Brian Sanderson

Brian Sanderson
Retired

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70
Publications
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1,197
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Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
The anadromous alewife is a commercially fished clupeid in Atlantic Canada, whose oceanic migration is poorly understood. Migration of alewives is presently investigated from the lower reaches of Gaspereau River into Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. Seventy-five post-spawning adults were tagged on their downstream migration; within two days of being tagg...
Article
A tidal energy development site has been designated in Minas Passage (Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada) for testing in-stream turbines and producing renewable energy. Concern remains that turbines might harm local populations of marine animals as they sweep by within a fastflowing water mass. Drifters approximately track a water mass and can suppo...
Chapter
The objectives of this chapter are to (1) document lessons learned from the design, implementation and monitoring of a salt marsh restoration in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, and (2) consider how the lessons can be applied to future restoration projects. The Fort Beauséjour salt marsh restoration sites are exposed to very large tides (up to 14 m)...
Chapter
The Myall Lakes comprise four connected basins: Bombah Broadwater, Two Mile Lake, Boolambayte Lake, and Myall Lake, and is the biggest lagoon system in New South Wales, Australia. Bombah Broadwater receives most of the catchment discharge and is weakly connected to the ocean via Myall River. Myall Lake is the ultimate backwater, receiving very litt...
Article
During a multiyear fish tracking study, subadult and adult life stages of Shubenacadie River striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were detected throughout winter in the well-mixed, hypertidal waters of the Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy. Thirty-five percent of the striped bass tagged with Vemco V16 transmitters were detected by two Minas Passage receiver a...
Article
Large sediment-laden ice cakes form in the Minas Basin and concern has been raised that they might pose a substantial danger to in-stream tidal turbines deployed in strong tides of Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy. Consideration of buoyancy and drag shows that large ice cakes must have density within a much more narrow range than small ice cakes if they...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-one dilution method experiments were used to measure phytoplankton growth rate, grazing rate by microzooplankton, and phytoplankton concentrations that saturate grazing in Tuggerah Lake—a large lagoon in New South Wales, Australia. Individual experiments conformed to the saturating grazing model with no evidence of a threshold phytoplankton...
Article
Many ocean models are primarily concerned with calculating currents of slowly propagating modes that are dynamically associated with buoyancy, Coriolis, field accelerations, and slowly-varying forcing. Calculating such slow modes involves adjustments by the very much faster barotropic mode. In order to minimize the computational cost, two approache...
Article
Empirical relationships are found for catchment runoff and efficiency of nitrogen-load delivery to lagoons in New South Wales, Australia. Empirical results and analysis of biogeochemical mechanisms are used to estimate the potential for eutrophication and changes in ecological state that result from increased total nitrogen export from a catchment...
Article
Full-text available
Two years of measurements are explored with a view to formulating an ecosystem model for Myall Lake. Stable physical characteristics, low catchment loads, low light attenuation, flat-bottomed hypsometry, and soft gyttja substrate allow stable charophyte biomass throughout the year in Myall Lake. Chara fibrosa dominates the total biomass and is abun...
Article
Full-text available
Submerged macrophytes can assimilate mineral nutrients through both shoots and roots (MARSHNER 1995). Several studies have addressed the relative importance of roots and shoots in nutrient uptake by submerged plants (BARKO et al. 1991). The availability and form of nutrients in the surrounding water and in the interstitial water affect the plant nu...
Article
The survival and subsequent growth potential of Anabaena spp. and other filamentous cyanobacteria and the cells of Aulacoseira spp. (diatom) and Ceratium hirundinella (dinoflagellate) following passage through the Multi Level Inlet Tower (MLIT) and offtake works at Chaffey Reservoir in New South Wales, Australia was investigated in late summer. The...
Article
A two-dimensional model is used to study transport of material within Myall Lakes and is coupled to the ocean using a one-dimensional model of Lower Myall River. Runoff from the catchment is calculated from water levels and compares favourably with rainfall assuming an average runoff yield of 28% and a runoff coefficient of 47% for events above the...
Article
Some coastal lakes in New South Wales have narrow channels to the ocean. Runoff from the catchment elevates water levels within the lake because of the constricted nature of the entrance. Freshwater inflow affects many ecological processes in these lakes. Often freshwater inflow comes from multiple sources and is difficult to measure directly. Wate...
Article
We investigated the distribution of two charophyte species, Chara fibrosa var. fibrosa (A. Br.) and Nitella hyalina (DC.) Ag., in Myall Lake, a shallow lake in New South Wales, Australia, in an attempt to elucidate the factors causing their distribution patterns. The field study was carried out from July 2003 to May 2005 and charophytes were sample...
Article
Full-text available
Breakdown and nutrient dynamics of submerged macrophytes were studied in Myall Lake, Australia. Mass loss of Myriophyllum sulsagineum was the lowest (64.90%) among the studied macrophytes during the 322days followed by charophytes (60.79%), whereas Najas marina and Vallisneria gigantea lost 91.15 and 86.02% of their respective initial mass during t...
Article
The seaward extent of New Zealand's coastal zone (defined here in a biophysical sense as the area of terrigenous influence) was determined from remotely sensed ocean colour and turbidity data. The cross-shore behavior of the colour and turbidity fields were quantified at a number of transects around the coastline and the locations where these field...
Article
Temporal changes in diversity and similarity of a phytoplankton community were investigated in relation to external hydrological disturbance in the Ben Chifley reservoir from September 1998 to January 2002. Species richness varied by a factor of 4-5 at each of three sites studied during the period (n = 53 at each site). Species diversity (measured...
Article
Full-text available
A method for removing ship motion from wind measurements using a simple and inexpensive strap-down system of accelerometers is described and analyzed. In slight seas, error analysis indicates that mean root-mean-square uncertainties associated with the motion correction are 0.03 and 0.006 m s-1 for the horizontal and vertical wind, respectively, fo...
Article
Non-stationary turbulence can invalidate eddy flux calculations. Two-hour longrecords of wind velocity, temperature and humidity are classified as stationaryor non-stationary based on the behaviour of the flux as a function of Reynoldsaveraging period; a number of indicators of stationarity are investigated. Thetwo-hour Maritime Continent Thunderst...
Article
DieCAST, a 4th-order-accurate numerical model of the East Australian Current (EAC), having low total dissipation and numerical dispersion, is used to study the kinematics and dynamics of the collisions and mergings of previously pinched-off EAC anticyclonic eddies. Earlier studies show that eddies which extrude and reside for months to the south of...
Article
Using cylindrical geometry to model a circular lake without stairstep boundary approximations, we determine the linear internal Kelvin wave phase speed sensitivity to order-of-accuracy and to radial and azimuthal resolution using a semi-collocated ("a" grid) ocean model. We also discuss nonlinear effects, including warm front sharpening, resultin...
Article
Accurate density calculation that includes pressure effects is achieved with negligible computational cost in the context of three-dimensional ocean modelling. Local linear (or quadratic) fits to the full UNESCO (Anon, 1981) equation of state can be used in many model applications where the potential temperature and salinity at a model grid point v...
Article
ABSTRACT14 clusters of drifters are studied to obtain the fractal dimension of relative trajectories between pairs of drifters. Averaging over all experiments, the relative trajectories have a fractal dimension of 1.3 over separation scales ranging from 10 m to 4000 m. The clusters were deployed in Lake Erie, the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent, a...
Article
Full-text available
A semi-implicit, control-volume, nonhydrostatic model is presented. Advection is fifth order with respect to space. Boundary conditions and molecular fluxes are also formulated at fourth order with respect to space. Computational cost is strictly proportional to the number of grid points. Barotropic and nonhydrostatic pressure gradients are calcula...
Article
Full-text available
The application of the dilution method to productive coastal waters has been limited, in part by difficulties in interpreting the nonlinear grazing dynamics. A split-function model of microzooplankton grazing is used to adapt the dilution method for analysis of mesotrophic and eutrophic systems, Phytoplankton growth rate mu and microzooplankton gra...
Article
Semi?Lagrangian schemes that advect scalars with high?order accuracy can give first?order errors when calculating field accelerations in a steady rotational flow or in a steady deformational flow. The error also appears in a control?volume advection scheme that has unlimited Courant number stability which permits large time steps. The error is attr...
Article
A shallow‐water control‐volume model is used to demonstrate features affecting the accuracy of numerical ocean‐atmosphere calculations. This model provides a context for illustrating the importance of consistent use of fields defined at points and fields averaged over cell volumes, cell faces and other surfaces. The accurate transformation between...
