Brian J Rogers

Brian J Rogers
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Experimental Psychology

PhD

About

155
Publications
15,515
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,199
Citations

Publications

Publications (155)
Article
Full-text available
What is an “illusion”? I would like to argue that (A) there is no coherent and meaningful definition of the word “illusion” and (B) the majority of the things we have previously labelled as “illusions” can be better categorised into three classes of perceptual effects: (i) those that should not be regarded as illusory according to any definition; (...
Article
Full-text available
In 1979, James Gibson completed his third and final book “The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception”. That book can be seen as the synthesis of the many radical ideas he proposed over the previous 30 years – the concept of information and its sufficiency, the necessary link between perception and action, the need to see perception in relation to...
Article
Full-text available
Reversed apparent motion (or reversed phi) can be seen during a continuous dissolve between a positive and a spatially shifted negative version of the same image. Similar reversed effects can be seen in stereo when positive and spatially shifted negative images are presented separately to the two eyes or in a Vernier alignment task when the two ima...
Article
In the kinetic depth effect, the direction of the perceived depth and the direction of apparent rotation of a 3-D structure are linked, and typically ambiguous, whereas depth from motion parallax during both observer- and object-movement is stable and unambiguous. Rogers and Rogers demonstrated that the vertical perspective transformations play an...
Article
There are many similarities between binocular disparity and motion parallax as sources of information about the structure and layout of 3-D objects and surfaces. The former can be thought of as a transformation that maps one eye’s image onto the other while the latter is a transformation that maps the changes in one eye’s image over time. There are...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of human observers to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines has been a neglected topic of study since von Helmholtz's initial observations 150 years ago. He showed that there were significant misperceptions of the straightness of extended lines seen in the peripheral visual field. The present study focused on the perc...
Article
For centuries, philosophers and psychologists have distinguished between correct or veridical perception and illusory perception. Illusions have become an essential topic in textbooks on perception, and we amuse our lecture classes with demonstrations that reveal the fallibility of perceptual systems--what we see, hear, feel, taste, and smell does...
Article
In the new moon illusion, the sun does not appear to be in a direction perpendicular to the boundary between the lit and dark sides of the moon, and aircraft jet trails appear to follow curved paths across the sky. In both cases, lines that are physically straight and parallel to the horizon appear to be curved. These observations prompted us to in...
Article
Background: Rogers and Gyani (Perception 39, 2010) showed that the parallax transformations created by observer movement can only specify depth order and magnitude unambiguously if it can be assumed that the 3-D structure remains stationary during the observer movement. Using virtual 'Reverspectives', we have shown previously that the visual system...
Book
Full-text available
Volume 2 deals with stereoscopic vision in cats, monkeys and humans. It starts with a review of physiological mechanisms of stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic vision depends on inputs from the two eyes converging in the visual cortex. The mechanisms of binocular rivalry and of other ways in which binocular images interact are reviewed. The images of...
Article
How much information is conserved, or discarded, as it travels through the visual system? A target (an oriented bar) was defined by dark grey spots embedded in light spots for the left eye, and by light grey spots embedded in dark spots for the right eye. With one eye open, the target bars were clearly visible, but with both eyes open the light and...
Article
Full-text available
A disk was divided into 16 stationary sectors of different grey levels that stepped around clockwise. When thin stationary spokes of constant mid-grey separated the sectors, the spokes showed robust and striking counterclockwise apparent motion, and when stopped, they gave a brisk clockwise motion aftereffect. The spokes had to match the grey of so...
Article
Background: In binocular stereopsis, the differential-perspective transformation between the two eyes (vertical disparities) provides an estimate of the included (vergence) angle that can be used to scale horizontal disparities (Rogers and Bradshaw, 1993, Nature, 361). In observer-produced motion parallax, the vertical-perspective transformation ov...
