presente artículo resume tendencias recientes en la educación durante la primera infancia y con respecto al papel de las interacciones educadora-niño; además, entrega mayores detalles sobre un marco específico que ha ayudado a que este campo de estudio avance en su comprensión de este componente clave. La motivación para realizar este resumen su...
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div class="WordSection1"> The Effective Classroom Interactions (ECI) online courses were designed to provide an engaging, effective and scalable approach to enhancing early childhood teachers’ use of classroom practices that impact children’s school readiness. The created courses included several versions aimed at testing whether or not certain des...
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Research Findings: This study explored the role Head Start teachers’ (n = 355) depressive symptoms play in their interactions with children and in children’s (n = 2,203) social-emotional development, specifically changes in children’s problem behaviors and social skills as reported by parents and teachers during the preschool year. Results of the m...
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Parents, professionals, and policymakers agree that quality is crucial for early education. But precise, consistent, and valid definitions of quality have been elusive. In this article, Robert Pianta, Jason Downer, and Bridget Hamre tackle the questions of how to define quality, how to measure it, and how to ensure that more children experience it....
Chapter
School district administrators and state officials are faced with the challenging task of creating teacher evaluation systems that distribute teachers across a continuum of effectiveness and provide comprehensive and actionable information. This chapter seeks to add clarity on the issues by using data from value-added and observational assessments...
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This special issue highlights recent research on measures of early adolescents’ development and the school contexts in which they spend their time. We are particularly interested in measures with direct application—providing actionable data to teachers, principals, parents, school counselors, or the students themselves, in ways that promote social-...
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The current study examines the associations between teachers' beliefs and knowledge and children's learning during the prekindergarten year. This study describes the degree to which 262 prekindergarten teachers' beliefs and knowledge regarding children's language and literacy skills are related to learning over the prekindergarten year. Teacher bel...
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Contemporary education reforms focus on assessing teachers' performance and developing selection mechanisms for hiring effective teachers. Tools that enable the prediction of teachers' classroom performance promote schools' ability to hire teachers more likely to be successful in the classroom. In addition, these assessment tools can be used for te...
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Contemporary education reforms focus on assessing teachers’ performance and developing selection mechanisms for hiring effective teachers. Tools that enable the prediction of teachers’ classroom performance promote schools’ ability to hire teachers more likely to be successful in the classroom. In addition, these assessment tools can be used for te...
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The present study examined the pattern of associations over time between the quality of observed interactions and exposure to features of an effective coaching model for 170 preschool teachers enrolled in a study investigating professional development impacts. Using a treatment-on-the-treated approach, teachers exposed to a greater number of cycles...
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The study examined the applicability and generalizability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K (CLASS Pre-K; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and the associated conceptual Teaching through Interaction framework to understand classroom processes in the German early education system. Three broad domains describe effective teacher–child int...
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With research findings indicating positive associations between teacher-child interaction quality and children's development and learning, many professional development efforts now focus on improving the ways in which teachers interact with children. Previous work found that MyTeachingPartner (MTP), a web-mediated coaching intervention, improved te...
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This study examined self-reliant classroom behaviors during middle childhood as a mechanism through which early language and sustained attention become associated with academic achievement in adolescence. Participants were enrolled in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364). Path analyses revealed that preschool languag...
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To ensure that investments in expanding early childhood programs are effective in supporting children's school readiness, early childhood settings must include responsive and cognitively stimulating daily interactions between teachers and children. Few young children are exposed to the types of teacher–child interactions needed to help ensure that...
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Recent surveys have provided some guidance and recommendations for the student teaching component in early childhood teacher preparation, but specific information on the focus of supervision and evaluation of student teachers is limited. The current study surveyed 128 early childhood programs in 2- and 4-year institutions of higher education across...
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Background/Context Teacher evaluation is a major policy initiative intended to improve the quality of classroom instruction. This study documents a fundamental challenge to using teacher evaluation to improve teaching and learning. Purpose Using an observation instrument (CLASS-S), we evaluate evidence on different aspects of instructional practic...
