Brian Uzzi

Brian Uzzi
Northwestern University | NU · Kellogg School of Management

About

126
Publications
100,230
Reads
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29,899
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
A large-scale study provides a causal test for a cornerstone of social science
Article
Full-text available
Science’s changing demographics raise new questions about research team diversity and research outcomes. We study mixed-gender research teams, examining 6.6 million papers published across the medical sciences since 2000 and establishing several core findings. First, the fraction of publications by mixed-gender teams has grown rapidly, yet mixed-ge...
Article
Experiments and fieldwork show that teams working together online produce fewer ideas than those collaborating in person — a first step towards answering the question of which modes of communication are generally best for creativity. How different modes of communication affect the creativity of teams.
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Fast growing scientific topics have famously been key harbingers of the new frontiers of science, yet, large-scale analyses of their genesis and impact are rare. We investigated one possible factor connected with a topic’s extraordinary growth: scientific prizes. Our longitudinal analysis of nearly all recognized prizes worldwide and over 11,000 sc...
Article
How long will this article be remembered? How long will people reference it in their conversations, and for how many years will other authors cite its findings in their own works? A community's attention to a cultural object decays as time passes, a process known as collective forgetting. Recent work models this decay as the result of two different...
Article
BACKGROUND . The increasing availability of digital data on scholarly inputs and outputs – from research funding, productivity, and collaboration to paper citations and scientist mobility – offers unprecedented opportunities to explore the structure and evolution of science. The science of science (SciSci) offers a quantitative understanding of the...
Preprint
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Scientific revolutions affect funding, investments, and technological advances, yet predicting their onset and projected size and impact remains a puzzle. We investigated a possible signal predicting a topic's revolutionary growth - its association with a scientific prize. Our analysis used original data on nearly all recognized prizes associated w...
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Background Growing evidence shows that scientific collaboration plays a crucial role in transformative innovation in the life sciences. For example, contemporary drug discovery and development reflects the work of teams of individuals from academic centers, the pharmaceutical industry, the regulatory science community, health care providers, and pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
How long until this paper is forgotten? Collective forgetting is the process by which the attention received by cultural pieces decays as time passes. Recent work modeled this decay as the result of two different processes, one linked to communicative memory --memories sustained by human communication-- and cultural memory --memories sustained by t...
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Significance Mentorship is arguably a scientist’s most significant collaborative relationship; yet of all collaborations, comparatively little research exists on the link between mentorship and protégé success. Using new large-scale data from the genealogical and performance records of 10s of thousands of scientists worldwide from 1960 to the prese...
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The ability to objectively assess academic performance is critical to rewarding academic merit, charting academic policy, and promoting science. Quintessential to performing these functions is first the ability to collect valid and current data through increasingly automated online interfaces. Moreover, it is crucial to remove disciplinary and othe...
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As terror groups proliferate and grow in sophistication, a major international concern is the development of scientific methods that explain and predict insurgent violence. Approaches to estimating a group’s future lethality often require data on the group’s capabilities and resources, but by the nature of the phenomenon, these data are intentional...
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Polarization affects many forms of social organization. A key issue focuses on which affective relationships are prone to change and how their change relates to performance. In this study, we analyze a financial institutional over a two-year period that employed 66 day traders, focusing on links between changes in affective relations and trading pe...
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In the version of this article initially published, errors occurred in the Acknowledgments.
Article
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Users online tend to select information that support and adhere their beliefs, and to form polarized groups sharing the same view-e.g. echo chambers. Algorithms for content promotion may favour this phenomenon, by accounting for users preferences and thus limiting the exposure to unsolicited contents. To shade light on this question, we perform a c...
Article
Federal funding is associated with the quality of science and researchers’ professional advancement.¹ Female junior faculty received less university start-up support than males in one study,² a factor associated with early-career attrition rates.³ We investigated another potential association: the size of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant a...
Article
Social network research has begun to take advantage of fine-grained communications regarding coordination, decision-making, and knowledge sharing. These studies, however, have not generally analyzed how external events are associated with a social network’s structure and communicative properties. Here, we study how external events are associated wi...
Article
Many leaders today do not rise through the ranks but are recruited directly out of graduate programs into leadership positions. We use a quasi-experiment and instrumental-variable regression to understand the link between students’ graduate school social networks and placement into leadership positions of varying levels of authority. Our data measu...
Article
A new analysis of biomedical awards over five decades shows men receive more cash and more respect for their research than women do, report Brian Uzzi and colleagues. A new analysis of biomedical awards over five decades shows men receive more cash and more respect for their research than women do, report Brian Uzzi and colleagues.
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Debate over the impact of team composition on the outcome of a contest has attracted sports enthusiasts and sports scientists for years. A commonly held belief regarding team success is the superstar effect; that is, including more talent improves the performance of a team1. However, studies of team sports have suggested that previous relations and...
