Brian Vad Mathiesen

Brian Vad Mathiesen
Aalborg University · Department of Development and Planning

Professor

About

141
Publications
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15,858
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Publications

Publications (141)
Article
This paper presents a strategy for achieving a fully decarbonized Danish energy system (including transport and industry) in 2045. The strategy could also be relevant for most countries at a global level. The energy system analysis includes hour-by-hour computer simulations leading to the design of a Smart Energy System with the ability to balance...
Article
Energy systems analyses are integrated elements in planning the transition towards renewable energy-based energy systems. This is due to a growing complexity arising from the wider exploitation of variable renewable energy sources (VRES) and an increasing reliance on sector integration as an enabler of temporal energy system integration, but it cal...
Article
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Research into new advanced district heating concepts has increased since the first four generations of district heating were defined in 2014. This definition created a common framework for research and industry alike, and pointed to potential futures for district heating which could benefit from low-temperature heating in buildings. The fully devel...
Article
This paper identifies the energy system benefits of transitioning district heating infrastructure from current 3rd generation district heating (3GDH) to 4th generation district heating (4GDH) with lower grid temperatures and more integration with other energy sectors. Previous papers have investigated the effect of going from 3GDH to 4GDH on a loca...
Article
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In order to support European-wide transition of heating systems, it is useful to categorise the types of transitions that are necessary. Coherent actions are needed at (supra-)national level to support transition aligned with the energy efficiency first principle and long-term development of a smart energy system. Owing to the decentralised nature...
Article
With the Danish government's goals of decreasing 70% of CO2 emissions by 2030 and reaching a fully decarbonised society in the years after, this paper aims to identify the role of sustainable bioenergy in achieving this goal. The methodology and approach presented are relevant for other countries heading in the same direction. The focus is on strat...
Article
Future renewable energy systems with high shares of variable renewable energy production must also include technologies and measures to balance these production fluctuations. This could be in the form of electricity storage, energy demand adaptation (also known as demand-side management), or sector coupling. Industry electrification couples electri...
Article
Following the 2015 Paris Agreement and other agreements which have been signed after, sustainable energy development is becoming the major goal in many countries. EU have set the targets to reduce the annual greenhouse gas emission by 40% in 2030 and 80% for 2050 compared with 1990 levels. For achieving this ambitious energy policy, three major tec...
Article
The transport sector contributes to approximately one third of Danish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and almost half of emissions from the energy sector. A unified Danish parliament agreed to reduce total emissions with 70% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. This paper estimates the potential for reducing the national transport sector GHG emissions i...
Article
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Research on 100% renewable energy systems is a relatively recent phenomenon. It was initiated in the mid-1970s, catalyzed by skyrocketing oil prices. Since the mid-2000s, it has quickly evolved into a prominent research field encompassing an expansive and growing number of research groups and organizations across the world. The main conclusion of m...
Article
Trigeneration compressed air energy storage (TCAES) is one of the emerging solutions that will most likely find its market as a popular energy storage technology for sector coupling. The combination of a TCAES with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery has also been found much effective for enhanced round trip efficiency and is thu...
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Large-scale heating infrastructures in the form of district heating have significant potentials to increase energy efficiency and integrate renewables in line with the Paris Agreement and EU targets. Such infrastructures face challenges due to high investment costs, monopoly situations, regulation, and ownership and are often not supported by statu...
Article
Fourth-generation district heating (4GDH) has been used as a label or expression since 2008 to describe a transition path for decarbonization of the district heating sector and was defined in more detail in 2014. During recent years, several papers have been published on a concept called fifth generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC). This a...
Article
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EnergyPLAN is an energy system analysis tool created for the study and research in the design of future sustainable energy solutions with a special focus on energy systems with high shares of renewable energy sources. The tool has been under development since 1999 and has formed the basis for a substantial number of PhD theses and several hundreds...
Article
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The design of future energy systems requires the efficient use of all available renewable resources. Biomass can complement variable renewable energy sources by ensuring energy system flexibility and providing a reliable feedstock to produce renewable fuels. We identify biomass gasification suitable to utilise the limited biomass resources efficien...
Article
This short paper gives some perspectives on the recent development in the concept of Smart Energy Systems while introducing the contents of selected papers from the 5th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, 4th Generation District Heating, Electrification, Electrofuels and Energy Efficiency – SESAAU2019. All of the papers elaborate on o...
Article
Electrolysis feels the heat Electricity infrastructure powered by sunlight and wind requires flexible storage capacity to compensate for the intermittency of these sources. In this context, Hauch et al. review progress in solid oxide electrolyzer technology to split water and/or carbon dioxide into chemical fuels. These devices, which rely on oxide...
Article
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The aim of this study is to identify the technical solution space for future fully renewable energy systems that stays within a sustainable biomass demand. In the transition towards non-fossil energy and material systems, biomass is an attractive source of carbon for those demands that also in the non-fossil systems depend on high density, carbon c...
Book
In this report on the “Contribution of the Electricity Sector to Smart Sector Integration”, the Expert Group considers avenues to make an optimal use of the opportunities offered by sector integration. The report focuses on the contribution of the electricity system to a climate-neutral European energy system through smart sector integration. This...
Article
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There are three strategic levels for successful energy planning in cities: 1) Integration strategy for integrating energy planning into urban planning institutions; 2) Practice strategy for developing suitable energy planning practices in urban planning institutions, and 3) Vision strategy for the creation and integration of energy visions and scen...
Article
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EU is moving towards a climate neutrality goal in 2050 with heating of buildings posing a major challenge. This paper provides a deep understanding of the historical development, path dependency and current status of the EU-28 residential heat sectors to inform strategy and policy makers and to open up this black box. Data is combined for buildings...
Article
In this paper, we analyse the role of biogas and biogas-derived fuels in a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark using the energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. The end-fuels evaluated are biogas, biomethane and electromethane. First, a reference scenario without biogas is created. Then biogas, biomethane and electromethane replace dry biomass...
Article
This short paper introduces the contents of selected papers from the 4th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating – SES4DH. All of the papers elaborate on or contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainabl...
Article
The environmental impact of the energy sector and the security and economics of energy supply and utilisation have been raising increasing concerns, stimulating the search for innovative solutions for a sustainable use of resources. This article provides an overview of published research in this area, with a focus on papers contributed in special i...
Book
The Expert Group acknowledges that, in order to achieve its ambitious climate and energy goals, European Union needs to rely on a robust and interconnected grid where electricity interconnectors can support large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources, improve security of supply and benefit European citizens. The Expert Group also recognised...
Book
In this report on “Electricity interconnections with neighboring countries”, the Expert Group looks into the potential of interconnections with third countries in promoting EU's external policy objectives, such as energy transition, integration of renewables, security of supply as well as regional and local socio-economic welfare, economic cooperat...
Article
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Energy systems in cities need to be decarbonized and are becoming more integrated via energy sector coupling. Today, cities often use simple methods to assess their low carbon targets, e.g., carbon calculators, and these methods use annualized carbon reduction potentials. For example, reductions from heat savings in buildings or fuel demand in tran...
Article
The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supp...
Article
Germany has set ambitious policies for increasing renewable energy shares and decommissioning nuclear energy, but there are certain scientific gaps on how this transition should occur, especially when considering all energy sectors. The purpose of this study is to advance the knowledge of transitioning the German energy system to 100% renewable ene...
Article
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Residential and service (office) buildings consume a large proportion of primary energy in Europe in the form of electricity and all other energy carriers. In response to this, the concept of near Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) has been developed. These buildings have very low energy demands and integrate renewable energy to supply residual demand. n...
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A recent article ‘Burden of proof: A comprehensive review of the feasibility of 100% renewable-electricity systems’ claims that many studies of 100% renewable electricity systems do not demonstrate sufficient technical feasibility, according to the criteria of the article's authors (henceforth ‘the authors’). Here we analyse the authors’ methodolog...
Article
This paper provides a perspective on the development of future district heating systems and technologies and their role in future smart energy systems. The reviewed papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding of how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable en...
Article
United Kingdom and the Nordic power market have plans to interlink directly through a sub-sea power transmission line in The North Sea. Such power market couplings have complicated implications for the interconnected energy systems and for different agents in the common power market. We analyse this case by modelling the hourly operation of the Nor...
Article
This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integ...
Article
The European Union has set targets to increase the share of renewable energy in the coming years. Solar thermal energy is currently expanding and could possibly contribute to achieving the European targets. This paper evaluates the potentials of solar thermal energy from an energy system perspective along with the impacts of installing these potent...
Article
This editorial introduces the content of selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable...
Article
World market fuel prices vary and have historically been very difficult to predict. Especially the price of oil has shown remarkable and unexpected increases and decreases throughout the past 5 decades. The same kind of uncertainty can be seen in many of the new cross-border markets for the trade of electricity, which have been introduced in recent...
Article
Matching electricity, heat, and cold demand with supply at low cost is the greatest concern facing countries seeking to provide their all-purpose energy with 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). Implementing WWS worldwide could eliminate 4–7 million annual air pollution deaths, first slow then reverse global warming, and provide e...
Book
The European Commission established the Expert Group on electricity interconnection targets in March 2016. The Expert Group transmitted its report to Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy Miguel Arias Cañete in October 2017. The Expert Group acknowledges that achieving the EU's energy and climate objectives requires a well-integrated Europea...
Article
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In recent years, several tools and models have been developed and used for the design and analysis of future national energy systems. Many of these models focus on the integration of various renewable energy resources and the transformation of existing fossil-based energy systems into future sustainable energy systems. The models are diverse and of...
Article
In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, bui...
Article
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The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that such developments can begin now with technologies curren...
Article
Energy systems are becoming increasing increasingly complex, integrating across traditionally separate sectors such as transportation, heating, cooling and electricity. Integration through the use of district heating is the main topic of this editorial introducing volume 10 of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management....
Article
It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the...
Article
Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Elect...
Article
This editorial gives an introduction to the important relationship between Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating and presents a number of selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the topic. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and i...
Article
This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact is presented in terms of energy (primary energy su...
Article
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Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through an increase in the share of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work, the performance of a hybrid district energy sy...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Denmark’s ambitious plan to rapidly increase the fraction of renewable energy supply to-wards 100 % over the coming 35 years will lead to huge changes in the electricity grid and a need for large-scale energy storage due to the intermittent nature of wind and solar power. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are a promising technology for energy...
Article
This paper compares district heating systems in Zagreb and Aalborg in order to see their similarities and differences from which conclusions are drawn on how to improve the systems. The method chosen is the comparative analysis. Data is organized and structured so to allow clear and concise comparison. The results of the comparative analysis show t...
Article
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Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145 m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind and solar potential but practically no utilization wit...
Article
As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim of this article is to identify and review these terms t...
Article
In many countries, the electricity supply and power plant operation are challenged by increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much energy supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass resources as efficiently as possible. Using the advanced e...
Article
District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it is critical to formulate a development strategy to de...
Article
The wind power industry in China is faced with the obstacle of ineffective use due to severe wind curtailment recently. With detailed representation of the electricity and heat sectors in an energy-system-modeling tool, we evaluated the potential of technical improvements that could be implemented to increase wind integration in Northeast China. Fi...
Article
This editorial introduces the 16th volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, which addresses different angles of district heating ranging from the planning of district heating systems and economic incentives for flexible district heating plants to comparisons between low and ultra-low-temperature district he...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of smart energy systems. As opposed to the smart grid concept, which takes focuses solely on the electricity sector, smart energy systems includes the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operating strategies. The typical smart grid focus on the electricit...
Chapter
Based on case studies from the United States, Denmark, and China, this chapter analyzes the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 percent renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. The design of 100 percent renewable energy systems involves three major technological changes: energy savings...
Article
The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of...
Article
This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies...