Brian Bridges

Brian Bridges
The Education University of Hong Kong | ied · Department of Social Sciences (SSC)

24.5
 · 
PhD History University of Wales Swansea

About

98
Publications
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Introduction
Brian Bridges is an Honorary Professor in the Dept of Social Sciences at the Education University of Hong Kong as well as an Affiliate Fellow of the Centre for Asian Pacific Studies at Lingnan University, Hong Kong. He previously taught for over twenty years in the Social Sciences Programme at Lingnan University. Brian does research in Diplomatic History, International Relations and Sports Studies, primarily with a focus on East Asia. His most recently-completed project is 'Sports Development of Hong Kong and Macau since the Handovers' (co-edited book published by Routledge).

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
The Mongolian People's Republic (MPR) became the focus of intense competition between the Soviet Union and Japan in the 1930s, when it was more commonly known as Outer Mongolia. The Soviet Union viewed the MPR as an ideological and strategic ally, and was determined to defend that state against the increasingly adventurist actions of the Japanese m...
Article
Full-text available
The assassination attempt on South Korean (ROK) President Chun Doo Hwan during a state visit to Rangoon, Burma (now known as Yangon, Myanmar) in 1983 illustrates the willingness of the North Korean state to engage in state terror not only against its own citizens, but also against the ROK. The authors examine the North Korean state’s adoption of co...
Book
Edited volume which makes a unique contribution to the sports development history of Greater China.
Chapter
After a brief but bloody military campaign‚ the invading Japanese forces occupied Hong Kong on Christmas Day 1941. For the following three years and eight months, the Japanese military administration tried to impose a new social order through the ‘Japanization’ of Hong Kong. The role of sport in this remodelling policy has been largely ignored‚ but...
Article
A widely-held perception is that the image of North Korea among most Chinese people has changed from that of a socialist comrade and ‘little brother’ to an idiosyncratic, trouble-making neighbor. This research questions the homogeneity of Chinese people’s viewpoints towards North Korea. Concepts of state and popular nationalism are used to examine...
Article
Cricket was one of the main sports that typified British imperial cultural exports, but in the colony of Hong Kong it remained largely a pursuit with limited appeal beyond expatriates and South Asian residents. After 1997, the cricket community did receive better financial and administrative support, but a consistent policy to promote the sport was...
Article
Full-text available
Since Hong Kong’s reversion to China in 1997, the Special Administrative Region's government and its people have been grappling with a dual-sided problem. Firstly, to adjust to being a “new” part of China and what that means in terms of national consciousness and local identities, particularly given the Beijing leaders’ expectations that Hongkonger...
Article
Throughout the 1920s, distrust and contention marked Anglo–Soviet relations, culminating in the diplomatic break in 1927. In 1929, the incoming Labour government successfully pursued its objective of re-establishing diplomatic relations with Moscow, but the follow-up in terms of ambassadorial appointments was far from routine for either side. This...
Article
From the early 1960s onwards the two Koreas have held intermittent discussions about forming joint teams for the Olympic Games, as well as associated regional games such as the Asian Games. But the results were minimal and only in 2000–2006 did joint entry into opening ceremonies – though not joint or combined teams – occur. This troubled history i...
Chapter
‘It’s an unbeatable combination of boats, beers, and cheers.’ With this phrase, the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) marketed its top attraction for June 2013 — the Hong Kong Dragon Boat Carnival, held in Victoria Harbour on 21–23 June.1 This annual event is certainly not the only dragon boat festival held in Hong Kong and in the world. Arguably, the...
Article
It has been six years since the Beijing Olympic torch relays were held in Hong Kong and Macao, the two Special Administrative Regions of China. Extensive research which was largely connected to nationalism and globalism has described aspects of who, when, where and how the torch relays were executed, but the question of why, being the most difficul...
Article
South Korea's diplomatic and security focus has inevitably been on northeast Asia and its difficult relationship with its northern neighbour, but South Korea also has a role to play in the broader Asian Pacific region. This article analyzes South Korea's increasing economic, political, and cultural links with the wider region, in particular with So...
Article
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 and the subsequent critical global focus on the 1980 Moscow Olympics placed Hong Kong and its aspiring Olympians in a dilemma. The Hong Kong government and the Hong Kong Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Committee (ASF&OC) found themselves coming under multiple pressures as politics heavily in...
Article
1948 was South Korea's first ever appearance in the Olympics – a poor country, forced to adjust to division on the peninsula, with a limited athletic presence. But South Korea won its first medals and contributed to the tortuous process of securing its international standing. Sixty-four years later, by the time of its second appearance in a London...
Article
Since Hong Kong's reversion to China in 1997, the Special Administrative Region's government and its people have grappled with the problem of trying to pursue dual objectives at the same time. Firstly, to adjust to being a 'new' part of China and what that means in terms of national consciousness and local identities, particularly given the Beijing...
Book