Article
Scientific prizes confer credibility to persons, ideas, and disciplines, provide financial incentives, and promote community-building celebrations. We examine the growth dynamics and interlocking relationships found in the worldwide scientific prize network. We focus on understanding how the knowledge linkages among prizes and scientists’ propensit...
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Teamwork pervades modern production, yet teamwork can make individual roles difficult to ascertain. The Matthew effect suggests that communities reward eminent team members for great outcomes at the expense of less eminent team members. We study this phenomenon in reverse, investigating credit sharing after damaging events. Our context is article r...
Article
Full-text available
Climb atop shoulders and wait for funerals. That, suggested Newton and then Planck, is how science advances (more or less). We’ve come far since then, but many notions about how people and practices, policies, and resources influence the course of science are still more rooted in traditions and intuitions than in evidence. We can and must do better...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientific prizes are among the greatest recognition a scientist receives from their peers and arguably shape the direction of a field by conferring credibility to persons, ideas, and disciplines, providing financial rewards, and promoting rituals that reinforce scientific communities. The proliferation of prizes and links among prizes suggest that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientists are embedded in social and information networks that influence and are influenced by the quality of their scientific work, its impact, and the recognition they receive. Here we quantify the systematic relationship between a scientist's position in the network of scientific collaborations and the citations they receive. As expected, we fi...
Article
Full-text available
Peer-to-peer lending is hypothesized to help equalize economic opportunities for the world’s poor. We empirically investigate the “flat-world” hypothesis, the idea that globalization eventually leads to economic equality, using crowdfinancing data for over 660,000 loans in 220 nations and territories made between 2005 and 2013. Contrary to the flat...
Data
File containing supplemental information. (PDF)
Article
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Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise—for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding...
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Scientists and inventors can draw on an ever-expanding literature for the building blocks of tomorrow’s ideas, yet little is known about how combinations of past work are related to future discoveries. Our analysis parameterizes the age distribution of a work’s references and revealed three links between the age of prior knowledge and hit papers an...
Chapter
Full-text available
Novelty is an essential feature of creative ideas, yet the building blocks of new ideas are often embodied in existing knowledge. From this perspective, balancing atypical knowledge with conventional knowledge may be critical to the link between innovativeness and impact. The authors’ analysis of 17.9 million papers spanning all scientific fields s...
Article
Full-text available
Social influence is typically studied after a product is released. Yet, audience expectations and discussions begin before a product’s release. This observation suggests a need to understand adoption processes over a product’s life cycle. To explore pre- and postrelease social influence processes, this article uses survey data from Americans expose...
Article
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On social media algorithms for content promotion, accounting for users preferences, might limit the exposure to unsolicited contents. In this work, we study how the same contents (videos) are consumed on different platforms -- i.e. Facebook and YouTube -- over a sample of $12M$ of users. Our findings show that the same content lead to the formation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evaluation of scholarly achievements in academia is largely based on the researcher's publication record. This record is communicated in exhaustive detail in the researcher's curriculum vitae (CV) or in summary via her/his h-index. The h-index, although a convenient abstraction, considers neither the publication timeline nor the impact factor (IF)...
Article
The business elite constitutes a small but strikingly influential subset of the population, oftentimes affecting important societal outcomes such as the consolidation of political power, the adoption of corporate governance practices, and the stability of national economies more broadly. Here we analyze a unique dataset of all MBA students at a top...
Conference Paper
Using latent semantic analysis on the full text of scientific articles, we measure the distance between 36 million citing/cited article pairs and chart changes in citation proximity over time. The analysis shows that the mean distance between citing and cited articles has steadily increased since 1990. This demonstrates that current scholars are mo...
Conference Paper
Social network research has begun to take advantage of fine-grained communications regarding coordination, decision-making, and knowledge sharing. These studies, however, have not generally analyzed how external events are associated with a social network's structure and communicative properties. Here, we study how external events are associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
Social network research has begun to take advantage of fine-grained communications regarding coordination, decision-making, and knowledge sharing. These studies, however, have not generally analyzed how external events are associated with a social network's structure and communicative properties. Here, we study how external events are associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions are increasingly inferred linguistically from online data with a goal of predicting off-line behavior. Yet, it is unknown whether emotions inferred linguistically from online communications correlate with actual changes in off-line activity. We analyzed all 886,000 trading decisions and 1,234,822 instant messages of 30 professional day tra...
Data
Supporting Analyses, Results and Null models. (PDF)
Article
How existing technologies and ideas are recombined into new innovations remains an important question, particularly as the store of prior technology, art, and work expands at an increasing rate. Yet, methodologies for identifying effective recombinations remain a nascent area of research. This paper extends our previous work, which developed a netw...
Conference Paper
Crowds offer a new form of efficacious collective decision making, yet knowledge about the mechanisms by which they achieve superior outcomes remains nascent. It has been suggested that crowds work best with market-like relationships when individuals make independent decisions and possess dissimilar information. By contrast, sociological discussion...
Article
Full-text available
The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose tha...
Article
Full-text available
Traded corporations are required by law to have a majority of outside directors on their board. This requirement allows the existence of directors who sit on the board of two or more corporations at the same time, generating what is commonly known as interlocking directorates. While research has shown that networks of interlocking directorates faci...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific articles are retracted at increasing rates, with the highest rates among top journals. Here we show that a single retraction triggers citation losses through an author's prior body of work. Compared to closely-matched control papers, citations fall by an average of 6.9% per year for each prior publication. These chain reactions are susta...
Conference Paper
In this paper we introduce and study the properties of certain kind of interdependent networks that we collectively call a Red Black Network -- two intertwined social networks that work together towards a series of events (missions or performances). More specifically, members of one of the two networks is responsible for planning and organizing the...
Article
Full-text available
Novelty is an essential feature of creative ideas, yet the building blocks of new ideas are often embodied in existing knowledge. From this perspective, balancing atypical knowledge with conventional knowledge may be critical to the link between innovativeness and impact. Our analysis of 17.9 million papers spanning all scientific fields suggests t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies uncovered important core/periphery network structures characterizing complex sets of cooperative and competitive interactions between network nodes, be they proteins, cells, species or humans. Better characterization of the structure, dynamics and function of core/periphery networks is a key step of our understanding cellular functio...
Article
Full-text available
In their Report “The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge” (18 May, p. [1036][1]), S. Wuchty et al. observe that references with multiple authors receive more citations than solo-authored ones. They conclude that research led by teams has more quality than solo-led research,
Article
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Theory purports that animal foraging choices evolve to maximize returns, such as net energy intake. Empirical research in both human and non-human animals reveals that individuals often attend to the foraging choices of their competitors while making their own foraging choices. Owing to the complications of gathering field data or constructing expe...
Article
Rivalries in the workplace can be destructive to both personal career growth and group success. Many attempts to reverse rivalries fail because of the complex way emotion and reason operate in the building of trust. Using a method called the 3Rs, an effective leader can turn a rival into a collaborator, setting the stage for a healthy work life whi...
Article
We examine how forms of a firm's embedding in market relationships affect the size of its spreads – i.e., the difference between the selling price and production costs of its goods and services. Building on Harrison White's work on the relational underpinning of market behavior, we argue that the embeddedness of market transactions in social struct...
Data
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We show Pearson's correlations between a person's self-reported and email derived network characteristics for the 31 partners in the same office, utilizing the time-resolved total volume (tVM), reciprocation (tRM) and normalization method (tNM). (PDF)
Data
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(A) shows ROC curves for three email-to-social network conversion methods using permuted email data. Utilizing the total volume method we found a FPR = 17.2% and TPR = 74.7% while the reciprocation method yielded a FPR = 22.1% and FPR = 80.0%. Finally, the normalization method allowed us to find a FPR = 12.1% and a TPR = 76.0%. Performing a test-re...
Data
(A) Utilizing the total volume method, we converted emails to social attachments. In the ROC, we indicated best FPR = 18.2% and TPR = 76.7% (dashed orange lines). Testing the robustness of our methods by randomly splitting the email transmissions into a “test” and “retest” set, we found a mean FPR = 18.7±4.4 and a mean TPR = 74.5±8.0. In the inset,...
Data
Full-text available
We display the frequency distribution of response times for different types of ties utilizing email transmissions among more than 500 MBA students over a 2-year period of time. Specifically, we only accounted for time intervals of <1,000 hours. We conclude that social ties have shorter response times than professional ties. (PDF)
Data
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Analogously to Fig. 3C in the main paper we utilized the total volume and reciprocation method (inset) and found that emails with a short response-time significantly contributed to the difference between social self-reported and other ties. (PDF)
Data
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(A) shows ROC curves for three email-to-social network conversion methods that utilize time-resolved data. Utilizing the total volume method we found a FPR = 13.6% and TPR = 66.7% while the reciprocation method yielded a FPR = 14.9% and FPR = 58.7%. Finally, the normalization method allowed us to find a FPR = 10.5% and a TPR = 69.3%. Performing a t...
Data
Full-text available
We show Pearson's correlations between a person's self-reported and email derived network characteristics for the 31 partners in the same office, utilizing the randomized total volume (rVM), reciprocation (rRM) and normalization method (rNM). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network"...
Article
Full-text available
Tracking the volume of keywords in Internet searches, message boards, or Tweets has provided an alternative for following or predicting associations between popular interest or disease incidences. Here, we extend that research by examining the role of e-communications among day traders and their collective understanding of the market. Our study int...
Article
This paper reviews the literature on small-world networks in social science and management. This relatively new area of research represents an unusual level of cross-disciplinary research within social science and between social science and the physical sciences. We review the findings of this emerging area with an eye to describing the underlying...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooper...