Brian Moss

Brian Moss
University of Liverpool | UoL · School of Environmental Sciences

About

252
Publications
72,335
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23,473
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
6840 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (252)
Article
So far, research on plant-associated macroinvertebrates, even if conducted on a large number of water bodies, has mostly focused on a relatively small geographical area, permitting limited conclusions to be drawn regarding potentially broader geographic effects, including climate. Some recent studies have shown that the composition of epiphytic com...
Article
Littoral zones are complex and important for mechanisms that maintain clear water and submerged plant dominance in lakes. Details of their structure are scarce, largely because sweep or grab sampling, the most commonly used approach, is unable to reveal much subtlety.Invertebrate communities of plankton and sedimentary benthos, and of those living...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient enrichment and drought conditions are major threats to lowland rivers causing ecosystemdegradation and composition changes in plant communities. The controls on primary producer composition in chalk rivers are investigated using a new model and existing data from the River Frome (UK) to explore abiotic and biotic interactions. The growth a...
Article
Nutrient enrichment and drought conditions are major threats to lowland rivers causing ecosystem degradation and composition changes in plant communities. The controls on primary producer composition in chalk rivers are investigated using a new model and existing data from the River Frome (UK) to explore abiotic and biotic interactions. The growth...
Article
Freshwater habitats have been severely altered by human activities, and legislation has variously been passed requiring assessment of the damage in preparation for its repair. The current condition is generally measured against a reference state, which may be ‘natural’, meaning pre-Columbian, in the United States, pre-European in Australia or, in E...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate is changing rapidly, and the degree to which natural populations respond genetically to these changes is key to predicting ecological responses. So far, no study has documented evolutionary changes in the thermal tolerance of natural populations as a response to recent temperature increase. Here, we demonstrate genetic change in the...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate is changing rapidly, and the degree to which natural populations respond genetically to these changes is key to predicting ecological responses 1–3. So far, no study has documented evolutionary changes in the thermal tolerance of natural populations as a response to recent temperature increase. Here, we demonstrate genetic change in...
Article
1. To help improve our understanding of the nitrogen cycle in lakes, particularly in the context of climate change, we analysed total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO � 3 -N) data from six mesocosm experiments (in Denmark, U.K., China and Turkey) covering different climatic regions. We assessed the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading, t...
Article
Freshwater problems link a future ‘perfect storm’ of climate change, self-inflicted problems of health and economics in the developed world, poverty, overpopulation, and disease in the developing world, and, most fundamentally, conversion of most former land biomes to anthromes: human-dominated, agricultural and urban systems, with consequent dimin...
Article
Full-text available
The symposium provided an opportunity for researchers and practitioners from around the world to learn from each other, with a view to developing best practice for conserving and restoring sustainable ecohydrological systems to achieve water security and maintain ecosystem goods and services. This needs to be achieved through combining engineering...
Article
1. To help improve our understanding of the nitrogen cycle in lakes, particularly in the context of climate change, we analysed total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO À 3 -N) data from six mesocosm experi-ments (in Denmark, U.K., China and Turkey) covering different climatic regions. We assessed the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading,...
Article
The literature on ecological effects of recent climate change in fresh waters has been reviewed, with particular reference to freshwater conservation in the UK. Least emphasis is given to predictive models of future change, because of considerable uncertainties even in the climate models, let alone their biological implications. Climate change effe...
Article
Full-text available
The use of geoengineering techniques for phosphorus management offers the promise of greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. It can be attractive when used with other restoration measures but should not be considered a panacea. The range of materials being proposed for use as well as the in-lake processes targeted for manipulation con...
Article
Full-text available
Diatom-based assays have been successfully associated worldwide with the trophic status of lakes. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between epiphytic diatoms and nutrient load in shallow lakes and wetlands. We examine the relative importance of environmental factors in explaining the structure of epiphytic diatom communities in a set...
Article
Full-text available
The International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network comprises > 600 scientific groups conducting sitebased research within 40 countries. Its mission includes improving the understanding of global ecosystems and informs solutions to current and future environmental problems at the global scales. The ILTER network covers a wide range of s...
Article
In his paper ‘Climate change, nutrient pollution and the bargain of Dr. Faustus’, Moss (Freshwater Biology, 55, 2010, 175) described the interacting and mutually reinforcing effects of climate change and nutrient pollution on aquatic ecosystems.Among other things, Moss (Freshwater Biology, 55, 2010, 175) proposed a simple method for determining aut...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting the ecological causes and consequences of global climate change requires a variety of approaches, including the use of experiments, models, and surveys. Among experiments, mesocosms have become increasingly popular because they provide an important bridge between smaller, more tightly-controlled, microcosm experiments (which can suffer f...
Article
A survey of the summer phytoplankton communities of thirty-six moderately-deep north temperate lowland lakes showed that the proportions of Dinophyta and non-heterocyst-bearing cyanobacteria taxa, measured as biovolume, were inversely related to the total nitrogen: total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio and that these groups were predominant in lakes where...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is conventionally thought to limit production in freshwaters and nitrogen (N) that in the sea. Before much human activity, however, co-limitation by N and P was probably normal, with systems developing ratios of N to P tending to the Redfield ratio. Single-factor limitation may be a symptom of human activity in many cases. It is wide...
Chapter
This article considers the interactions between climate change and other drivers of change including hydromorphological modification, acid deposition, contamination by toxic substances using evidence from laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling. This article evaluates these processes in relation to extreme events, seasonal changes,...
Article
Compounds of the 20 elements needed by living organisms are relatively soluble in water and therefore vulnerable to being leached and lost from terrestrial ecosystems during mineralization. Intact systems have thus acquired retention mechanisms that sequester nutrients and minimize losses. Such mechanisms should be particularly important where rain...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El principal objetivo de está línea de investigación es comprender las interacciones directas e indirectas entre los consumidores y productores primarios, las que resultan de gran relevancia para entender y predecir los estados alternativos de lagos someros. En este marco, algunas de las preguntas planteadas son: Los patrones de uso del espacio y r...
Article
Full-text available
The Darwin Initiative funded project Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana's Riverine Biodiversity was a collaboration between the Centre for African Wetlands at the University of Ghana, various units of the University of Ghana and the Ghana Wildlife Society. The project also involved collaborators from Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivo...
Article
The ecosystem approach is a widely accepted framework for natural resource management and has been adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as the primary framework for action under the convention. The ecosystem approach, as defined by the CBD, is underpinned by a set of twelve principles and points of operational guidance that are i...
Article
Eight adjacent sub-arctic streams with consistently different temperatures but broadly similar chemistry, other than some differences in conductivity and linked pH, were used to investigate effects of temperature regime on the structure of primary producer communities. Grazing by invertebrates was also taken into account to detect possible effects...
Article
1. Spring-fed streams, with temperatures ranging from 7.1 to 21.6 °C, in an alpine geothermal area in SW Iceland were chosen to test hypotheses on the effects of nutrients and temperature on stream primary producers. Ammonium nitrate was dripped into the lower reaches of eight streams, with higher reaches being used as controls, during the summers...
Article
Lakes have, rather grandly, been described as sentinels, integrators and regulators of climate change (Williamson et al., Limnol. Oceanogr. 2009; 54: 2273-82). Lakes are also part of the continuum of the water cycle, cogs in a machine that processes water and elements dissolved and suspended in myriad forms. Assessing the changes in the functioning...
Article
Full-text available
Dominance by cyanobacteria hampers human use of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Previous studies indicate that excessive nutrient loading and warmer conditions promote dominance by cyanobacteria, but evidence from global scale field data has so far been scarce. Our analysis, based on a study of 143 lakes along a latitudinal transect ranging from su...
Article
From 2005 to 2007, we established bird-proof enclosures in a small, shallow and semi-permanent lake, lacking fish, at Brown Moss, Shropshire, UK, to investigate the effects of aquatic birds on seasonal growth of submerged and emergent macrophytes. The highest density of birds on the lake was in winter (110 individuals ha(-1)) and the lowest in summ...
Article
Full-text available
Brown Moss is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in north-west England, of significance because of the occurrence, at least in the past, of the rare plant Luronium natans (Linnaeus) on the one hand, and its public popularity on the other. It is also a part of Ramsar site that comprises several other water bodies, the Meres, collectively valued f...
Article
The effects of environmental warming on aquatic poikilotherms, such as fish, are likely to be manifest during periods of high metabolic demand. For species that invest heavily in parental-care, such as the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., their reproductive success may be adversely affected. In two separate experiments with temp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Despite the multiple benefits of naturally functioning wetlands and floodplains, many have been degraded, lost or converted (for example, by drainage) to other uses designed to deliver specific services incompatible with their original condition (such as crop production). Where wetlands are intact, the major reason has been for nature conservation,...
Article
Full-text available
In shallow lakes, environmental warming and nutrient loading are important influences on the likelihood of a shift between clear and turbid ecosystem states. With temperatures and nutrient runoff predicted to increase within the next decades, climate change poses a threat to lake communities. However, current predictions on the effect of these envi...
Article
Full-text available
Earth's climate is changing, and by the end of the 21st century in Europe, average temperatures are likely to have risen by at least 2 °C, and more likely 4 °C with associated effects on patterns of precipitation and the frequency of extreme weather events. Attention among policy-makers is divided about how to minimise the change, how to mitigate i...
Article
The European Water Framework Directive requires member states to restore aquatic habitats to good ecological status (quality) by 2015. Good ecological status is defined as slightly different from high status, which, according to the Directive, means negligible human influence. This poses problems enough for restoration of natural habitats but artif...
Article
Full-text available
There are an increasing number of studies documenting effects of global warming on the distribution and ecology of a wide variety of organisms. However, much less is known about evolutionary responses in species to increasing temperature. As a result, thermal microevolution is often ignored when making predictions about the impact of global warming...
Chapter
IntroductionThe Arctic/Boreal zoneThe mid continental latitudesPeninsulas and islandsThe Mediterranean zoneHigh mountain zone
Book
Full-text available
This text examines the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems, past, present and future. It especially considers the interactions between climate change and other drivers of change including hydromorphological modification, nutrient loading, acid deposition and contamination by toxic substances using evidence from palaeolimnology, time-s...
Chapter
This text examines the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems, past, present and future. It especially considers the interactions between climate change and other drivers of change including hydromorphological modification, nutrient loading, acid deposition and contamination by toxic substances using evidence from palaeolimnology, time-s...
Article
Full-text available
Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured for a small pool, Brown Moss, which is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the UK. The site is designated for its macrophyte and bird interest and comprises several pools flanked by heath and woodland. Currently the largest pool has high mean concentrations of total N and P (4±2.4mgNl−1 and 389±...
Article
1. Repeat sampling in daytime within a lily (Nuphar lutea) bed and in open water showed distinct heterogeneities in the three-dimensional distributions of water chemistry and planktonic organisms on centimetre to decimetre scales. 2. Vertical gradients of physico-chemical variables that did not exist at dawn developed during the day in both sites,...
Article
1. The legend of Dr Faustus crops up repeatedly in European literature, drama and music, suggesting that it has profound meaning. In our relationship with the biosphere we have perhaps made a Faustian bargain. In return for unrestrained use of the Earth’s resources, we may have mortgaged a long-term future. Currently we are hoping to renegotiate th...
Book
This new edition of an established textbook provides a comprehensive and stimulating introduction to rivers, lakes and wetlands, and was written as the basis for a complete course on freshwater ecology. Designed for undergraduate and early postgraduate students who wish to gain an overall view of this vast subject area, this accessible guide to fre...
Article
There is growing awareness that microevolutionary dynamics may alter ecological processes. Rising temperatures under global change are expected to open windows for establishment of species and genotypes from warmer regions. Yet, microevolutionary tracking of temperature change by local populations may reduce establishment success of these immigrant...
Article
1. Changes in cladoceran subfossils in the surface sediments of 54 shallow lakes were studied along a European latitude gradient (36–68°N). Multivariate methods, such as regression trees and ordination, were applied to explore the relationships between cladoceran taxa distribution and contemporary environmental variables, with special focus on the...
Article
1. Shallow lakes and their ectothermic inhabitants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climatic warming. These impacts are likely to depend on nutrient loading, especially if the combination of warming and eutrophication leads to severe hypoxia. 2. To investigate effects of realistic warming and nutrient loading on a fish species with hig...
Article
Summary • Shallow lakes are important components of the biosphere, but they are also highly vulnerable to damage from human activities in their catchments, such as nutrient pollution. They may also be particularly vulnerable to current warming trends. • Forty-eight tanks were used to create 3-m3 mesocosms of shallow lake communities, in which the e...
Article
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all aquatic ecosystems in their member states should reach 'good' ecological quality by 2015. To assess ecological quality, the WFD requires the definition of reference conditions using biological, physical and chemical indicators and the assignment of each water body to one of five quality...
Data
Earth’s climate is changing, and by the end of the 21st century in Europe, average temperatures are likely to have risen by at least 2 °C, and more likely 4 °C, with associated effects on patterns of precipitation and the frequency of extreme weather events. Attention among policy-makers is divided about how to minimise the change, how to mitigate...
Article
Full-text available
Earth’s climate is changing, and by the end of the 21st century in Europe, average temperatures are likely to have risen by at least 2 °C, and more likely 4 °C, with associated effects on patterns of precipitation and the frequency of extreme weather events. Attention among policy-makers is divided about how to minimise the change, how to mitigate...
Article
Full-text available
Earth’s climate is changing, and by the end of the 21st century in Europe, average temperatures are likely to have risen by at least 2 °C, and more likely 4 °C, with associated effects on patterns of precipitation and the frequency of extreme weather events. Attention among policy-makers is divided about how to minimise the change, how to mitigate...
Article
Full-text available
Replicated, factorial mesocosm experiments were conducted across Europe to study the effects of nutrient enrichment and fish density on macrophytes and on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl-a) with regard to latitude. Periphyton chl-a densities and plant decline were significantly related to nutrient loading in all countries. Fish effects were significa...
Article
Full-text available
Increased nitrogen loading may lead to changes in productivity or biodiversity in freshwater systems. Field surveys have shown reduced species richness of submerged and floating-leaved plant communities in shallow lakes as winter nitrate concentrations, a surrogate for nitrate loading, have risen above 1-2 mg NO3-N L−1. Experimental tank mesocosms,...
Chapter
Full-text available
IntroductionDirect Impacts of Climate Change on Aquatic SystemsInteraction between Climate Change and the Hydromorphology of Streams and RiversInteractions between Climate Change and EutrophicationInteractions between Climate Change and AcidificationInteractions between Climate Change and Toxic SubstancesDeveloping Indicators of Climate Change for...
Article
The European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is potentially ground-breaking legislation. It seeks to bring about improvement of aquatic habitats in Europe to 'good ecological status', defined as slightly different from 'high ecological status', with no or minimal human impact. The characteristics of pristine ecological status include nutrien...
Article
Full-text available
1.The alternative stable states hypothesis for the behaviour of shallow lake communities requires switches to transform clear-water macrophyte-dominated communities to turbid algal-dominated ones. Such switches have rarely been demonstrated experimentally. This study shows the role of rising salinity as such a switch while contributing a solution t...
Article
Little Budworth Pool in Cheshire, UK is a small (5 ha), shallow (maximum depth < 1 m) lake with very high total nitrogen (TN) concentration (96 % as NO3-N), without any submerged macrophyte beds but with abundance of filamentous green algae. The pool has one inflow surrounded by a reed bed at its entry to the lake, and one outflow. A two-year study...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats...
Article
1. The Norfolk Broadland comprises wide river valleys, floored with deep deposits of peat and clay. Over forty mediaeval peat pits (the Broads) became flooded after the fourteenth century and were mostly connected with the rivers by navigation channels. Between about 1400 A.D. and 1800 A.D. the valleys supported a diverse wetland ecosystem, partly...
Article
This paper reviews the ways that quality can be assessed in standing waters, a subject that has hitherto attracted little attention but which is now a legal requirement in Europe. It describes a scheme for the assessment and monitoring of water and ecological quality in standing waters greater than about 1 ha in area in England and Wales although i...
Article
Ultimately most things are connected. The lessons we learn from our arts, our literature and our science all reflect an understanding of the human lot. Ecology is concerned with systems that include humans but are dominated by other organisms. Sociology and economics are concerned with systems that include non-human organisms but are dominated by h...
Article
Full-text available
To test whether aquatic invertebrates are able to adjust their diel migratory cycle to different day length and presence of predators, we performed standardized enclosure experiments in shallow lakes at four different latitudes from southern Spain, with strong night–day cycles, to Finland where daylight is almost continuous during summer. We show h...
Chapter
In the first century AD a raised bog near what is now Wilmslow in Cheshire was still actively growing and continued to grow for some centuries. Pollen and other reconstructions suggest a surface of shallow pools and Sphagnum hummocks surrounded by the still extensive wild wood of the Cheshire Plain. Unknown events brought a sacrificial victim to th...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing concern about the effect of climate change on aquatic systems. We examined changes in macroinvertebrate communities caused by increased temperature (3°C above ambient during summer only and continuous 3°C above ambient all year round), influences of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) and addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phospho...
Chapter
The European Water Framework Directive offers an unprecedented opportunity for improvement of ecological quality of both freshwater and marine systems. It has implications for every aspect of how catchments are used by human societies and could potentially mean a step change in how waters and catchments are managed. It must be implemented, however,...
Article
Full-text available
Science and art encompass understanding, through human hand and mind; both are applied in the form of creation by human hand and mind. Like Janus, the Roman god of doorways and bridges, they are two faces of the same thing. Great art requires great understanding and great understanding is wasted unless it is applied to create meaningful art, whethe...
Article
Standing crops measured as cell numbers and as chlorophyll a content of phytoplankton and epipelic algal communities (those free-living on sediment surfaces) in 2 small water bodies of contrasted nutrient status were measured for 27 months. Mean yearly crops, on an areal basis, of phytoplankton were 4–13.4 times greater than those of epipelic algae...
Article
Full-text available
Se ha estudiado la comunidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos del sedimento así como la de los asociados a los macrófitos en una serie de mesocosmos concebidos para un experimento múltiple simultáneo llevado a cabo en cinco localidades europeas: Finlandia, Suecia, Reino Unido (UK), Noroeste de España y Levante Español. El experimento fue diseñado p...
Article
1. The restoration of deep lakes has traditionally focused on reducing the external phosphorus loading. 2. Following the diversion of sewage effluent, that led to marked reductions in nutrient concentrations in its main inflow, Rostherne Mere has shown no reduction in phosphorus or chlorophyll a concentrations. A shallow lake upstream (Little Mere)...