Brian Reid

Brian Reid
Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia | CIEP

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60
Publications
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691
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
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January 2008 - present

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
The cover image is based on the Original Article Macroinvertebrate community composition and richness along extreme gradients: the role of local, catchment and climatic variables in Patagonian headwater streams, by Anna Astorga Roine et al. https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13853.
Article
Full-text available
Microbes play a critical role in plant litter decomposition and influence the fate of carbon in rivers and riparian zones. When decomposing low‐nutrient plant litter, microbes acquire nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the environment (i.e., nutrient immobilization), and this process is potentially sensitive to nutrient loading and changing clima...
Article
Full-text available
Fjord sediments are increasingly recognized as high-resolution archives of past hydrological and climate variability. Using them as such, however, requires a comprehensive understanding of the variables that affect their accumulation rates and properties. Here, we conduct a spatial and temporal study of sediment samples collected at the head of Mar...
Article
Full-text available
In their native range, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have strong interactions with a multitude of species due to the annual pulse of marine‐derived nutrients that they deliver to streams and forests when they spawn and die. Over the past few decades, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has established non‐native populations throughout th...
Article
• We investigated how interacting multi-scale environmental variables affect taxonomic composition and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in headwater streams of western Patagonia in southern Chile (45–47°S), a region characterised by extreme climatic gradients, intact forested catchments, and recent intense land use change. The opport...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Mechanisms that reliably and efficiently guide practitioners to find relevant evidence are urgent for conservation decision‐making in Chilean Patagonia. The objective of this study was to systematically collect, characterize, and synthesize the extensive evidence about conservation knowledge in Chilean Patagonia focusing on the impacts of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen Hasta la fecha, el potencial de las turberas en la región de Aysén para informar y comprender los cambios climáticos del paisaje natural y cultural del pasado, ha sido virtualmente inexplorado. Las turberas reciben en gran medida aportes atmosféricos que se van acumulando in situ, formando así archivos ideales para registrar los cambios cli...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen La hidrología es el impulsor principal de la biogeoquímica en los humedales, que a su vez se refleja en la biodiversidad acuática y florística. El complejo de turberas dominadas por el musgo Sphagnum en el sur de la Patagonia, considerado entre los mayores humedales a nivel mundial, ha sido objeto de mapeo, explotación e investigación ocasi...
Chapter
Full-text available
RESUMEN Este capítulo presenta una evaluación del estado de la química del agua superficial y subterránea de las turberas de Sphagnum en la región de Aysén, junto con un análisis espacial y estacional de la turbera Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC). Se observaron fuertes patrones estacionales de oxígeno disuelto, pH e iones principales en aguas subterránea...
Article
A new representative of the Thermosbaenacea, Salishbaena kootenai n. g., n. sp., is described. Based on its specific characteristics and the complexly build maxilla 2, it clearly belongs to the family Halosbaenidae and morphologically seems closest to the European genus Limnosbaena, rather than to the other genera within this family. Updated keys f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen. Los bosques sin grandes intervenciones humanas son paisajes cada vez más escasos y en declinación. Sin embargo, estos ecosistemas son esenciales para la conservación de la biodiversidad, mitigación del cambio climático y regulación de la calidad y flujos de agua en ecosistemas dulceacuícolas. Los esfuerzos de mapeo de bosques intactos a es...
Chapter
Comparados con los extensos ecosistemas terrestres y marinos, los acotados ecosistemas dulceacuícolas albergan la mayor biodiversidad por unidad de área del planeta y, al mismo tiempo, estos ecosistemas y los organismos dulceacuícolas son los más amenazados. Por esto, es urgente identificar regiones prístinas y vulnerables para su oportuna protecci...
Chapter
Freshwater ecosystems support the highest biological diversity per unit area on the planet, despite much more limited area compared to terrestrial and marine systems. Globally, freshwater organisms are also among the most threatened. With the urgent need for identifying and conserving remaining pristine and/or vulnerable regions, Patagonia is an ex...
Article
Full-text available
Vargas and collaborators (Vargas et al., 2018), therein V2018, reported measurements of pH, total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (CT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other hydrographic variables along a portion of the Strait of Magellan and associated fjords during the spring of 2010. Using the measured values of AT and pH to calculate the...
Article
Full-text available
Following the eruption of the Calbuco volcano in April 2015, an extensive ash plume spread across northern Patagonia and into the southeast Pacific and southwest Atlantic oceans. Here, we report on field surveys conducted in the coastal region receiving the highest ash load following the eruption (Reloncaví Fjord). The fortuitous location of a long...
Article
Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) constitute a major hazard in glacierized regions. They are particularly pronounced in the Baker River watershed (Chilean Patagonia, 48°S), where 23 events occurred between 2008 and 2020. Although GLOF deposits have previously been studied in lake settings, how modern GLOFs are recorded in fjord sediments remains...
Article
The cover image is based on the Original Article Non‐native Chinook salmon add nutrient subsidies and functional novelty to Patagonian streams, by Nicolas J. Muñoz et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13655.
Article
Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) constitute a major threat in glacierized regions. Despite a recent increase in the size and number of glacial lakes worldwide, there is only limited evidence that climate change is affecting GLOF frequency. GLOFs are particularly common in the Baker River watershed (Patagonia, 47°S), where 21 GLOFs occurred betw...
Article
1. The impacts of non-native species are hypothesised to be proportional to the functional distinctiveness of invaders in their invaded ecosystems. Throughout the Patagonia region of southern South America, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have recently established non-native populations, and their anadromous, semelparous life cycle could...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining and restoring freshwater ecosystem services in the face of local and global change requires adaptive research that effectively engages stakeholders. However, there is a lack of understanding and consensus in the research community regarding where, when, and which stakeholders should be engaged and what kind of researcher should do the e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Following the April 2015 eruption of the Calbuco volcano, an extensive ash plume spread across northern Patagonia and into the SE Pacific and SW Atlantic Ocean. Here we report the results of field surveys conducted in the marine region receiving the highest ash load following the eruption (Reloncaví Fjord). The fortuitous location of a long-term mo...
Article
Chilean fjord sediments constitute high-resolution archives of climate and environmental change in the southern Andes. To interpret such records accurately, it is crucial to understand how sediment is transported and deposited within these basins. This issue is of particular importance in glaciofluvial Martínez Channel and Steffen Fjord (48°S), due...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Resumen ejecutivo Los ecosistemas de agua dulce o humedales presentan una enorme diversidad en Chile, desde bofedales, vegas y salares en el norte a bosques pantanosos o hualves, ñadis y turberas en el sur, incluyendo lagos, lagunas, pantanos, ríos, esteros y arroyos, entre otros. Todos ellos tienen en común contar con un cuerpo de agua permanente...
Article
Although most life on earth is fueled by photoautotrophic food resources, there is increasing evidence for methanogenic methane-derived carbon contributions to freshwater consumers. In one extreme case on the Nyack floodplain in Montana, methane-derived carbon comprised a majority of biomass carbon in stoneflies (Order:Plectopera) living in shallow...
Data
We mapped the coverage of forested watersheds with limited intervention for southern Patagonia (Chile, Argentina) using existing forest stand mapping and high-resolution stream/watershed delineation (patch size ~0.4 km2). We validated intact forest status for the whole study area, based on high-resolution satellite imagery.
Article
European willows (Salicaceae) are pioneer species in temperate zone floodplains. The species are considered invasive and introduction can lead to substantial alteration of floodplain vegetation communities and ecosystem functioning. Invasive spread of different Salicaceae have been attributed to differences in flood tolerance, growth and dispersal...
Article
Full-text available
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to...
Article
Full-text available
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to...
Article
Full-text available
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to...
Article
Full-text available
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to...
Article
Full-text available
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we develop and test proxy-based diagnostic tools for comparing freshwater ecosystem services (FWES) risks across an international array of freshwater ecosystems. FWES threats are increasing rapidly under pressure from population, climate change, pollution, land use change, and other factors. We identified spatially explicit FWES threa...
Article
Catchment hydro-physical controls on the interannual variability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in terrestrial watershed runoff, important for water quality, ecosystem structure, and foodweb dynamics, are not well understood. To address this, we simulated water residence time (“age”) and flow path of terrestrial runoff and analyzed their mediati...
Article
Full-text available
While intact forests have intrinsic value in terms of conserving biodiversity, they are also important for associated ecosystem services of soil and water conservation, in addition to the biodiversity, function and geomorphology of stream and river ecosystems. In this latter context, the perspective of watershed is more relevant than forest patch,...
Article
Characterizing river corridors from a hydro-morphological standpoint is a fundamental requisite for the analysis of their past evolution and for the plausible prediction of how rivers may adjust to changing climatic conditions and to increasing human impacts. The River Baker (Chilean Patagonia) is a highly dynamic fluvial system with relatively lim...
Article
Full-text available
Complex marine-terrestrial interactions characterize Chilean ffords, where benthic communities influence the distribution of organic matter (OM). We examined spatial and seasonal changes in the hydrography, sediment conditions and soft-bottom macrobenthic, meiobenthic, and total microbial biomass in a glacial Patagonian fford (Martinez Channel, Chi...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved silica (DSi) plays an important biogeochemical role in the fjords of northern Chilean Patagonia (44–48°S), where it drives high biogenic productivity and promotes carbon burial. It is generally believed that the DSi riverine input to lakes and coastal environments is controlled by a combination of factors including lithology, climate, top...
Chapter
Heat is a primary determinant of the distribution, growth and reproduction of ectothermic biota in stream ecosystems because ectothermic metabolism is constrained by environmental temperature dynamics. This describes annual, seasonal and daily thermal patterns, such as magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change in temperatures, acros...
