Brian Laythe

Brian Laythe
Iudicium LLP

Doctor of Psychology

About

27
Publications
14,441
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826
Citations
Introduction
Brian Laythe currently is a partner of Iudicium and works as a Forensic Psychologist. Brian does research in Social Psychology, Forensic Psychology, Psychology of Religion and Ideology, and Anomalistic Psychology. His most recent publication is 'Quantifying the Phenomenology of Ghostly Episodes: Part I - Need for a Standard Operationalization'.

Publications

Publications (27)
Book
Full-text available
A lay- and student- friendly summary of our team's 5+ year research program on ghostly episodes and the phenomenon of Haunted People Syndrome (HP-S). Available at: https://mcfarlandbooks.com/product/ghosted/
Article
Full-text available
Haunted People Syndrome (HP-S) denotes individuals who recurrently report various “supernatural” encounters in everyday settings ostensibly due to heightened somatic-sensory sensitivities to dis-ease states (e.g., marked but sub-clinical levels of distress), which are contextualized by paranormal beliefs and reinforced by perceptual contagion effec...
Article
Full-text available
The idea of ‘life after death’ transcends philosophy or religion, as science can test predictions from claims by both its advocates and skeptics. This study therefore featured two researchers with opposite views, who jointly gathered hundreds of research studies to evaluate the maximum average percentage effect that seemingly supports (i.e., anomal...
Article
Reports of childhood imaginary companions (IC) sometimes contain "creepy or spooky" perceptions or themes that suggest such occurrences could be overlooked or disguised forms of a "ghostly episode" or "entity encounter experience." This idea was explored via a content analysis of vetted narratives from the Reddit website involving ICs with haunt-ty...
Article
Evidence suggests that subjective and objective anomalies associated with ghostly episodes form a unidimensional Rasch scale and that these interconnected “signs or symptoms” arguably describe a syndrome model. This view predicts that symptom perception—that is, the phenomenology of these anomalous episodes—can be markedly skewed by an experient’s...
Article
Situational-enchantment is a hypothesized arousal state encompassing a potent sense of connection or oneness with a “transcendent power or ultimate reality.” Qualitative research previously suggested that this individual difference involves dissonance around ideations with competing “Emotional, Sensorial, Timeless, Rational, and Transformative” the...
Article
Tourism-hospitality businesses sometimes market consumer experiences in terms of “enchantment,” although this phrase is often used vaguely or variously. Therefore, we approached the issue conceptually by examining prior research on the experience economy, extraordinary architectural experiences, and accounts of paranormal tourism. Our critical over...
Article
Research suggests a Haunted People Syndrome (HP-S) is defined by the recurrent perception of anomalous subjective and objective events. Occurrences are traditionally attributed to supernatural agencies, but we argue that such interpretations have morphed into themes of “surveillance and stalking” in group-stalking reports. We tested a series of rel...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contains a narrative overview of the past 20-years of environmental research on anomalous experiences attributed to "haunted house." This exercise served as a much-needed update to an anthology of noteworthy overviews on ghosts, haunts, and poltergeists (Houran and Lange, 2001b). We also considered whether new studies had incorporated ce...
Article
Full-text available
The VAPUS model (Hill et al., 2018, 2019) characterizes the powerful "brand personality" of ghost narratives in terms of their Versatility, Adaptability, Participatory Nature, Universality, and Scalability. This suggests that these narratives act as cultural memes that partly reflect interpersonal or group dynamics. We use these themes in a review...
Article
Full-text available
Fieldwork studies of "haunted houses" can offer ecologically valid insights for model-building or theory-formation in consciousness studies from parapsychological and conventional perspectives. The interactionist hypothesis asserts that these anomalous episodes are a phenomenon rooted in environment-person bidirectional influences. Although prior r...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests a “Haunted People Syndrome (HP-S)” defined by recurrent and systematic perceptions of anomalous subjective and objective anomalies. Such signs or symptoms are traditionally attributed to “spirits and the supernatural,” but these themes are hypothesised to morph to “surveillance and stalking” in reports of “group-(or gang) stalking...
Article
Full-text available
We documented 10 instances of anomalous movements ("PK events") of two objects under quasi-controlled conditions at a reported haunt and time-synced to readings of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Using a series of published binomial tests, we analyzed each axis of a "target" meter (within two-feet of the affected objects) for deviant EMF activity, a...
Article
Full-text available