Article
The concept of illusion When is an illusion not an illusion? If the definition of an illusion is something like “a lack of correspondence between the ‘input’ and what we perceive,” then it necessarily depends on how we define the “input.” Clearly, this shouldn’t refer to the characteristics of the proximal image, because if it did, we would have to...
Article
After prolonged viewing of an expanding pattern, a stationary test pattern shows a negative after-effect of apparent contraction. This after-effect could be the result of mechanisms responding to the contours moving outwards across the retina - a conventional MAE - or, alternatively, it could be due to mechanisms sensitive to the changing size (or...
Article
Ogle's induced-size effect refers to the percept of slant elicited by a difference in vertical size between the left and right half images of a stereoscopic display. The effect is not readily predicted by the geometry of the situation and has been of considerable interest in the stereoscopic literature. Rogers and Koenderink (Nature, 322: 62-63) de...
Article
The horizontal gradient of differential vertical size in the two eyes (differential perspective) provides information about the absolute distance to a frontal surface which has been shown to be effective in both size and depth scaling (Rogers and Bradshaw, 1993, Nature, 361). In the real world, however, extensive frontal surfaces are rare and the m...
Article
Background: The visual direction of an intended heading point has been shown to play an important role in guiding locomotion toward close targets (Rushton et al Curr. Biol. 8,1191, 1998, Rogers and Dalton, Invest. Ophthal. Vis. Sci. 40, s764, 1999). With distant targets, however, the error signals from eye and head position (whenever the observer s...
Article
Background:Three different perceptual scenarios create the appearance of a rotating 3-D structure during observer motion: Patrick Hughes' ‘Reverspective’ artworks; hollow masks; and the disparate region of a random-dot stereogram. Papathomas (Spatial Vision 21, 2007) has offered a ‘higher level’ explanation of the three effects based the ‘expected’...
Article
One hundred and fifty years ago, Helmholtz reported that when viewing the world through a telestereoscope (which increases the effective interocular distance), the scene appears as if the observer were looking “at a very exquisite and exact model”. In contrast, Glennerster et al (Current Biology 16 2006 428–432) claimed that observers “failed to no...
Article
In experiment 1, a digit (or oriented bar) was defined by dark grey dots embedded in surrounding light dots for the left eye, and by light grey dots embedded in surrounding dark dots for the right eye. With one eye open, the digits (or oriented bar) were clearly visible, but with both eyes open the light and dark dots fused binocularly into medium...
Article
Tyler (1974, Nature, 251, 140–2) and Rogers and Graham (1982, Vision Research, 22, 216–70) have shown that sensitivity to horizontally oriented disparity corrugations is maximal at a corrugation frequency of between 0.3 and 0.5 cycles/deg and falls off at both lower and higher frequencies. A similar band-pass characteristic has also been observed f...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Patrick Hughes's 'reverspective' artworks provide a novel way of investigating the effectiveness of different sources of 3-D information for the human visual system. Our empirical findings show that the converging lines of simple linear perspective can be as effective as the rich array of 3-D cues present in natural scenes in determining...
Article
Real world scenes create a complex pattern of vertical disparities that provides information about the absolute distances to all surfaces in the scene as well as the current vergence state of the eyes. Rogers and Bradshaw (1995) showed that both vertical disparities and vergence contribute to depth scaling with relative weightings that depend on th...
Article
Helmholtz's famous distorted chessboard pattern has been used to make the point that perception of the straightness of peripherally viewed lines is not always veridical. Helmholtz showed that the curved lines of his chessboard pattern appear to be straight when viewed from a critical distance and he argued that, at this distance, the contours stimu...
Article
The two volumes in this book contain a survey of knowledge about the visual perception of the three-dimensional visual world. The primary interest is biological vision. Machine vision and computational models are mentioned only where they contribute to an understanding of the living system. This book grew out of Howard and Rogers' Binocular Vision...
Article
The perspective transformations of the retinal image, produced by either the movement of an observer or the movement of objects in the visual world, were found to produce a reliable, consistent, and unambiguous impression of relative depth in the absence of all other cues to depth and distance. The stimulus displays consisted of computer-generated...
Article
This book presents a survey of knowledge about binocular vision, with an emphasis on its role in the perception of a three-dimensional world. The primary interest is biological vision. In each chapter, physiological, behavioral, and computational approaches are reviewed in some detail, discussed, and interrelated. The book describes experiments req...
Article
Helmholtz's famous pincushioned chessboard figure has been used to make the point that straight lines in the world are not always perceived as straight and, conversely, that curved lines in the world can sometimes be seen as straight. However, there is little agreement as to the cause of these perceptual errors. Some authors have attributed the err...
Article
This paper examines and contrasts motion-parallax analogues of the induced-size and induced-shear effects with the equivalent induced effects from binocular disparity. During lateral head motion or with binocular stereopsis, vertical-shear and vertical-size transformations produced 'induced effects' of apparent inclination and slant that are not pr...
Article
Observers are more sensitive to variations in the depth of stereoscopic surfaces in a vertical than in a horizontal direction; however, there are large individual differences in this anisotropy. The authors measured discrimination thresholds for surfaces slanted about a vertical axis or inclined about a horizontal axis for 50 observers. Orientation...
Article
Observers are more sensitive to variations in the depth of stereoscopic surfaces in a vertical than in a horizontal direction; however, there are large individual differences in this anisotropy. The authors measured discrimination thresholds for surfaces slanted about a vertical axis or inclined about a horizontal axis for 50 observers. Orientation...
Article
This book examines various topics related to depth perception. Topics of discussion are: binocular images; stereoscopic acuity; depth contrast; perceptual organization; interactions between depth cues; depth from motion parallax; the Pulfrich effect; stereoscopic techniques and applications; seeing in the cyclopean domain; and depth from monocular...
Article
Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they...
Article
Sensitivity to corrugations defined by binocular disparity differs as a function of the modulation frequency. Such functions have proved to be useful descriptive and analytical tools in the study of the mechanisms involved in disparity processing. Indeed, given certain assumptions, these sensitivity functions can be used to predict certain perceptu...
Article
Frisby et al (1993 Perception 22 Supplement, 115) proposed that the visual system might make cyclovergent eye movements in order to minimise the overall pattern of both vertical and horizontal disparities when an observer views an inclined stereoscopic surface. Their measurements of cyclovergence, which used vertically oriented nonius lines, were f...
Article
Full-text available
When the corresponding horizontal meridia of the two eyes are aligned, the corresponding vertical meridia are tilted outwards in a temporal direction, a phenomenon first described by Helmholtz. However, it is not known if this effect is confined to the principal meridia or whether the same relationship exists between corresponding horizontal and co...
Article
Disparity discrimination thresholds are known to increase with both retinal eccentricity and distance from the horopter. However, little is known about how the detectability of cyclopean gratings varies with retinal position. Thresholds for disparity corrugations were measured as a function of corrugation frequency for different visual eccentriciti...
Article
Full-text available
Linear transformations (shear or scale transformations) of either horizontal or vertical disparity give rise to the percept of slant or inclination. It has been proposed that the percept of slant induced by vertical size disparity, known as Ogle's induced-size effect, and the analogous induced-shear effect, compensate for scale and shear distortion...
Article
Full-text available
Yang and Blake (1991 Vision Research 31 1177-1189) investigated depth detection in stereograms containing spatially narrow-band signal and noise energies. The resulting masking functions led them to conclude that stereo vision was subserved by only two channels peaking at 3 and 5 cycles deg-1. Glennerster and Parker (1997 Vision Research 37 2143-21...
Article
Full-text available
A veridical estimate of viewing distance is required in order to determine the metric structure of objects from binocular stereopsis. One example of a judgment of metric structure, which we used in our experiment, is the apparently circular cylinder task (E B Johnston, 1991 Vision Research 31 1351-1360). Most studies report underconstancy in this t...
Article
Two-frame random-dot kinematograms (RDKs) of different dot density, area and contrast were used to study the spatial properties of the human visual motion system. It was found that the maximum spatial displacement at which observers could reliably discriminate the direction of motion (dmax) increased gradually by a factor of up to 6.4 as dot densit...
Article
Stereo thresholds for 84% correct detection of sinusoidal disparity corrugations depicted by narrow-band-filtered random dot stereograms were determined for surfaces as a function of (i) luminance center spatial frequency and (ii) disparity modulation frequency. In addition, supra-threshold depth matching functions for two amplitudes of peak-to-tro...
Article
Helmholtz first reported that when the horizontal meridians of the two eyes are aligned, the vertical meridians of the two eyes are tilted outwards (with respect to each other) by approximately 2°. We adapted Nakayama's technique (1977 Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrument Engineers 120 2 – 9) using the minimal apparent motion of a...
Article
Since the pattern of horizontal disparities created by a frontal surface depends on the distance of the surface from the observer, additional information about distance is needed in order to judge whether a surface lies in a frontal plane. Rogers and Bradshaw (1995 Perception 24 155 – 179) showed that both vertical disparities and vergence angle ca...
Article
Under identical viewing conditions, observers made two types of judgement about the shape of stereoscopically defined surfaces: one required an estimate of viewing distance for correct performance (e.g. setting the depth of a hemi-cylinder to equal its half-height or a dihedral angle to 90 deg), the other did not (matching the depth of, for example...
Article
Depth from binocular disparity and motion parallax has traditionally been assumed to be the product of separate and independent processes. We report two experiments which used classical psychophysical paradigms to test this assumption. The first tested whether there was an elevation in the thresholds for detecting the 3D structure of corrugated sur...
Article
Prolonged viewing of a set of tilted lines can affect the perceived orientation of a second set of lines with a different physical orientation (tilt AE). Similarly, prolonged viewing of a set of lines of a particular spatial periodicity can affect the perceived periodicity of a second set of lines with a different physical periodicity (spatial freq...
Article
For most observers there is a pronounced orientational anisotropy in the perception of three-dimensional corrugated surfaces (Rogers and Graham, 1983 Science 221 1409 – 1411; Bradshaw and Rogers, 1993 Perception 22 Supplement, 117). Low-frequency corrugations which are oriented vertically have been found to have higher disparity modulation threshol...
Article
The fact that the 3-D shape of surfaces depicted by random dot stereograms can take several seconds or even tens of seconds to appear has been attributed to the failure to make appropriate vergence changes [B Julesz, 1971 Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press)]. Alternatively, the long latencies could be a co...
Article
The present study compared the relative effectiveness of differential perspective and vergence angle manipulations in scaling depth from horizontal disparities. When differential perspective and vergence angle were manipulated together (to simulate a range of different viewing distances from 28 cm to infinity), approximately 35% of the scaling requ...
Article
Two-frame random-element kinematograms were used to study the matching algorithm employed by the visual system to keep track of moving elements. Previous data have shown that the maximum spatial displacement detectable (dmax) for random-dot kinematogram stimuli increases both with increasing dot size and with decreasing centre frequency for spatial...
Article
Purpose. The identification of corresponding points in binocular images is necessary before disparities can be measured. Simple geometry shows that all the physically possible matches of a given element seen by one eye lie along a single (epipolar) line in the other eye - thereby simplifying the correspondence problem. Unfortunately, epipolar lines...
Article
Purpose. Many disparity-sensitive neurons in V1 are also sensitive to the direction of motion (Poggio and Talbot, J. of Physiol., 1981). This suggests that the direction of retinal motion (but not speed) may provide an additional constraint for the binocular correspondence process. We investigated whether segregation in depth is facilitated when bi...
Article
Purpose. As the extent of relative motion in a parallax display is increased, the observer's percept typically changes from a stationary and rigid 3-D surface to a rotating and rigid 3-D surface. There is a clear analogy between this perceptual change and Panum's limit for stereoscopic surfaces. To investigate whether this transition is dependent u...
Article
Purpose. The appearance of inclination in stereoscopic images related by a vertical shear suggests that the visual system extracts the amount of deformation between binocular images and not just horizontal disparities (Cagenello and Rogers 1990, ARVO). In the present experiment, we measured thresholds for detecting a change of inclination as a func...

Network

Cited By