Brian P Marx

Brian P Marx
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | VA · National Center for PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)

PhD

About

283
Publications
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11,481
Citations

Publications

Publications (283)
Article
Introduction Active duty service members transitioning to civilian life can experience significant readjustment stressors. Over the past two decades of the United States’ longest sustained conflict, reducing transitioning veterans’ suicidal behavior and homelessness became national priorities. However, it remains a significant challenge to identify...
Article
Recent‐era U.S. veterans are clinically complex, with a high prevalence of co‐occurring mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), psychiatric conditions, and behavioral dysfunction. The current study examined the direct and indirect associations between mTBI and persistent neurobehavioral, psychiatric, and functional disability symptoms among recent‐era...
Article
Objective Suicidal intent is a risk factor for engagement in suicidal behavior, use of violent means, and suicide mortality. Yet, scarce research has examined factors associated with suicidal intent among U.S. military veterans, a population at high risk for suicide. This study examined vulnerability factors associated with suicidal intent in a po...
Article
Objective: Greater duration of negative trauma-related beliefs may inhibit improvements in these cognitions during posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of time since trauma on change in negative trauma-related beliefs during PTSD treatment. Method: A sample of 126 adults diagnose...
Article
Each year, approximately 50,000 individuals in the United States and over 800,000 individuals worldwide die by suicide (Naghavi & the Global Burden of Disease Self-Harm Collaborators, 2019). Each person who dies by suicide leaves in their wake a network of individuals affected in some way by their death. For individuals connected to mental health s...
Article
Background The transition from military service to civilian life is a high-risk period for suicide attempts (SAs). Although stressful life events (SLEs) faced by transitioning soldiers are thought to be implicated, systematic prospective evidence is lacking. Methods Participants in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (ST...
Article
Researchers studying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often use diagnostic codes within electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify individuals with the disorder. This study evaluated the performance of algorithms for defining PTSD based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code use within EMR data. We used data from a registry o...
Article
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5) and PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) are widely used PTSD measures. Researchers and clinicians routinely use both measures in tandem to quantify symptom change, despite substantive instrumentation differences beyond admi...
Article
Objectives: Veterans who decline to provide information on their history of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) may be at elevated suicide risk. We examined associations between non-response to a question assessing lifetime SITBs and proxy variables of suicide risk. Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study of 4069 US vet...
Article
Prior research suggests that anhedonia symptoms related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; i.e., diminished interest, detachment from others, and difficulty experiencing positive emotions) are consistently associated with a higher degree of impairment in psychosocial functioning beyond that associated with other PTSD symptoms. Unfortunately, m...
Article
Background Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network....
Article
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with physical inactivity and cigarette smoking. However, little is known about the degree to which comorbid psychiatric conditions affect the odds of physical inactivity and smoking among individuals with PTSD. Objective: To examine associations between PTSD, comorbid psychiatric con...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide risk is elevated among military service members who recently transitioned to civilian life. Identifying high-risk service members before this transition could facilitate provision of targeted preventive interventions. We investigated the feasibility of doing this by attempting to develop a prediction model for self-reported suicide attempts...
Article
Objective: The US military veteran population is changing rapidly, and contemporary data on the prevalence of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are lacking. The DSM-5 clarified PTSD Criterion A to delineate direct and indirect trauma exposures, but effects on the conditional probability of PTSD and functional impairment remain unknown. The...
Article
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Objective: Psychiatric disorders increase risk for contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but we know little about relationships between psychiatric symptoms and COVID-19 risky and protective behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with increased propensity to engage in risky behaviors, but may also be associa...
Article
Prior research indicates that veterans are interested in including family members in healthcare and that family-inclusive mental health treatment can improve treatment outcomes. Consequently, the Veterans Health Administration’s (VHA) directive require providers to offer family-inclusive mental health services to veterans. However, the extent to wh...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and serious mental health problem. Although there are effective psychotherapies for PTSD, there is little information about their comparative effectiveness. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prolonged exposure (PE) vs cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for treating PTSD in...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased health care costs; however, most studies exploring this association use PTSD diagnostic data in administrative records, which can contain inaccurate diagnostic information and be confounded by the quantity of service use. We used a diagnostic interview to determine PTSD diagnostic st...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs more commonly among military service members than among civilians; however, despite the availability of several evidence-based treatments, there is a need for more efficient evidence-based PTSD treatments to better address the needs of service members. Written exposure therapy is a brief PTSD i...
Preprint
Background: Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a five-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change netw...
Article
Bckground Theories of suicide suggest that suicidal ideation (SI) results in part from difficulty imagining the future, which itself relies on the ability to remember the past. The present study examines multiple components of episodic future thinking and memory including event richness, which is commonly measured within the cognitive literature bu...
Article
We calculated the reliable change index (RCI) and clinically significant change (CSC) values for two widely used measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and examined how symptom changes at these thresholds related to improvements in psychosoc...
Article
Full-text available
Individual behaviors are critical for preventing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Given that both protective and risky behaviors influence risk of infection, it is critical that we understand how such behaviors cluster together and in whom. Using a data-driven approach, we identified clusters of COVID-19-related protecti...
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Increasing concern about the mental health sequelae to the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a surge in research and publications on the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in general population samples in relation to the pandemic. We examined how posttraumatic stress disorder in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has been studied to date an...
Article
Studies of active duty service members have shown that military personnel who screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more than twice as likely to make a suicide attempt. Evidence-based PTSD treatments can reduce suicidal ideation; however, it can be challenging to provide evidence-based, trauma-focused, PTSD treatment to high-...
Article
Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an elevated risk of suicide. For patients hospitalized for suicide risk, psychosocial treatment and stabilization are routinely offered; however, the availability of evidence-based, manualized therapeutic interventions for PTSD is sparse. Typically, the short duration of hospitalization make...
Article
The STRONG STAR Consortium (South Texas Research Organizational Network Guiding Studies on Trauma and Resilience) and the Consortium to Alleviate PTSD are interdisciplinary and multi-institutional research consortia focused on the detection, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid con...
Article
Objective: Sexual minority female (SMF) veterans experience unique stressors apart from their service in the military. In this study, we compared SMF and heterosexual female (HF) veterans' rates of deployment-related stressors (i.e., military sexual assault, combat exposure, and harassment), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressi...
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Background Worldwide, nearly 800,000 individuals die by suicide each year; however, longitudinal prediction of suicide attempts remains a major challenge within the field of psychiatry. The objective of the present research was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based suicide attempt risk checklist [i.e., the Durham Risk Score (DRS)] to aid clinic...
Article
There are currently no validated pharmacotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related insomnia. The purpose of the National Adaptive Trial for PTSD-Related Insomnia (NAP Study) is to efficiently compare to placebo the effects of three insomnia medications with different mechanisms of action that are already prescribed widely to vetera...
Article
In the current study, we examined the degree to which sudden gains (large, rapid, and stable symptom reduction in a one-session interval) predicted treatment outcome in adults randomized to two different trauma-focused treatments. Adults diagnosed with PTSD were randomized to either written exposure therapy (WET; n = 63), a brief, exposure-based tr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is the most common illicit substance use disorder in the United States and is especially prevalent among returning veterans. The long-term mental health correlates of CUD remain unknown, which is significant given recent shifts toward legalization and medicinal use of cannabis nationally. Method: Using a gende...
Article
Background Suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) are major health concerns among military veterans yet little is known about the temporal relations among these outcomes. This study examined the temporal relations between suicidal and nonsuicidal SITBs among higher-risk veterans. Specifically, we identified when SITB...
Article
The Depressive Symptom Index-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) is a four-item self-report measure of suicidal ideation severity widely used across research and clinical contexts. However, the psychometric properties of the English-language version of the DSI-SS have not been extensively examined within a psychiatric sample, and important properties of...
Article
Prior research suggests that a significant number of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) do not have this diagnosis recognized in the electronic health record (EHR). Unfortunately, such diagnostic errors can lead to improper allocation of already scarce health care services and resources. In this study, we examined concordance betwee...
Article
This study examined whether romantic relationship functioning was associated with mental health treatment utilization in male and female veterans. Veterans (N = 760) enrolled in a longitudinal registry completed self-report measures and a diagnostic interview for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mental health treatment utilization data procure...
Article
To the Editor The recent meta-analysis from Cénat et al¹ revealed that the estimated pooled prevalence of COVID-19–associated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was almost 22%. However, prior to the study by Janiri and colleagues,² no study to our knowledge had confirmed PTSD diagnoses among patients using a structured clinician-administered diag...
Article
We examined whether extinction or changes negative trauma-related beliefs occur either prior to or concurrently with changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms among individuals who received either Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) or Written Exposure Therapy (WET) using statistical methods that permit proper discernment of temporal sequence. Commun...
Article
The present study compared the utility of categorical (i.e., diagnostic status) and dimensional (i.e., symptom severity) approaches to measuring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in predicting future suicide attempts among participants in a nationwide, longitudinal study of U.S. military veterans who were deployed in support of operations in Ira...
Article
The prevalence of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) remains exceptionally high among returning veterans, with numerous studies linking PTSD, but not specific PTSD symptoms, to future SUD risk. Further explication of PTSD symptom effects on future SUD risk will likely promote intervention development...
Article
Full-text available
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among veterans. Although there are effective treatment approaches for PTSD, such as Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy, many providers trained in these approaches do not use them, or use them without sufficient fidelity, and veterans drop out of these treatments at very...
Article
Cross‐sectional research suggests that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among war zone veterans are associated with functional impairment and poor quality of life. Less is known about the long‐term functional repercussions of PTSS. This study of Iraq War veterans examined the associations between increases in PTSS and long‐term functional outco...
Article
Objectives Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use share both directional (“self-medication”) and mutually-reinforcing associations over time. Research on gender differences regarding the co-occurrence of PTSD and substance use over time remains limited and largely focused on alcohol use; less is known regarding the co-occurrence of...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health disorder that can be effectively treated with empirically based practices. PTSD screening is essential for identifying undetected cases and providing patients with appropriate care. Objective: To determine whether the Primary Care PTSD screen for the Diagnostic and Stati...
Preprint
Although patient intelligence may be an important determinant of the degree to which individuals may comprehend, comply with, and ultimately benefit from trauma-focused treatment, no prior studies have examined the impact of patient intelligence on benefit from psychotherapies for PTSD. We investigated the degree to which educational achievement, o...
Article
Individuals admitted to inpatient psychiatry for suicide-related concerns are at increased risk of suicide post-discharge, necessitating an understanding of factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), that are associated with suicide-related hospitalizations. In this study, we examined if individuals admitted for suicide-related concerns...
Article
Exposure‐based writing interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown promise when compared with waitlist conditions, placebo writing control conditions, and evidence‐based, trauma‐focused treatments. Recently, Dawson et al. (2020) conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to examine existing published randomized controlled...
Article
Following trauma exposure, two frequently co‐occurring forms of psychopathology include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although these diagnoses have been identified as distinct constructs, the proper classification of these disorders remains a challenge due to overlapping symptoms. Instead, systematically...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are known to smoke cigarettes at elevated levels in comparison to both veterans without PTSD and civilians. This study aims to elucidate how cigarette smoking and PTSD symptoms interact over time. Materials and Methods: This study examined the directionality and strength of the relati...
Article
A recent study used functional neuroimaging and cognitive tasks to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtypes. Specifically, this study found that a subgroup of patients with verbal memory impairment had a unique neural signature, namely, decreased ventral attention network (VAN) resting-state functional connectivity, and these same ind...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the need for psychological care in the global population and has created new barriers to accessing services. Hospitals, mental health facilities, and other clinics face the challenge of providing continued care to a population that is under severe stress, while minimizing in-person visi...
Article
Objective: Peritraumatic dissociation, a dissociative reaction that occurs at the time of a traumatic event, has been established as a strong risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, self-reported peritraumatic dissociation is typically assessed months or years after trauma exposure and may be influenced by current distress le...
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Full-text available
Structured diagnostic interviews involve significant respondent burden and clinician administration time. This study examined whether we can maintain diagnostic accuracy using fewer posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment questions. Our study included 1,265 U.S. veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts who were assessed for PTSD using...
Article
Background As self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) remain a pressing public health concern, research continues to focus on risk factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Network analysis provides a novel approach to examining the PTSD-SITB relationship. This study utilized the network approach to elucidate how individual PTSD s...
Article
Full-text available
Although Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are vulnerable to opioid misuse, there is limited research evaluating the psychosocial and medical sequalae experienced by Veterans with comorbid PTSD and opioid use disorder (OUD). Using data from a nationwide, longitudinal registry of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (O...
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Full-text available
Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy, psychometric properties, and clinical utility of the German version of the clinician-administered post-traumatic stress disorder scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in routine clinical settings. Methods and analysis: This study is a non-interventional, multitrait-multimethod design...
Article
Although numerous longitudinal studies have examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom course, the long-term course of the disorder remains poorly understood. This study sought to understand and predict long-term PTSD symptom course among a nationwide sample of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom veterans enrol...
Article
Most suicides in the United States are enacted with firearms, and firearm ownership/access and unsafe storage are associated with elevated suicide risk. Exaggerated perceptions of threat, which are characteristic of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), might lead to the acquisition and/or unsafe storage of firearms, thereby increasing suicide ris...
Article
Although patient intelligence may be an important determinant of the degree to which individuals may comprehend, comply with, and ultimately benefit from trauma-focused treatment, no prior studies have examined the impact of patient intelligence on benefit from psychotherapies for PTSD. We investigated the degree to which educational achievement, o...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with higher levels of alcohol use among returning veterans. Persistent PTSD symptoms can predict alcohol use over the span of hours, days, weeks, and months; however, knowledge of the strength of these associations beyond 1 year remains limited. In this study, we examined the 6-year course of co-oc...
Article
Few studies have investigated the range and severity of insomnia-related sleep complaints among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the temporal association between insomnia and PTSD severity has yet to be examined. To examine these associations, a large, gender-balanced cohort of veterans (N = 1,649) of the Iraq and Afghanistan...
Article
Full-text available
Although there are a number of effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is a need to develop more efficient evidence-based PTSD treatments to address barriers to seeking and receiving treatment. Written exposure therapy (WET) is a potential alternative that is a 5-session treatment without any between-session assignments...
Conference Paper
The Veterans Health Administration began a formal training program for evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 2007. Barriers continue to exist in the delivery of these EBPs for all Veterans diagnosed with PTSD resulting in lower than desired penetration rates. Written Exposure Therapy (WET) is an EBP for P...
Article
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced numerous revisions to the fourth edition's (DSM-IV) criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posing a challenge to clinicians and researchers who wish to assess PTSD symptoms continuously over time. The aim of this study was to develop a cros...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although several short-forms of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) exist, all were developed using heuristic methods. This report presents the results of analyses designed to create an optimal short-form PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5) using both machine learning and conventional scale development methods. Methods: The sh...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was accompanied by the elimination of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, which was previously used to assess functioning. Although the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Version 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was offered as a measure for fu...
Article
Objectives: Military sexual trauma (MST) is a pervasive problem among veterans, and is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes. It is, therefore, imperative to identify individuals who have experienced MST so that they can be offered appropriate treatment. To determine how to best identify MST survivors, the current study examined how diffe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Written Exposure Therapy (WET) is a 5-session exposure-based intervention for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). WET was developed through a series of systematic evaluations of the expressive writing procedure. It is an efficient intervention, requiring limited patient and therapist time and no between-sessio...