Article
Full-text available
An ocean flow that has all its scales resolved on a model grid can be more efficiently calculated to within a required accuracy by using high-order numerics than by grid refinement with low-order numerics. The differencing order must be at least as great as the space-time dimensionality D of the model to ensure that grid refinement reduces truncati...
Article
A two-dimensional numerical model of the shallow-water equations, with a modified Orlanski-type radiation boundary condition, is applied to study storm surges and tides on the North Queensland coast. The numerical simulations show that with the tides included in the storm surge model the sea level elevation is generally lower than if we simply add...
Article
Observations on the south-western shelf of the island of Puerto Rico indicate that alongshore flows near the surface and on the shallow part of the insular shelf are primarily driven by the alongshore trade winds. The above flow has the tendency to reverse when the wind stress drops and observations of near-bottom currents on the deep outer shelf i...
Article
Drifters are used to measure the structure of an eddy on Western Bank, Scotian Shelf over a 5 day period. A regression method that uses both the temporal and spatial structure of flow field observations is presented and used to analyze this eddy. The eddy has vorticity -1.9×10-5 s-1 with divergence, stretching deformation and shearing deformation s...
Article
Full-text available
The hydrography and circulation of Conception Bay (Newfoundland) are described based on hydrographic, current‐meter and drifter data collected over four years (1988–1991). The seasonal cycles of temperature (‐1.6 to 13–17°C) and salinity (31–32.5) in the bay closely follow those on the adjacent shelf. Exchange of bottom water was observed in April...
Article
Full-text available
Drifter tracks indicate that the mean currents on the southwestern Puerto Rican insular shelf are driven primarily by an alongshore wind stress and an adverse pressure gradient. Observations during periods of low or variable wind indicated large particle dispersion associated with variable flow around island obstacles close to the release site. A s...
Article
Full-text available
Pelagically-spawning coral reef fishes are hypothesized to select sites and times for spawning that result in eggs being rapidly transported away from reef areas. Experiments at an inshore reef were conducted to test this hypothesis, with the bluehead wrasse as the model species. Using dye and drogues, spawning events were simulated at spawning and...
Article
Full-text available
The motion of clusters of drifters in stratified coastal waters was studied. Wave‐like motion dominated the single‐particle statistics and had length scales larger than the cluster dimensions; consequently it was largely filtered out of motion relative to the cluster centroid. But the stochastic motion causing eddy diffusion seemed to be equally pr...
Article
A very simple model for the irradiance-regulated buoyant motion of the cyanobacterium Os- cillatoria agardhii is described. Removing the dimensions from this model enables us to find three independent parameters (a, b, c) that control the character of the motion. Small changes in the three parameters can cause large changes in the average irradianc...
Article
Full-text available
The swimming behaviour and search patterns of pink clownfish larvae, Amphiprion perideraion, were examined using a novel filming apparatus that permits three-dimensional tracking of free swimming zooplankters. Analysis of the resulting search paths included swimming speed and average turning angle, as well as a new approach to the study of search d...
Article
We analyse drifter data from the Northeast Atlantic and find that single-particle motion has fractal dimension D = 1.28 ± 0.08 at scales 5 to 100 km. The single particle trajectories are modeled using fractional Brownian motion. Integral time scale is therefore shown to be a function of both the time between position fixes and the length of the tot...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse drifter data from the Northeast Atlantic and find that single-particle motion has fractal dimension D = 1.28 ± 0.08 at scales 5 to 100 km. The single particle trajectories are modeled using fractional Brownian motion. Integral time scale is therefore shown to be a function of both the time between position fixes and the length of the tot...
Article
This copepod created a sheared laminar flow field, which is most intense near the moving paired second antennae and transports a volume of water similar to that measured in feeding experiments. -from Authors
Article
Radar‐tracked drifter trajectories reported by Fahrbach et al. (1986) are reanalysed. The data are obtained from 4 drifter clusters that were deployed in the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent for approximately 48 h each. The ratio of Lagrangian integral length scale to the standard deviation of drifter positions ranged from C = 0.02 to 0.36. However...
Article
Full-text available
14 clusters of drifters are studied to obtain the fractal dimension of relative trajectories between pairs of drifters. Averaging over all experiments, the relative trajectories have a fractal dimension of 1.3 over separation scales ranging from 10 m to 4000 m. The clusters were deployed in Lake Erie, the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent, and in co...
Article
The objective of this work is to devise strategies for optimum deployment of Tiros satellite-tracked Ocean Drifters (TOD) in order to derive measurements of ocean currents for iceberg drift forecasting off the Canadian east coast. The mean velocity field and its standard deviation are determined from several data sources. The velocity field and its...
Article
Summary form only given. SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imagery was collected in Conception Bay, Newfoundland for the purpose of examining the tidal and wind-driven surface and thermal features in order to enhance a study of the oceanographic influences on the distribution and movement of northern cod in the bay. Two sets of SAR overflights were co...
Article
The linear regression method of Okubo and Ebbesmeyer (1976) has been commonly used to compute velocity gradients and residual motion. However, Okubo and Ebbesmeyer did not properly address the question of how estimates of velocity gradients and residual velocities are biased by using a cluster consisting of a small number of drogues. Since this pro...
Article
A perturbation analysis of the Lagrangian equations of motion is used to examine the diffusion induced by a random field of internal waves. At second order there is a random field of shearing motion in the horizontal plane. We claculate the single-particle, two-particle, and patch diffusivities that result from this motion. Patch and two-particle d...
Article
A Lagrangian analysis is applied to the dispersion and mean motion of a cluster of drogues spread in the horizontal plane over an area with typical linear dimensions of 2,000 m. The centroid motion is characterized by inertial oscillations (which have little spatial structure) and longer periods of about 2–3 days that are probably related to wind f...
Conference Paper
The Lagrangian autocorrelation coefficient, of velocities with the local mean current extracted, has e-folding time scales of 15 and 22 hours for the x and y components of motion respectively. Periodicities that might be attributed to either semidiurnal tides or inertial oscillations are evident, as are diurnal periodicities. Local vorticity is typ...
Article
Full-text available
We indentify three different types of Lagrangian coordinate systems that are used in oceanography. These are: true Lagrangian coordinates (TLC), Lagrangian coordinates (LC), and averaged Lagrangian coordinates (ALC). The diffusion process is studied in each of these coordinate systems. At large scales the eddydiffusivity is proven to be independent...
Article
Full-text available
An equation is developed (and solved) to describe the speed of a rowing boat as a function of the movement of the sculler's center of mass relative to the boat and the force applied. A method is presented to determine the degree to which fluctuations in boat speed through the rowing cycle affect the amount of power necessary to propel the boat at s...
Article
Full-text available
The methods of Okuboet al. (1976a) are used to calculate the Lagrangian deformations and diffusivities of a cluster of drifters. A solution of the two-dimensional first-order advection-diffusion equation (Okuboet al., 1983a) is then used to calculate the dimensions and orientation of the cluster from these Lagrangian deformations and diffusivities....
Article
Simple diffusion models are developed to describe vertical diffusion in Powell Lake, a meromictic former fjord containing trapped seawater. Measurements of the vertical distribution of chlorinity are used to determine the dependence of vertical diffusivity on depth. Near the bottom of the lake the vertical diffusivity is about 4 times that of the m...
Article
A perturbation procedure is used to obtain first- and second-order solutions for small-amplitude internal waves in a Lagrangian coordinate system. The first-order Lagrangian equations are formally accurate to the same order as the first-order Eulerian equations; however, they are different and the Lagrangian solution gives a more realistic wave sha...
Article
Full-text available
A westward current flows along the northern side of Lancaster Sound and an eastward current flows along the southern side. A cross‐channel flow is commonly observed to link them near the eastern entrance of Lancaster Sound; this flow is modelled assuming inviscid flow and conservation of potential vorticity. It is shown that the westward decrease i...
Article
Full-text available
The Lagrangian diffusion equation appropriate for the dispersion of current followers (e. g., floats, drogues, drifters) is proposed. The analytical solution to the equation is obtained for a uniform deformation field, characterized by Lagrangian deformations and anisotropic eddy diffusivities both varying with time. Expressions are derived for the...
Article
This research project addresses a fundamental problem in turbulence theory, the relation between Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics, by carrying out, analyzing, and interpreting a set of field experiments in the coastal waters off the south shore of Long Island. The study will not only provide information on the relation between the Lagrangian and...
Article
This report provides details of the field studies, experimental results, and an analysis and discussion of both dye patch and plume experiments. The time rate of change of variance relative to the centroid for the dye patches and the time rate of change of variance, both relative and absolute, for the dye plumes are presented. For each drogue exper...
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Auckland, 1979. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 164-170).

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