Article
Recently reported blooms of Didymosphenia geminata from rivers in Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia, together with non-typical blooms reported from lake systems, have the potential to alter community and ecosystem dynamics of aquatic environments in the region. In an effort to quantify key aspects of ecosystem function of D. geminata mats in Patago...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable resources have been invested worldwide in response to the spread of the diatom Didymosphenia geminata in rivers and streams. Considering the very low possibility of elimination of an invasive microbe, management has focused on biosecurity protocols, addressed exclusively toward the human role in dispersal (e.g. ‘check, clean dry’ campa...
Article
The diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as a major global concern, as both an aggressive invader of rivers and streams in the southern hemisphere, and for its ability to form nuisance blooms in oligotrophic systems in its native range. South American D. geminata blooms were first documented in Chilean Patagonia in May 2010, and have spread to...
Article
Floodplain vegetation is fundamental in fluvial systems, controlling river corridor geomorphology and ecology through a series of hydraulic, sedimentological, and biological processes. Changes caused by introduced plant species can thus result in shifts in river regime, succession trajectories and nutrient availability, affecting native biodiversit...
Article
The AZTI's marine biotic index (AMBI), an ecological indicator for managing estuarine and coastal waters worldwide, was tested in two fjords in Chilean Patagonia. The Aysen Fjord (42° Lat. S) supports intensive salmon farming in coastal ecosystems, while the Baker Fjord (48° Lat. S) is currently just beyond the limit of the southern expansion of sa...
Article
The diatom Didymosphenia geminata, which forms nuisance blooms in low nutrient streams worldwide, was documented as an aggressive invader in South America in 2010 from the Futaleufú basin (43.2°S), in Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia. Within 1 year it was confirmed from 20 rivers distributed over 800 km. Driven by perceived economic impacts to tou...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: In flowing waters, aquatic fauna is typically concentrated in the benthos, wood or other fixed substrates. Aquatic plants and filamentous algae may also offer refugia for invertebrates within the water column, due to flow attenuation, relatively stable substrate and provision of food. We quantified invertebrate abundance, size distributio...
Article
Full-text available
Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilitiesa US$7- to $10-billion megaprojectin a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we describe community parameters such as densities, biomasses, species composition, feeding modes and normalized biomass size-spectra (NBSS) of macrobenthic invertebrate communities from three stations located in the Baker Fjord obtained on four seasonal campaigns in 2008 and 2009. The macrobenthic communities were dominated by small-...
Article
a b s t r a c t The along-fjord variability of nitrate and dissolved silicate was studied in a silled fjord, Seno Ballena, in the Strait of Magellan during flood and ebb tidal phases in December 2007. The spatial and temporal variability of both nitrate and dissolved silicate were consistent with the dynamics of a tidal intrusion front previously d...
Article
Full-text available
Lago General Carrera (Chile) also called Lago Buenos Aires (Argentina) or originally Chelenko by the native habitants of the region is located in Patagonia on the Chilean-Argentinean border. It is the largest lake in Chile with a surface area of 1850 km2. The lake is of glacial/tectonic origin and surrounded by the Andes mountain range. The lake dr...
Article
Five vascular plant surveys have been made between 1873 and 1999 on Penikese, one of the Elizabeth Islands (Massachusetts). The five surveys have noted a total of 326 species, the most recent survey, 218 species. Almost half of the species noted are alien on all five survey lists. Four rare (state-listed) native species were found in 1998-1999. The...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
The PATSER project proposes an interdisciplinary research focus on interconnected sociological and ecological systems of west-central Patagonia (44-48⁰ S). The research focus is on ecosystem function and ecosystem linkages, along the gradient from terrestrial, freshwater to inland marine systems (fjords). Ultimately, we seek to understand ecosystem function and response to pulses and stressors, and the balance between global change and local land use stressors.
Project
The project aim is describing, quantifying, and valuing at least 4 ecosystem services (SE), such as the provision of wood and clean water, carbon storage, soil as a supporting service and species richness will also be incorporated as a proxy for biodiversity, assuming it as natural capital. For this, the spatial unit of the landscape will be the basin, which is closely associated with the production of several SEs. In addition, to incorporate greater variability in the analysis, the measurement will be implemented in two types of forests, deciduous and evergreen, taking advantage of the ecosystem laboratory condition of the Aysén region in Chilean Patagonia, with a strong rainfall and temperature gradient. Finally, to understand how SEs differ related to human activities, in each site, paired or very close watersheds with different degrees of intervention will be chosen for SE measurement.
Project
General Objective: Develop a baseline conservation evaluation of forested watersheds with limited impacts or human intervention in the Aysén and Magallanes Regions of Chilean Patagonia, and communicate the findings of the evaluation as a means of furthering the protection of critical forest watersheds.