Using a sample of self-reported “spontaneous” accounts (ostensibly sincere and unprimed, N = 426), we calibrated a 32-item, Rasch-based “Survey of Strange Events (SSE)” to quantify the phenomenology of ghostly episodes while assessing response biases related to experients’ age and gender. This inventory included psychological experiences typical of...
Article
Full-text available
We review conceptualizations and measurements of base (or core) experiences commonly attributed to haunts and poltergeists (i.e., “ghostly episodes”). Case analyses, surveys, controlled experiments, and field studies have attempted to gauge anomalous experiences in this domain, albeit with methods that do not cumulatively build on earlier research....
Article
Full-text available
We extend Laythe, Houran, and Ventola's (2018) psychometric study of 'ghost and haunt' percipients by examining transliminality in relation to focus persons in poltergeist disturbances. The classic pathology (or disease) model of presumed agents is barely supported by empirical research and may be inaccurate. However, we identified eight psychologi...
Article
Full-text available
We continue our integrative review of nearly 20 years of sociocultural research and popular trends on ghosts, haunted houses, and poltergeists (collectively termed "ghostly episodes") that commenced in Part I (Hill, O'Keeffe, Laythe, Dagnall, Drinkwater, Ventola, & Houran, 2018). That analysis characterized the powerful brand personality of ghost n...
Article
Full-text available
A review of nearly 20 years of sociocultural research and trends on "ghostly episodes" (ghosts, haunted houses, and poltergeists) suggests that personal accounts, group investigations, and popular depictions of anomalous experiences function as active, meaningful, and potent cultural memes. These, in part, reflect interpersonal or group dynamics gr...
Article
Full-text available
Haunt and poltergeist' experiences tend to occur around certain individuals ('person-focusing'). To study this phenomenon, a convenience sample of college students (N = 313) completed measures of trait Anxiety and Depression, Vulnerability, Intellect, Paranormal Belief (New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs), Locus of Control, Fear...
Article
This paper reports on an Owen and Sparrow (1976) genre séance study to examine the relationships among transliminality, psychokinesis (PK), general subjective and external anomalous experiences, contagion effects, and small variations in electromagnetic field activity. Eleven participants in two series of séance sessions were observed and recorded...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research in electromagnetic and geomagnetic fields (EMF and GMF) and their relationship to paranormal phenomena has been performed under the theoretical assumptions of hallucination due to GMFfields. The current study tests the possibility that nonhallucinatory paranormal phenomena are also associated with EMF/GMF fields. EMF and GMF pertu...
Article
The current study examines the specific experiences of individuals who have reported haunt phenomena in the context of common paranormal belief measures. One hundred and sixty nine community college students completed online surveys assessing personality traits, cognitive functioning, Tobacyk's (2004) measure of paranormal belief, Gallagher, Kumar,...
Article
In research on religiosity and prejudice, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) has been studied alongside variables such as fundamentalism and orthodoxy. Four concerns regarding research on the relationship between RWA and religiosity are identified: (1) the overlap of religiosity and prejudice within the RWA scale; (2) the inflation of relationships...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to determine whether the empirical relationship between religious fundamentalism and prejudice can be accounted for in terms of the mutually opposing effects of Christian orthodoxy and right-wing authoritarianism using multiple regression. Three separate samples (total n = 320) completed measures of religious fundamentalism,...
Article
In a study designed to investigate the respective roles of religious fundamentalism and right-wing authoritarianism as predictors of prejudice against racial minorities and homosexuals, participants (47 males, 91 females) responded to a series of questionnaire measures of these constructs. Data were analyzed using multiple regression. Consistent wi...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
In addition to the highly related, and tangential, Project: Review of Academic Ghost, Haunt and Poltergeist Research (2001-2017) (see below* for a description), this project aims to examine all aspects of haunting experiences to aid in our critical understanding of the investigation of such reported phenomena. It will include: the assessment of contemporary ghosthunting (groups, techniques, applied theories); indepth analysis of ghostly accounts; critical evaluation of environmental, psychological (and pathological) explanations and theories for haunting experiences. *Along with colleagues, we are reviewing the scholarly literature for studies on "ghostly" phenomena that has been published since the seminal reviews in the edited textbook, Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2001).