The Two Koreas and the Politics of Global Sport analyses the impact of politics on the development of sport in the two Koreas over six decades and argues that inter-Korean rivalry has significantly influenced sportingambitions and development. © 2012 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. All rights reserved.
Article
In January 2011 Hong Kong's Legislative Council voted against any bid to host the 2023 Asian Games. Set against the background of the historical development of sport in Hong Kong including previous experiences with bidding for and hosting international sporting events, the key parameters of the debate within Hong Kong relating to a possible 2023 bi...
Article
In December 2009, Hong Kong hosted its largest ever multi-sport event, the East Asian Games (EAG). Overshadowed initially by the excitement of the 2008 Beijing Olympics – and Hong Kong's part in hosting the equestrian events – the Hong Kong public was slow to appreciate the significance of the EAG. This essay examines the history of sports developm...
Article
The Beijing Olympic Games of 2008 threw into sharp relief questions not just about how China could manage such a sporting mega-event but also about whether it could cope with the longer-term social, economic and political implications and legacies. Sport, including such mega-events as the Olympics, can be used by governments for internal purposes,...
Article
Although in 2008 the Olympic flame did pass through the two Koreas, there was no joint entry by the two countries' athletes at the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics. In the World Cup, qualifying matches between the two Korean teams in 2008 were played in neutral venues because of disputes over flags and anthems. Set against the background of...
Article
Under President Chen Shui-bian, Taiwan has been active in courting Japan, an approach which has been quietly reciprocated by Japan. Set against the background of deep historical and economic links, this strengthening relationship has been both encouraged and constrained by the two powers' complex relationships with China and the United States. Whil...
Article
The 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul were a coming out party for South Korea - a culmination of its efforts to be recognized as an accomplished economic power and a serious international actor. The South Korean leadership undoubtedly looked for accelerated economic growth as well as heightened national consciousness (including awareness of sporting cult...
Article
Under President Chen Shui-bian, Taiwan has been active in courting Japan, an approach which has been quietly reciprocated by Japan. Set against the background of deep historical and economic links, this strengthening relationship has been both encouraged and constrained by the two powers' complex relationships with China and the United States. Whil...
Chapter
From the distance of Europe, Korea is a comparatively unknown and apparently obscure part of Asia, especially when compared with its powerful neighbours on the peninsula — China and Japan. Yet South Korea has become a major economic power in its own right, revitalized now after the setbacks of the Asian financial crisis, while the awkward and compl...
Chapter
The theme of this volume, contemporary Asia—Europe relations, addresses interactions between what international relations theorists call regions, delineated along geographical lines of continents. Regions are neither territories placed under the sovereignty of political institutions, nor supranational or transnational actors in the strict sense of...
Article
The linkages between football, nationalism and spectator violence in China are analysed by discussing the reactions of the Chinese to two footballing defeats: the World Cup qualifying loss to Hong Kong in 1985 and the loss to Japan in the 2004 Asian Cup final. Using both political science and sociological perspectives, the settings of the two games...
Article
This essay examines the complex, and ultimately unsuccessful, negotiations between North and South Korea, undertaken with the encouragement of the International Olympic Committee during 1962-63 to form a united Korean team to participate in the Tokyo Olympics of 1964. In particular, it focuses on the role of Hong Kong, chosen as a 'neutral' site fo...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-Korean sporting contacts in and around the Olympics over the past 60 years suggest that there is a close relationship between politics and sports. For divided nations such as the two Koreas, which by their very rationale are involved in a highly-charged competition for legitimacy with their other ‘part-nation’, the Olympics have been a partic...
Article
The anti-Japanese demonstrations in China in April 2005 and the Japanese reactions have been characterized as a "clash of nationalisms." This article examines in detail the nature of contemporary nationalism in both China and Japan, taking a number of current issues in the bilateral relationship as case studies. It differentiates between state and...
Article
South Korea’s diplomatic and security focus has inevitably been on North-east Asia and its difficult relationship with its northern neighbour, but South Korea also has a role to play in the broader Asian Pacific region. This paper analyses South Korea’s increasing economic, political and cultural links with the region and its role in the developmen...
Chapter
All cultures have played games or sports, although the forms and formats have undoubtedly changed over time. Today, for many people sport is about exercise, leisure, and doing things for fun, but clearly it is also much more than that. At an institutionalized level sport is an activity that is both strenuous and involves competition, sometimes inte...
Article
The European Union has advanced further down the road of regionalism and economic integration than the Asian Pacific region, which has begun to develop new forms of regional identity. This paper broadly compares and contrasts European and Asian perceptions and practices of regionalism, arguing that while both regions share some common goals, there...
Article
This article analyses the nature of contemporary Hong Kong–Japan relations in their economic, political and cultural dimensions, setting the relationship within the broader context of Sino-Japanese relations, concerns about identity and nationalism within Hong Kong, and changing Japanese commercial priorities. While the commercial and popular cultu...