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Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new...
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Valid measurement of how students’ experiences in secondary school classrooms lead to gains in learning requires a developmental approach to conceptualizing classroom processes. This article presents a potentially useful theoretical model, the Teaching Through Interactions framework, which posits teacher-student interactions as a central driver for...
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This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher-child interactions and children's development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher-child interaction (responsive teaching) and domain-sp...
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Classroom observation of teachers is a significant part of educational measurement; measurements of teacher practice are being used in teacher evaluation systems across the country. This research investigated whether observations made live in the classroom and from video recording of the same lessons yielded similar inferences about teaching. Using...
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This exploratory study examined the extent to which the effectiveness of instructional interactions varies among classroom social settings (i.e., large group, free choice, meals, and routines), learning activities (i.e., shared reading, literacy, math, science, social studies, and esthetics), or their combination. Participants were 314 preschool te...
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Validating frameworks for understanding classroom processes that contribute to student learning and development is important to advance the scientific study of teaching. This article presents one such framework, Teaching through Interactions, which posits that teacher-student interactions are a central driver for student learning and organizes teac...
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It is widely acknowledged that consistent, high-quality teacher–student interactions promote optimal developmental outcomes for children. Previous research on the quality of teacher–student interactions provides empirical support for this premise. Little research has been conducted on the consistency of teacher–student interactions. This study exam...
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Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring SystemSecondary. After accounting for prior yea...
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The present study examined the pattern of association(s) over time between (a) knowledge of and observational skills in identifying teacher–child interactions, and (b) observed behavior in the domain of instructional interaction for 405 preschool teachers enrolled in a professional development study. Teacher's knowledge/observational skills and obs...
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Research findings: Children's (n = 980) social competence during prekindergarten was assessed as a function of their teachers' (n = 233) exposure to the Preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum and 2 levels of support through MyTeachingPartner, a Web-based approach to professional development. Children in classrooms t...
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Observational assessment is used to study program and teacher effectiveness across large numbers of classrooms, but training a workforce of raters that can assign reliable scores when observations are used in large-scale contexts can be challenging and expensive. Limited data are available to speak to the feasibility of training large numbers of ra...
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This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might co...
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To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Thirty-six classrooms within 5 urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training +...
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Among 440 early childhood teachers, half were randomly assigned to take a 14-week course on effective teacher-child interactions. This course used the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) as the basis to organize, describe, and demonstrate effective teacher-child interactions. Compared to teachers in a control condition, those exposed to the...
Chapter
Classrooms are complex social systems, and student-teacher relationships and interactions are also complex, multicomponent systems. We posit that the nature and quality of relationship interactions between teachers and students are fundamental to understanding student engagement, can be assessed through standardized observation methods, and can be...
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Student engagement is an important contributor to school success, yet high school students routinely describe themselves as disengaged. Identifying factors that alter (increase) engagement is a key aspect of improving support for student achievement. This study investigated students' perceptions of autonomy, teacher connection, and academic compete...
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Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health professi...
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Research Findings: Aiming to raise the quality of early childhood teachers and caregivers and to reduce turnover, government and professional associations are pursuing 2 intervention strategies. The 1st mandates higher credential levels, as seen with Head Start and state preschool reforms. Here we examine the efficacy of the 2nd strategy: offering...
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In this article we describe the design and implementation of the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE's) college-level course and its delivery to teachers across 10 settings and 15 instructional sections. This professional development intervention, found effective in changing teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and actual c...
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As early education grows in the United States, in-service professional development in key instructional and interaction skills is a core component of capacity-building in early childhood education. In this paper, we describe results from an evaluation of the effects of MyTeachingPartner, a web-based system of professional development, on language a...
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The quality of classroom interactions has typically been studied using aggregates of ratings over time. However, within-day ratings may contain important variability. This study investigated within-day variability using the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development's observational data during grades 3 and 5. The first question examined t...
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When compared to risk factors, less is known about family characteristics that enhance developmental outcomes among low-income African-American children. The current study explored elements of African-American parenting and their relationship to early childhood academic readiness. Using a predominantly low-income African-American subsample from the...
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Research suggests that teachers' interactions with preschool-age children have a significant influence on what children learn and the skills they develop. Additional research is needed to systematically determine the types of professional development that can help teachers learn effective teaching practices. This study is part of a larger effort to...
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Research Findings: This study examined the extent to which maternal sensitivity in infancy and toddlerhood is associated with children's social and relational competence and problems in the early years of schooling as well as the extent to which this association is mediated by children's effortful control abilities. Data from 1,364 children (705 bo...
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Theory, methods, and knowledge gained from years of study in psychological science and human development apply to the understanding and improvement of teacher quality and, ultimately, student achievement and social and emotional outcomes. With these applications, educational research has stronger potential to make more effective and systematic cont...
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Research Findings: Effective teaching in early childhood (EC) care and education settings requires skillful combinations of explicit instruction, sensitive and warm interactions, responsive feedback, and verbal engagement intentionally directed to ensure children's learning and embedded within a classroom environment that is not overly structured o...
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MyTeachingPartner (MTP) is a teacher professional development program designed to improve the quality of teacher-child interactions in pre-kindergarten classrooms and children's language and literacy development. The program includes language/literacy activities and two Web-based resources—video exemplars of effective interactions and individualize...
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There is surprisingly little empirical research examining issues of fidelity of implementation within the early childhood education literature. In the MyTeachingPartner project, 154 teachers were provided with materials to implement a supplemental classroom curriculum addressing six aspects of literacy and language development. The present study ex...
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The National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE) program of research is a series of experimental studies of specific approaches to training early childhood (EC) educators to be effective in implementation of curriculum and instructional interactions focused on promoting language and literacy skills, two domains that operate...
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The National Research Council's (NRC) statement and description of features of settings that have value for positive youth development have been of great importance in shifting discourse toward creating programs that capitalize on youth motivations toward competence and connections with others. This assets-based approach to promote development is c...
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The authors take the opportunity to respond to the commentaries (this issue of Educational Researcher) that were written regarding their article (in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher) summarizing the conceptual and empirical basis for using standardized approaches to observing teachers' practices in classrooms and the potential that su...
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Research Findings: Using observational data gathered in 730 kindergarten classrooms in 6 states, the present study focuses on the quality of children's learning opportunities in kindergarten classrooms. Findings show that overall, children experience moderate to low levels of quality in the areas of classroom organization and instructional support...
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Research Findings: This article is a natural follow-up to intent-to-treat findings indicating that the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, inclusive of online video resources and Web-mediated consultation, improved the quality of pre-K teachers' interactions with children. This study takes a close look at implementation fidelity within the effective MTP...
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The authors advance an argument that placing observation of actual teaching as a central feature of accountability frameworks, teacher preparation, and basic science could result in substantial improvements in instruction and related social processes and a science of the production of teaching and teachers. Teachers' behavioral interactions with st...
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As the workforce in state-funded pre-kindergarten programs continues to grow in the United States, the promise of these and other early education opportunities (e.g., Head Start) depends in large part on in-service professional development and training in key instructional and interaction skills. In this paper, we describe effects of MyTeachingPart...
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This article examined general trends in teacher-reported conflict and closeness among 878 children from kindergarten through sixth grade, and examined early childhood characteristics that predict differences in initial levels and growth of conflict and closeness over time. Results indicated modest stability of teacher-perceived conflict and closene...
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This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of...
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Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all...
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Teachers' judgments of relational conflict are unique indicators of children's academic and social adjustment. Using a large, hierarchically nested sample of preschoolers (N = 2282) and teachers (N = 597) this study examines the individual and classroom factors associated with teachers' ratings of conflict, both before and after adjusting for probl...