Article
For Europe, Korea is a comparatively unknown and seemingly obscure part of Asia, especially when compared with the peninsula's powerful neighbors of China and Japan. Yet, South Korea has become a player of growing importance in the global economic system, while the awkward and complex relationship between South and North Korea ensures that the peni...
Article
Full-text available
Japan-US relations, which had been drifting in the late 1990s, were given a new lease of life by the new administrations of US President George W. Bush and Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi Junichiro, both of whom argued for strengthening the alliance. This paper argues that, although the new sense of cooperation extended through to beyond the Septem...
Article
The renewed crisis over a suspected North Korean nuclear weapons program has raised significant challenges for the governments of the United States, South Korea, and Japan. While close coordination between these three states has been the avowed policy aim, the reality is that differences in approach, reflecting varying perceptions as well as differ...
Chapter
Globalization, driven by corporate entrepreneurship and international communication advances, is undoubtedly intensifying worldwide interconnectedness,1 but it cannot totally eliminate either the legacies of history or the realities of geographical and cultural distance. Certainly not in the case of Europe and the Asia Pacific, two regions whose re...
Chapter
Since the days of Marco Polo, China has exerted a fascination for Europeans even if the cultural and trade interactions have been both intermittent and variable. But, in the nineteenth century the Sino-European relationship was traumatized not by trade flows or cultural cross-fertilization but by the Europeans also becoming involved in the imperial...
Article
In addition to FDI, Europe has also been increasingly committed to the region through loan activities. European banks were themselves heavily exposed to some of the countries most at risk and have been forced to undertake serious discussions with both Asian governments and companies to set up private-sector rescue packages to sort out short-term de...
Chapter
The end of the Cold War brought significant changes to international patterns of interaction and the relationship between Western Europe and Southeast Asia was not immune to these broader shifts. European attention was diverted by the primacy of coping with the disintegration of communism, first in Eastern Europe, and then in the Soviet Union itsel...
Article
Pacific Asia is in a period of transition. The region has to adapt to the new post-Cold War era, maintain its enviable economic growth record and find an effective voice in world affairs. This book - a collaborative venture, combining the complementary viewpoints of a Japanese author, a Malaysian author and someone from outside the region - looks a...
Article
Japan's Rise to International Responsibilities: The Case of Arms Control,by Reinhard Drifte. Athlone Press, London, 1990. xi + 112 pp. £25. ISBN 0–485–11385–6.Japanese Defence: The Search for Political Power,by S. Javed Maswood. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1990. ix + 113 pp. US$12.00. ISBN 981–3035–39–0.The Emergence of Japan's...
Article
In Japan, fashions tend to ‘boom’ and then disappear quickly. The spring of 1991 promises to be the height of a rare phenomenon, a Soviet boom, or to be more precise, the ‘Gorby-boom’. For, after a considerable run-in, in mid-April Mikhail Gorbachev is set to become the most senior Soviet leader ever to visit Japan. Several Japanese prime ministers...
Article
The sustained economic performance of the major East Asian economies in the second half of the 1980s has once again revived discussions about the formation of regional economic organizations, or even an Asian Pacific economic bloc. Part of the rationale for such moves has been the perception of growing interdependence between the regional economies...
Article
Koreiskaya Narodno‐demokraticheskaya Respublika by M. Ye. Trigubenko. Moscow: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 1985. Pp.274. 1R.80k.
Article
While the developments leading up to the signature of the Soviet—Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1941 have received considerable attention from scholars, the antecedents of this pact, the discussions between Japan and Soviet Russia over non-aggression or neutrality agreements from the mid-1920s onwards, are less widely known. The most significant...
Article
This course examines the Asian Pacific region's efforts to promote regional cooperation and integration, primarily through the medium of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Taking into account the experience of regional integration in other parts of the world, primarily the European Union, this course examines the nature of the Asian Pacif...
Article
Japan’s relations with the two Koreas have remained complicated and controversial, as recent anti-Japanese protests in South Korea demonstrate. This paper discusses the progress in bringing reconciliation between Japan and South Korea through an examination of four elements in the bilateral relationship: the historical legacies, the economic compet...
Article
This paper examines the nature of China’s economic relationship with the two Koreas, discussing the motivations behind China’s policy changes in the 1990s and assessing recent trends in trade, investment and economic cooperation. The prospects of the Tumen river development programme, which brings together all three countries in a multilateral coop...
Article
In the early hours of Friday 8 July 1994, Kim Il-sung, North Korea’s president and ‘Great Leader’ died. For a regime and a country which had known only one leader since the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea had been founded in 1948, his death eas a profound shock. After his death was finally announced, the following day, the streets of the capi...

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